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DenouveauxmotifsdebroderieontétéidentifiéslorsderecherchesrécentessurlestissusdesoiedécouvertssurlesitearchéologiquedeMawangdui,,etremarquablepourêtreladernièredemeureduncadavredunefemmeparfaitementconservé,adéclarélemuséeprovincialduHunan,occasionducinquantièmeanniversairedeladécouvertedestombesdeMawangduideladynastiedesHan,lemuséeprovincialduHunanafaituninventairesystématiquedesobjetsarchéologiques,èétéprécédemmentstockéscommeobjetsdedonnées."Descaractèreschinoisontétéidentifiéspourlapremièrefoissurdesfragmentsdesoieqiàmotifsenformedelosanges,témoignantdesgrandescompétencesenmatièredetissagedudébutdeladynastiedesHan",adéclaréYuYanjiao,unechercheusedumuséégalementétéidentifiésdurantcetinventaire,notammentceuxdephénixsurdestissusdesoie,oiseausymboledelongévité,alorsquécouverteaenrichilesconnaissancessurlesobjetsfuné,situédanslabanlieueestdeChangsha,capitaledelaprovinceduHunan,abritelimposanttombeaudumarquisdeDai,deladynastiedesHan,élattentioninternationalelorsquedeschercheursontdécouvertuncadavredefemmequineprésentaitaucunsignededécompositionlorsdesonexhumationdanslesannées1970.

ArchaeologistTianJianwen(Middle)andhiscolleaguesattheBalipingsiteinQinshuiCounty,ShanxiProvincePhoto:PROVIDEDTOCSSTIntheearlystageofreformandopeningup,therewasashortageofyoungtalent,,,hepassedupjobopportunitiesinbigcitiesandwenttoHouma[asmalltowninShanxiprovince],hometoXintian,thelastcapitaloftheJinprincipality(1033–376BCE)[nowaveteranarchaeologistattheShanxiArchaeologyInstitute],[atYichengCounty]discoveredbyTianandhiscolleagu,TiancameupwithacompletegenealogydatedfromtheZaoyuanCulturetotheXiyinCulture[anearlyNeolithicsiteinShanxiProvince]incipality’s“XintianPattern”[thelayoutoftheXintiancitywasdifferentfromthatofpreviouscities].Forthefirsttime,heidentifiedtombsoftheXiongnu[nomadicpeoplewhoinhabitedtheeasternEurasianSteppefromthe3rdcenturyBCEtothe1stcenturyCE]intheLü,sincethereignofEmperorWuofHan(–87BCE),theHanEmpirehadsetupcounty-levelresidencesfortheXiongnupeoplewhosurrenderedtotheHanEmpireandmigratedtotheCentralPlain,,whichisthelargesttombdatedtotheEasternZhouperiod(770–256BCE),w:Inrecentyears,manyscholarshaveproposedthatthesignificanceofarchaeologyisto“writeChinesehistory”and“tracethepathofancestors.”HowdoyouunderstandthesestatementsTianJianwen:Ancientarchives,oraltraditions,,advantages,’,canhelpclarifythedateandexistenceofdifferentrelicsandruins,aswellastheexist,whichisalsothefoundationofthe“theoreticalsystemofarchaeologywithChinesecharacteristics.”“Tracingthepathofancestors”:InearlyMay1991,whenyouwereinvestigatingtheZaoyuansiteinShanxi,,,ianwen:Sincethe1970s,ancientculturalrelicsdatedto10,000yearsagohavebeendiscoveredinJiangxi,Hunan,Guangxi,andZhejiangprovincesinsouthChina,aswellasShandong,Hebei,Henan,,however,therehadbeennosimilararchaeologicaldiscoveriesforalongtime,exceptforaslabandanelongatedhandstone[asetofgrindingstonesoftheCishanculture,datedfrom8,000to7,600yearsago],1991,mycolleaguesXueXinmin,YangLinzhong,,wenameditthe“ZaoyuanH1Remains,”asweregardeditasthepredecessorofMiao-digouculture[–2780BCE].Later,itwasofficiallynamed“ZaoyuanCulture,”whichmeansthatinthestudyofearlyNeolithicculture,oculture[aculturewhichexistedbetween6700and6000BCE,locatednearXi’an,ShaanxiProvince]andMiao-digoucultureoftheYangshaoera[aNeolithicculturethatexistedalongtheYellowRiverbetween5000BCEand3000BCE;theBanpoandMiao-digouperiodsrepresenttwodifferentphasesoftheYangshaoculture],PuCounty[inShanxiProvince]ofmorethan1,,,suchasanimalsburiedwiththedeceased,byusinggenealogicalmethods,weidentified24shafttombsthatbelongedtothenativesduringtheWarringStatesPeriod(475–221BCE),andtheQin(221–207BCE)andHan(206BCE–220CE)ofHanbelongedtothesubordinatesofMarquiseQi,orJuji[aXiongnucavalryofficerwhofoughtfortheHanEmpireagainsttheXiongnuarmy].TheCaojiazhuangsitewasthereforeconfirmedasthesoutheasternmosthabitatoftheXiongnuinChina,,wedidn’tfindanynarrow-neckedpotswithholesnearthebottom—npartoftheLü,westartedtodoarchaeologicalresearchinPuCounty,Daning,Yonghe,,2017,,wefoundaceramicpotwithaninscriptionofthecharacter“上”ontheshoulderandholesnearthebottominavillager’attheXigoupansiteintheInnerMongo,thehistoricalex,wefoundthatsimilarpotswerealsodiscoveredattheYongheLongtunquansite[inShanxi]le[theRouzhiwereancientnomadicpastoralistslivingintheHexiCorridorduringthe1stmillenniumBCE;afteramajordefeatbytheXiongnuin176BCE,theRouzhisplitintotwogroupsmigratingindifferentdirections:theDarouzhiwhomigratednorthwestandXiaorouzhiwhomigratedsouthward]whomigratedfromtheQilian,namedYuzhe,:HaveyoumadeanynewarchaeologicaldiscoveriesrecentlyTianJianwen:FromAugust2018toJune2019,,,[perhapsaJinruler’swife],wedidn’,bronze,iron,gold,jade,stone,shell,bone,,weexcavatedandexploredtheShangguoancientcityruins,whichcoversanareaofover400,,anotherpolitical,military,economic,andculturalcenteroftheJinstate,,weconductedarchaeologicalexcavationsattheremainsofthenotedtotheearlySpringandAutumnPeriod(770–476BCE),evenlargerthanYicity,,,,,hewasmadethelegalrulerofJin,,DukeXianofJin,enlargedtheJincapital,whileancientQuwostillremainedthesecondlargestcityofJin,andplayedapivotalroleinJin’:WhatadvicedoyouhaveforyoungscholarsTianJianwen:Myexperiencestellmethat[thebestwaytostudyarchaeologymaybe]memorizingclassicworksofarchaeologicalresearch,keepingtypicalarchaeologicalartifactsinmind,andreadinga,,JilinUniversityPresspublishedAnOutlineofChineseArchaeology:ACenturyofDiscoveryandResearch(1921–2021)writtenbyProfessorZhaoBinfu,,,myfeelingisthatalthoughChina’scentury-oldmodernarchaeologyhasbeengivenahigherprofile,t,createbetterenvironments,andcultivatemoreprofessionalsinarchaeology,soastocarryontheessentialworkofprimary-levelarchaeology.

Thecreativetransformationandinnovativedevelopmentoftraditionalhandcraftedworkisconducivetonourishingourculturalecology,enrichingculturalresources,andimprovingChina’,andthenationalresearchreportsfrom2018to2021publishedbyChineseHandicraft,thisarticlesummarizesthecurrentcreativetransformationandinnovativedevelopmentofthetraditionalhandcraftingindustry,,handc:thesetwotypesofbrandsaccountforover65%ofthe407nationioninbothqualityandoutput,withhouseholditems,fashionableculturalandcreativeproducts,,morethan20%ofartisansattachimnofculturalconceptsandlifestyleswhilefocusingontheirskills,ulturalservicehasattractedmorepeopletoparticipateintlhandcraftswithlowthresholdstoentry,suchaspaper-cutting,patchwork,embroidery,,ondaryschools,studentscandeepentheirknowledgeoftraditionalcultureandexercisecreat,,theshareofcraftexperiencepr,,moreandmorehandcraftingtechniqueshavebeenintegratedintocommunityclasses,arietyshows,andthefusionoftraditionalcraftswithdocumentariesandvarietyshowshascreatedaratingsboom,inadditiontotheusualceentraditionalcraftsandaudiencesbytellingthevividlifes“MastersintheForbiddenCity,”“ExtraordinaryIngenuity,”“EarthandIngenuity,”and“TheGreatShokunin.”“MastersintheForbiddenCity”[aChinesesocialnetworkingservicewebsite],withmorethan110,,ashortvideoplatform,over15mi,Douyin,anothershortvideoplatform,launched“TheWonderofCraft”program,whichhighlightshandcraftsthroughtrafficsupport,feeconcessions,,theformerlyIntangibleCulturalHeritageDepartmentoftheMinistryofCulture,incollaborationwithhighereducationinstitutions,implementedatra,theprogramreceivedacumulativeinvestmentofRMB500millionfromthecentralgovernmentandsawover100,,comprehensivequality,andenthusiasmoedpeopleandcooperatewithhandcraftenterprises,institutionsthataimtoprotectintangibleculturalheritage,’practicalskillshavebeenimprovedwithproductionandteaching,andcon,incollaborationwithintangibleculturalheritageprotectioninstitutions,,promotingthetransformationofenthusiastsintocraftsmen,andprovyandinfluence,sseminationrelyingonregionalculturesandpolicybenefits,,thecultur,,,manyofthehandcraftsselectedforsharingareets,,,,leadthepublic,whichisdetrim,buthavelittleknowledgeoftheculturalconnotations,patentprotection,andmarketoperationsofhandcrafts,andcrafttrainingworkshops,,sotheycannotprovideauthoritativeandcutting-edgeinformationontheindustry,andtrainees’,theresourceintegratiotheintegrationofbrandresources,guidecross-categoryandcross-regionalcooperationamonghandcrafts,tapintopotentialconsumergroups,andhelpbrandsbrea,enhanceourabilitytoexportculture,improveculturalnarratives’awarenessofserviceandfunction,demonstratespecificcontentinplainlanguage,focusonconveyingtheculturalconnotationsembeddedinhandcrafts,andleadahealthy,environmentallyfriendly,,,developteachingandexperientialcoursesfordifferentgroupsofpeoplebasedonschools,communities,andconsumptionplaces,enrichtheteachingcontent,andaddculturalhistoryexplanationsandaestheticknowledgeinadditiontodemonstratingskills,tomobilizepeople’iaryplatforms,standardizetheiroperation,andpromotecooperationbetweenhandcraftsandindustriessuchasclothing,beauty,homefurnishing,realestate,andarchitecture,withafocusoninvestmentininter-generationaleducation,leisure,,themanagementofcommunicationplatformsshouldberegulated,,setupprofessionalteamstoidentifybadcontent,toimprovethecreativityandprofessionallevelofvideos,providepositiveguidancetoviewers,andleadtheindustry’,promoteintegrationofhandcraftsintothedecorationofconsumerspaces,publicculturalspaces,andcommunitylivingspaces,andfullydemonstratetheaestheticcharacteristicsofhandcraftedgoodsinpublicspacesthroughcarrierssuchastext,sound,images,andvideo,aswellasnewtechnologiessuchasVR,sothathandicraftsbecomevisible,audible,,trainingofhigh-qualitytalentmustbeaccelerated,alcraftsmen,focusonshoringuptheshortcomingsofcraftsmeninculturalhistory,patentprotection,marketoperation,andmoderndesign,promotedeepexchangeandcooperationamongpeers,providecraftsmenwithrelevantplatformresourcestosupportthem,ry,enhancethedesigncapabilitiesofcraftsmen,payattentiontoguidingdesignprofessionalstojoininthecreationofhandcraftedworks,andcarryoutcreativedesignsbasedonanin-depthunderstandingoftheculturalconnotations,materials,techniques,,andoffercourseswhichfitthetrainees’actualskilllevel,’qualifications,raisetheselectioncriteria,andinviteexpertDevelopmentatEastChinaNormalUniversity.

TheMethodologyofRuralVitalizationTheMethodologyofRuralVitalization,writtenbyWangLisheng,aresearchfellowfromtheInstituteofPhilosophyattheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences,,itemphasizestheoverallpromotionofruralvitalizationbytakingthecountyastheunit,andregardsitasthebestpromotionunit,raisingthecountytothcityinShandongProvince,,asanadministrativeunit,isabletoconducttop-leveldesignandplanningasawhole,and,meanwhile,carryoutspecificpoliciesfordifferentvillageswithinthecountyarea,sothattheimplementationoftheruralvitalizationstrategycannotonlymeettheuniversalrequirementsofthecentralandprovincialgovernments,nstrategyisdeterminedbythestatusandfunctionsofcounty-l,butessentiallyreshapesurban-ruralrelationsinthenewera,namely,ncitiesandruralareas,’administrativefunction,politicalsystemfunction,functionofgeographicalandculturalunits,economyandmarketfunction,andfunctionofpoliticalsubjects,tosupportthepropositionof“takingthecountyasthemethod.”sanimportantentrypointofintegratedurban-ruraldevelopment,coordinatingspatiallayoutincludingcounty-levelindustries,infrastructure,publicservices,basicfarmland,ecologicalprotection,towndevelopment,andvillagedistribution,andachie,advancingurbanizationwiththecountyasacarrier,andp’sbasicnationalcondition,anditsurbanizationandmodernizationisalongprocessthatcan’“outshining”first-tiercities,thereshouldbecountyterritoriesandtownsbloomingtogether,nUniversity.

DenouveauxmotifsdebroderieontétéidentifiéslorsderecherchesrécentessurlestissusdesoiedécouvertssurlesitearchéologiquedeMawangdui,,etremarquablepourêtreladernièredemeureduncadavredunefemmeparfaitementconservé,adéclarélemuséeprovincialduHunan,occasionducinquantièmeanniversairedeladécouvertedestombesdeMawangduideladynastiedesHan,lemuséeprovincialduHunanafaituninventairesystématiquedesobjetsarchéologiques,èétéprécédemmentstockéscommeobjetsdedonnées."Descaractèreschinoisontétéidentifiéspourlapremièrefoissurdesfragmentsdesoieqiàmotifsenformedelosanges,témoignantdesgrandescompétencesenmatièredetissagedudébutdeladynastiedesHan",adéclaréYuYanjiao,unechercheusedumuséégalementétéidentifiésdurantcetinventaire,notammentceuxdephénixsurdestissusdesoie,oiseausymboledelongévité,alorsquécouverteaenrichilesconnaissancessurlesobjetsfuné,situédanslabanlieueestdeChangsha,capitaledelaprovinceduHunan,abritelimposanttombeaudumarquisdeDai,deladynastiedesHan,élattentioninternationalelorsquedeschercheursontdécouvertuncadavredefemmequineprésentaitaucunsignededécompositionlorsdesonexhumationdanslesannées1970.

Theintegrationofinterdisciplinaryknowledgehaseffectivelyspurredtheem“Traditionaldisciplinarytheoriesarenolongerabletoeffectivelyanswerandsolvesomenewproblemsresultingfromsocialdevelopment,”saidZhangQiang,deputydeanndtheindustrialrevolutionhavepromptedthereor,academicsystem,anddiscoursesystemofphilosophyandsocialscienceswithChinesecharacteristicsinthenewera,themostvigorousnewgrowthpointiscontributedbytheutilizationofmoderninformationtechnologya,directoroftheResearchCenterforDigitalHumanitiesatNanjingAgriculturalUniversity,theapplicationofbigdataandmoderninformationtechnologycanelevatethefreshness,convenience,,theexertionofmodernsci-techintraditionalpathsofhumanitiesandhistoricalresearcha’sview,comparedtobasicdisciplinesandtraditionaldisciplines,emergingdisciplinesencompassnewinterdisciplinarydisciplinesformedthroughthemutualpenetrationandintegrationofliberalarts,sciences,andengineering;newiterativedisciplinesgeneratedbyembracingnewtechnologies;andnewa,emergingdisciplinesoftenhavetheabovethreeattributessimultaneously,,beingattheintersectionofcontemporarylinguistics,brainscience,cognitivescience,artificialintelligence,andothercutting-edgescientificfields,couldnolongerbehandledbytraditio,afterastageofexploration,accumulation,andsublimation,psychologyandneuroscience,blendingknowledgefromsuchfieldsasphysics,engineering,computerscience,statistics,cognitivescience,psychology,physiology,rspectiveof“gene-protein-brain-behavior-cognition.”ZhongYuan,aprofessorfromtheSchoolofPsychologyatNanjingNormalUniversity,hastriedformanyyearstoresearchthebrain’semotionalprocessingcircuitsandthebrainnetworkconnectivityofpatientswithaffectivedisorderssuchasanxietydisorder,depressivedisorder,post-traumaticstressdisorder,andadolescentbipolardisorder,adoptingmulti-modal,multi-omics,andotherneuroimagingmethodsandemployingartificialintelligence,machinelearning,,Zhongaimstolocatethecoretargetoftheoccurrenceanddevelopmentofdiseases,anddecipherthebrainsciencecodeofdiseases,achievingtheclassificationoftargetdiseasesaswellasindividualizedprediction,prevention,,mainlyusingquestionnairemeasurementsandbehavioralobservations,lacksenoughreliabilityandvalidity,emergingdisciplinesvisualizethepreviouslyin,inwhichrecentchangescanbedescribedas“earth-shaking.”Modernlinguisticresearchisgettingincreasinglytiedtocutting-edgescienceaswellaseconomicandsocialdevelopment,umanitiesh,aresearchteamfromJiangsuNormalUniversityisalsoworkingonbrainscienceandartificiaularlinguistics,surveyingthelangu,adisciplineexaminingtherelationshipandtheinteractionmechanismbetweenlanguageandenvironment,hasquietlyemergedintheprocessofsoc,deputydirectoroftheNationalResearchCenterforStateLanguageCapacityatBeijingForeignStudiesUniversity,saidthatinagoodmomentumofdevelopment,ecolinguisticshasseentwoparadigms—theHaugenModelthatinspectstheimpactofenvironmentsonthesurvival,state,anddevelopmentoflanguages,andtheHallid,moreandmoreyoungscholarsareattractedtothediscipline,andstrivetocontinuouslybroadentheresearch,ecolinguisticshasstretcheditsconcernfromthesurvival,state,anddevelopmentoflanguagestonaturalenvironments,,theresearchpurposeofecolinguisticsextendsfromtheh,ecolinguisticsisnolongerconfinedtoindividualtheoriesinsystemicfunctionallinguistics,cognitivelinguistics,andsociolinguistics,butgraduallyexpandstotheentiresystemoftheirdisciplinarytheories,onglydrivetraditionalhumanitiesresearch,,digitalhumanitiesresearchisaproductof,drawingahostofscholarsfromtraditionaldisciplines.

FILEPHOTO:CaiMeibiaoandAGeneralHistoryofChinaTheChinesehistorianCaiMeibiao(1928–2021),orAGeneralHistoryofChina,ce,aswellasamicrocosmofCai’,FanWenlan(1893–1969),aleadingChinesehistorianandthedirectoroftheinstitute,wasrevisingZhongguoTongshiJianbian,orAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition).,FanwasreceivedbyMaoZedonginYan’an,andwasappointedasthedirectoroftheOffic,MaoZedongcalledonthewholepartytolearnChinesehistoryandtounderstandChina’ofChina’,whichwasnamedAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition),,Fanbegantorewritethebookhehadn’,knownastheRevisedVersionofAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition),wasnotasimplerevisionofthepreviousthree-volumework,,eachpersonwhoassistedFanwasresponsibleforresearchingafieldinhistory,,fourvolumesofAGeneralHistoryofChina(RevisedandConciseEdition)weresuccessivelypublished,coveringChina’shistoryfromantiquitytotheSui(581–618),Tang(618–907),andFiveDynasties(907–960),Fansufferedfromheartdisease,,Fansaidthathecouldnolongerwritebyhimself,andhop,’sdeathbroughtthecompilationofthebooktoastandstill,dtotheunfinishedundertakingleftbehindbyFan.‘AGeneralHistoryofChina’ContinuingwiththecompilationofAGeneralHistoryofChina(RevisedandConciseEdition),,heplanne,thebookwasnolongerarevisedversionofAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition)asitscontentincreased,anditwasmorethana“conciseedition”ofChina’“AGeneralHistoryofChina”,theInstituteofModernHistorycouldnotcompletealltheworkoftheprojectalone,soCaiinvitedscholarsfromNankaiUniversity,FudanUniversity,,’tsimplyeditthesedraftsormaterials,,000characters,only30,(1925–2006),aprofessorattheUniversityofLondon,andoneoftheco-editorsofTheCambridgeHistoryofChina,oncetoldCaithattheyhadneverfinishedthefirstvolumeofTheCambridgeHistoryofChina,becausetheycouldn’tkeeppacewithChina’,theyhadtogiveupthepre-Qin(before221BCE)historyofthefirstvolumeandstartfromtheQin(221–207BCE)andHan(206BCE–220CE)alfindingsatalltimescertainlywouldleadtotheproblemof“failingtokeeppace.”Therefore,Caip,CaiinheritedFan’sideasandmethodsofwritingAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition).Meanwhile,hehadhisownunderstandingandmadeinnovationsduringtheprocess,whichcanbeseenfromthefollowingexample:Cai’sAGeneralHistoryofChinabeganwiththeSong(960–1279),Liao(907–1125),Jin(1115–1234),andYuan(1279–1368),,000yearsfromtheHantothefalloftheQingDynasty(1644–1911),theHanpeoplehadruledovernon-Hanethnicgroupsmanytimes,,therewereconflictsandwarsbetweentheHanandnon-Hanethnicgroups,,theseconflictsandwarsdidn’tcreatedistancesbutstr,thenon-Hanethnicgoups,andgainedn,inAGeneralHistoryofChina,CaiaddedachapterfortheWesternXia[alsoknownastheTangutEmpire,existingfrom1038to1227inpresent-daynorthwesternChina],whichwasnotfoundinpreviousgeneralhistorybooks,inthesectiononSong,Liao,Jin,“thevariousethnicgroupsundertheruleoftheYuanDynasty”k,,hecouldbefoundinhisofficeeveryday,,sixvolumesofAGeneralHistoryofChinaweresuccessivelycompleted,’,thetenthvolumeendedwiththereignoftheJiaqingEmperor(–1820)—fromthereignoftheDaoguangEmperor(–1850)tothatoftheXuantongEmperor[thefinalQingDynastyruler,whowasforcedtoabdicatein1912]—,Caiwasalreadyinhisseventies,’scallsliponhandforthelibraryoftheInstituteofModernHistory,andthedatewrittenonitisJanuary7,,twovolumesofmanuscriptswerefinallycompleted,,thesetwonewvolumeswerecombinedwiththefirsttenvolumesandwerepublishedtogether,’,(1019–1086),ahigh-rankingSongDynastyscholar-official,spentover20yearscompilingtheZizhiTongjian[ComprehensiveMirrorforAidinGovernment,apioneeringreferenceworkinChinesehistoriographycovering16dynastiesandspanningalmost1,400years].,Simasaidthathesufferedfromblurryvisionandtoothloss,,the12volumeswerepublishedasaboxset,,,Caisaid:“LookingbackatthetimewhenIparticipatedineditingthefirstvolumeofthisbookin1953,55yearshavepassedbeforeIknewit.”XiuXiaoboisaprofessorfromtheSchoolofHistoryatQingdaoUniversity.

ArchaeologistTianJianwen(Middle)andhiscolleaguesattheBalipingsiteinQinshuiCounty,ShanxiProvincePhoto:PROVIDEDTOCSSTIntheearlystageofreformandopeningup,therewasashortageofyoungtalent,,,hepassedupjobopportunitiesinbigcitiesandwenttoHouma[asmalltowninShanxiprovince],hometoXintian,thelastcapitaloftheJinprincipality(1033–376BCE)[nowaveteranarchaeologistattheShanxiArchaeologyInstitute],[atYichengCounty]discoveredbyTianandhiscolleagu,TiancameupwithacompletegenealogydatedfromtheZaoyuanCulturetotheXiyinCulture[anearlyNeolithicsiteinShanxiProvince]incipality’s“XintianPattern”[thelayoutoftheXintiancitywasdifferentfromthatofpreviouscities].Forthefirsttime,heidentifiedtombsoftheXiongnu[nomadicpeoplewhoinhabitedtheeasternEurasianSteppefromthe3rdcenturyBCEtothe1stcenturyCE]intheLü,sincethereignofEmperorWuofHan(–87BCE),theHanEmpirehadsetupcounty-levelresidencesfortheXiongnupeoplewhosurrenderedtotheHanEmpireandmigratedtotheCentralPlain,,whichisthelargesttombdatedtotheEasternZhouperiod(770–256BCE),w:Inrecentyears,manyscholarshaveproposedthatthesignificanceofarchaeologyisto“writeChinesehistory”and“tracethepathofancestors.”HowdoyouunderstandthesestatementsTianJianwen:Ancientarchives,oraltraditions,,advantages,’,canhelpclarifythedateandexistenceofdifferentrelicsandruins,aswellastheexist,whichisalsothefoundationofthe“theoreticalsystemofarchaeologywithChinesecharacteristics.”“Tracingthepathofancestors”:InearlyMay1991,whenyouwereinvestigatingtheZaoyuansiteinShanxi,,,ianwen:Sincethe1970s,ancientculturalrelicsdatedto10,000yearsagohavebeendiscoveredinJiangxi,Hunan,Guangxi,andZhejiangprovincesinsouthChina,aswellasShandong,Hebei,Henan,,however,therehadbeennosimilararchaeologicaldiscoveriesforalongtime,exceptforaslabandanelongatedhandstone[asetofgrindingstonesoftheCishanculture,datedfrom8,000to7,600yearsago],1991,mycolleaguesXueXinmin,YangLinzhong,,wenameditthe“ZaoyuanH1Remains,”asweregardeditasthepredecessorofMiao-digouculture[–2780BCE].Later,itwasofficiallynamed“ZaoyuanCulture,”whichmeansthatinthestudyofearlyNeolithicculture,oculture[aculturewhichexistedbetween6700and6000BCE,locatednearXi’an,ShaanxiProvince]andMiao-digoucultureoftheYangshaoera[aNeolithicculturethatexistedalongtheYellowRiverbetween5000BCEand3000BCE;theBanpoandMiao-digouperiodsrepresenttwodifferentphasesoftheYangshaoculture],PuCounty[inShanxiProvince]ofmorethan1,,,suchasanimalsburiedwiththedeceased,byusinggenealogicalmethods,weidentified24shafttombsthatbelongedtothenativesduringtheWarringStatesPeriod(475–221BCE),andtheQin(221–207BCE)andHan(206BCE–220CE)ofHanbelongedtothesubordinatesofMarquiseQi,orJuji[aXiongnucavalryofficerwhofoughtfortheHanEmpireagainsttheXiongnuarmy].TheCaojiazhuangsitewasthereforeconfirmedasthesoutheasternmosthabitatoftheXiongnuinChina,,wedidn’tfindanynarrow-neckedpotswithholesnearthebottom—npartoftheLü,westartedtodoarchaeologicalresearchinPuCounty,Daning,Yonghe,,2017,,wefoundaceramicpotwithaninscriptionofthecharacter“上”ontheshoulderandholesnearthebottominavillager’attheXigoupansiteintheInnerMongo,thehistoricalex,wefoundthatsimilarpotswerealsodiscoveredattheYongheLongtunquansite[inShanxi]le[theRouzhiwereancientnomadicpastoralistslivingintheHexiCorridorduringthe1stmillenniumBCE;afteramajordefeatbytheXiongnuin176BCE,theRouzhisplitintotwogroupsmigratingindifferentdirections:theDarouzhiwhomigratednorthwestandXiaorouzhiwhomigratedsouthward]whomigratedfromtheQilian,namedYuzhe,:HaveyoumadeanynewarchaeologicaldiscoveriesrecentlyTianJianwen:FromAugust2018toJune2019,,,[perhapsaJinruler’swife],wedidn’,bronze,iron,gold,jade,stone,shell,bone,,weexcavatedandexploredtheShangguoancientcityruins,whichcoversanareaofover400,,anotherpolitical,military,economic,andculturalcenteroftheJinstate,,weconductedarchaeologicalexcavationsattheremainsofthenotedtotheearlySpringandAutumnPeriod(770–476BCE),evenlargerthanYicity,,,,,hewasmadethelegalrulerofJin,,DukeXianofJin,enlargedtheJincapital,whileancientQuwostillremainedthesecondlargestcityofJin,andplayedapivotalroleinJin’:WhatadvicedoyouhaveforyoungscholarsTianJianwen:Myexperiencestellmethat[thebestwaytostudyarchaeologymaybe]memorizingclassicworksofarchaeologicalresearch,keepingtypicalarchaeologicalartifactsinmind,andreadinga,,JilinUniversityPresspublishedAnOutlineofChineseArchaeology:ACenturyofDiscoveryandResearch(1921–2021)writtenbyProfessorZhaoBinfu,,,myfeelingisthatalthoughChina’scentury-oldmodernarchaeologyhasbeengivenahigherprofile,t,createbetterenvironments,andcultivatemoreprofessionalsinarchaeology,soastocarryontheessentialworkofprimary-levelarchaeology.

Ifwelookbackatthe95-yearhistoryofthePLA,wewouldconcludethatitisthearmedforcesthathavegrownfromstrengthtostrengthandChinasmilitaryisnowamongthebest,saysZhouBo,aseniorfellowattheCenterforInternationalSecurityandStrategywithTsinghuaUniversity,ationaldefense,,armedforcesarsnavalforceshaveexemplifiedhowabigpowershouldersgreaterresponsibility."BecausealthoughwespentgreateffortsinescortingChineseships,wehavealsospenteffortsescortingforeignships,andactuallyofalltheshipsthatwehaveescortedsofar,halfofthemhavebeenforeignships,"saidZhouwhenspeakingofhowChinasarmedforcesarecommittedtoprovidingtheinternatio"ItisverydifficulttofindinhistoryamajorpowerlikeChinawhoactuallyenjoyslongstandingpeacewithoutresortingtowarswithanyothercountry."SpeakingoftheChina-USties,ZhousaysthattheUSmustreadjustitsmindset,givenits"Indo-Pacificstrategy"drivenbyColdWarmentality,andthinkabouthowtocoexistwithChina.

TheMethodologyofRuralVitalizationTheMethodologyofRuralVitalization,writtenbyWangLisheng,aresearchfellowfromtheInstituteofPhilosophyattheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences,,itemphasizestheoverallpromotionofruralvitalizationbytakingthecountyastheunit,andregardsitasthebestpromotionunit,raisingthecountytothcityinShandongProvince,,asanadministrativeunit,isabletoconducttop-leveldesignandplanningasawhole,and,meanwhile,carryoutspecificpoliciesfordifferentvillageswithinthecountyarea,sothattheimplementationoftheruralvitalizationstrategycannotonlymeettheuniversalrequirementsofthecentralandprovincialgovernments,nstrategyisdeterminedbythestatusandfunctionsofcounty-l,butessentiallyreshapesurban-ruralrelationsinthenewera,namely,ncitiesandruralareas,’administrativefunction,politicalsystemfunction,functionofgeographicalandculturalunits,economyandmarketfunction,andfunctionofpoliticalsubjects,tosupportthepropositionof“takingthecountyasthemethod.”sanimportantentrypointofintegratedurban-ruraldevelopment,coordinatingspatiallayoutincludingcounty-levelindustries,infrastructure,publicservices,basicfarmland,ecologicalprotection,towndevelopment,andvillagedistribution,andachie,advancingurbanizationwiththecountyasacarrier,andp’sbasicnationalcondition,anditsurbanizationandmodernizationisalongprocessthatcan’“outshining”first-tiercities,thereshouldbecountyterritoriesandtownsbloomingtogether,nUniversity.

TheConstructionCourseofLiteraryClassicofShijiTheConstructionCourseofLiteraryClassicofShiji,writtenbyZhangXinke,aprofessorfromtheSchoolofChineseLanguageandLiteratureatShaanxiNormalUniversity,revealsthedifferentcharacteristicsofliteraryacceptanceofShiji(RecordsoftheGrandHistorian)indifferenttimesagainstthebroadhistoricalandculturalbackgroundofmorethan2,000years,,’sself-prefaceintheending,theoriginalintentionofSimaQianandhisfathertowriteShijiwastofollowChunqiu(SpringandAutumnAnnals),which,afterbeinginterpretedbytheGongyangSchool,wasthemostimportantgovernanceclassicamongtheFiveClassicsrespectedbyEmperorWuoftheHanDynasty(206BCE–220).HowdidShijigofromacommentaryontheFiveClassicstoaliteraryclassicThedeclineofConfucianclassicsattheendoftheEasternHanDynasty(25–220),theestablishmentofliteratureasaconceptintheWei,Jin,Southern,andNorthernDynasties(220–589),andtheinteractionandseparationbetweenliteratureandhistoriography,aressintheHanDynasty,,whenConfucianclassicsdeclinedfromitspeak,thatliteratureandhistoriographybrokefro’sbiographicalstyle,Qilu(SevenRecords)bybibliographerRuanXiaoxuintheLiangperiod(502–557)setup“therecordofbiographies.”ThebibliographicsectionofSuishu(BookofSui)classifiedbooksintojing(classics),shi(history),zi(philosophy),andji(literature),andShijiwasincludedinthe“officialhistory”,Shij,ynasty(618–907).Forexample,HanYuandLiuZongyuan,mastersofancient-styleproseintheTangDynasty,greatlyadmiredSimaQian’’,,therearepoliticians,philosophers,historians,writers,scholars,eras,therearepoems,essays,scriptsforstory-telling,opera,fiction,academicworks,notes,letters,prefaces,postscripts,ureatGuangdongUniversityofForeignStudies.

DesarchéologuesontrécemmentfaitdesdécouvertesétonnantessurlecélèbresitedesruinesdeSanxingdui,danslaprovincechinoiseduSichuan(sud-ouest);Untrésordobjetsraffinésenbronze,enoretenjade,dontaumoins10objetsenbronzedécouvertspourlapremièrefoisdanslhistoiredelacivilisationhumaine,aétééquipeconjointedarchéologuesdelInstitutprovincialderecherchesurlesreliquesculturellesetlarchéologieduSichuan,delUniversitédeBeijing,delUniversitéduSichuanetdautresinstitutionsderechercheetuniversitésaeffectuéécouvertesproviennentprincipalementdesfossessacrificiellesnuméro7etnuméro8,portantlenombretotaldobjetsdécouvertsdanslessixfossesdeSanxingduiàprè,selonlInstitutprovincialderecherchesurlesreliquesculturellesetlarché,découvertedanslafossenuméro7,estléticulésenformedetortue,etlesctésdelabotesontornésdunecharnièreenbronze,depoignéesenformedetêanalysedesmicrotracesarévéléquelaboteétaitenveloppéedesoie,selonlesarchéologues."Ilneseraitpasexagérédedirequececontenantestuniqueensongenre,comptetenudesaformedistinctive,desafinesseartisanaleetdesaconceptioningéàquoiilservait,nouspouvonssupposerquelesanciensleconservaientprécieusement",aexpliquéLiHaichao,professeurdelUniversitéduSichuanetresponsabledesfouillesdanslafossenuméécorationsenbronze,desfigurinesetdesclochesontégalementétédééro8voisine,lesarchéologuesontmisaujourdiversobjets,notammentdestêtesenbronzeavecdesmasquesenor,unesculptureenbronzeavecunetêtehumaineetuncorpsdeserpent,unautelenbronze,unecréaturemythiquegéanteenbronzeetunobjetenbronzeenformededragonavecunnezdecochon."Lessculpturessonttrèscomplexesetimaginatives,reflétantlemondeféeriqueimaginéparlesgensàcetteépoque-là,etellesillustrentladiversitéetlarichessedelacivilisationchinoise",aindiquéZhaoHao,professeurassociéàlUniversitédeBeijing,quidirigelesfouillesdelafossenumé,lesarchéologuesontégalementtrouvédesfossésàcendres,desfondationsarchitecturalesetdepetitesfossesàsacrificielles,desreliquesculturelles,ainsiquedesbambous,desroseaux,desgrainesdesoja,etdesbovinsetdessangliersquiontpuêtresacrifiéécouvertesàlafindesannées1920,lesruinesdeSanxingduisontconsidéréescommelunedesplusgrandesdécouvertesarchéologiquesduXXesièéesdanslavilledeGuanghan,àenviron60kmdeChengdu,capitaleprovinciale,lesruines,couvrantunesuperficiede12km2,seraientlesvestigesduroyaumeShu,datantdà

Ifwelookbackatthe95-yearhistoryofthePLA,wewouldconcludethatitisthearmedforcesthathavegrownfromstrengthtostrengthandChinasmilitaryisnowamongthebest,saysZhouBo,aseniorfellowattheCenterforInternationalSecurityandStrategywithTsinghuaUniversity,ationaldefense,,armedforcesarsnavalforceshaveexemplifiedhowabigpowershouldersgreaterresponsibility."BecausealthoughwespentgreateffortsinescortingChineseships,wehavealsospenteffortsescortingforeignships,andactuallyofalltheshipsthatwehaveescortedsofar,halfofthemhavebeenforeignships,"saidZhouwhenspeakingofhowChinasarmedforcesarecommittedtoprovidingtheinternatio"ItisverydifficulttofindinhistoryamajorpowerlikeChinawhoactuallyenjoyslongstandingpeacewithoutresortingtowarswithanyothercountry."SpeakingoftheChina-USties,ZhousaysthattheUSmustreadjustitsmindset,givenits"Indo-Pacificstrategy"drivenbyColdWarmentality,andthinkabouthowtocoexistwithChina.

TwosidesagreeonpromotingpracticalcooperationandcopingwithchallengesThehigh-leveldialoguebetweenChinaandtheEuropeanUniondemonstratedthetwosideswillingnesstostrengthenbilateralcooperationandfendoffexternalrisksagainstthebackdropofapossibleglobalrecession,increasingfinancialmarketvolatilityandgeopoliticaltensions,9thHigh-LevelEconomicandTradeDialogueonTuesdaytodiscusstopicssuchasthemacroeconomy,industrialandsupplychains,bilateraltradeandinvestment,,ldoftheeconomyandtrade,andtojointlycopewiththechallengesfacingtheglobaleconomy,esincludingindustrialandsupplychainsandfinancialservices,whilestablerelationsbetweenthetwowillhelppromotesteadygrowthforboth,contributetothestabilityoftheinternationalsituation,,aresearcherwiththeBankofChinaResearchInstitute,saidtheeconomiesofChinaandtheEUarehighlycomplementaryandthetwosid,greenenergy,thecarbonmarket,greenfinance,climatechange,tradeondigitalinformationandcommunicationtechnology,tradeindigitalproductsandthedigitalservicetrade."Againstthebackdropofsoaringinflationandtheincreasingriskofeconomicrecessionaroundtheglobe,EuropeneedstoimportChinesegoodstohelpensurestability,anditalsoneedstostrengthentradeandinvestmentcooperationinfieldssuchasindustriesandinfrastructuretogathernewgrowthmomentum,"Yesaid."Meanwhile,Europesadvancedtechnologies,talentsandmanagementexperiencewillhelpChinapromoteindustrialupgradingandgreentransformationoftheeconomy."Asstagflationpressuresanddebtriskscloudgrowthprospects,theattractivenessoftheeurozonetoglobalinvestorshasdimmed,withtheeurosinkingbelowparityagainsttheUSdollarforthefirsttimein20years,,YesaidChina-EUcooperationwillboostEuropeanmarketconfidenceandimprovemarketexpectationsforfuturerecoveryintheregion,clineinexports,thushelpingsupportChinassecond-largesttradingpartner,($401billion)inbilateraltradeduringthefirstsixmonthsofthisyear,,aresearcherattheInternationalMonetaryInstituteoftheRenminUniversityofChina,saidthegrowthinChina-EUtradehaslaidasspositivegrowthinthefirsthalfof2022despitepressuresandchallengesbothathomeandabroad,Chensaidthenationseconomyenjoysstrongresilienceandvitality,servinga,deanoftheHainanUniversityBeltandRoadResearchInstitute,saidChinaandEuropeshouldstrengthentheircooperationinthefinancialsector,anditisadvisableforthetwosidestoexpandthescaleofbilateralcurrencyswapsandsettlement,,PresidentXiJinpingsaidduringameetingviavideolinkthatChinawillstaycommittedtodeepeningreformandfurtheropeningup,anditwelcomesEuropeanbusinessinvestmentandexpectstheEUtoprovideafair,transparentandnondiscriminato,globalexecutivevice-presidentofGermanysSiemensGroupandchairman,presidentandCEOofSiemensChina,saidthatdespitethechallengesposedbyCOVID-19,Chinaiscapableofmaintaininghigh-qualitygrowth,givenitscompleteindustrialchainsystem."Amidallofthechangesanduncertaintiesinglobalmarkets,Chinasdeterminationtocontinuouslyopenuphasremainedunchangedoverthepastfewyears,"hesaid,addingthatgreatermarketopennessbenefitssustainablesocioeconomicdevelopmentinChina,andalsohelpsrevitalizetheglobaleconomy.

DenouveauxmotifsdebroderieontétéidentifiéslorsderecherchesrécentessurlestissusdesoiedécouvertssurlesitearchéologiquedeMawangdui,,etremarquablepourêtreladernièredemeureduncadavredunefemmeparfaitementconservé,adéclarélemuséeprovincialduHunan,occasionducinquantièmeanniversairedeladécouvertedestombesdeMawangduideladynastiedesHan,lemuséeprovincialduHunanafaituninventairesystématiquedesobjetsarchéologiques,èétéprécédemmentstockéscommeobjetsdedonnées."Descaractèreschinoisontétéidentifiéspourlapremièrefoissurdesfragmentsdesoieqiàmotifsenformedelosanges,témoignantdesgrandescompétencesenmatièredetissagedudébutdeladynastiedesHan",adéclaréYuYanjiao,unechercheusedumuséégalementétéidentifiésdurantcetinventaire,notammentceuxdephénixsurdestissusdesoie,oiseausymboledelongévité,alorsquécouverteaenrichilesconnaissancessurlesobjetsfuné,situédanslabanlieueestdeChangsha,capitaledelaprovinceduHunan,abritelimposanttombeaudumarquisdeDai,deladynastiedesHan,élattentioninternationalelorsquedeschercheursontdécouvertuncadavredefemmequineprésentaitaucunsignededécompositionlorsdesonexhumationdanslesannées1970.

Karl-HeinzPohlisaGermansi:COURTESYOFPOHLAsaGermansinologistandaprofessorofChinesestudiesatTrierUniversityinGermany,ProfessorKarl-HeinzPohlhaslongbeendevotedtotheresearchofChineseintellectualhistory,ethics,andaesthetics,aswe’iao:Poet,PainterandCalligrapher(1990),AestheticsandLiteraryTheoryinChina:FromTraditiontoModernity(inGermanandtranslatedintoChinese,2006),’,,:WhatdoyouthinkarethefundamentaldifferencesbetweenChineseandWesternintellectualandvaluesystemsPohl:Afundamentaldifferenceisthe“conceptofman.”TheconceptofmanintheEuropean/,thewordmeans:theultimate“indivisible”—“indivisible”“atomistic”viewofhumanbeings:weareallatoms,,especiallythatofConfucianism,isthatofmanasa“relationalbeing.”Wecanonlyliveourhumanitybyhavingandcultivatingrelationships:firstaschildrenofparents,thenasparentsofchildren,brothersandsisters,relatives,friends,compatriots,:HowdoyouunderstandConfucianismAretheremisunderstandingsoforprejudicesagainstConfucianisminWesternacademiaPohl:,thefamilyhasanimportantpositioninConfucianism,asdoesdecentorrituallycorrectbehavior(礼)towardsoneanother—whichisnotsupposedtobeamereexternality,butanexpressionofgenuine“benevolence”(仁).AlthoughitwashighlyreveredinEuropeduringtheEnlightenment(17th–18thcenturies),ConfucianismfellintooblivionaftertheFrenchRevolutionorwasonlyreceivednegatively(asitwasbytheChineseintellectualsoftheMayFourthMovement,namelyasthehallmarkofanossifiedsocialsystem).Today,,itisimportantthatpeo,hehasdonealottoconveyanewunderstandingofConfucianism,atleastamongthosewhoareinterestedinChina,namelythatConfucianismalsohasaspiritualdimensionandcouldwellhavesignificancefortoday’,TuWeiminghasbroughtbacktolightthesideofConfucianismthathadcompletelyfadedawayforalongtime,namelythatConfucianismisatraditionnotonlyofwisdom,butalsoofahighethicalstandard,andthatitalsohasanalmostspiritualtradition,namelyintheemphasisonxiuyang(修养),orself-cultivation,thatthisisbasicallythecoreofConfucianism—andnotasocialhierarchyandall,,:,andonecancertainlyaskwhatofthisresourceisstillinterestingandimportanttoday,:Itisgenerallyknown:,ifoneunderstandsaestheticsasphilosophyofart,thentheChineseintellectualsunderstoodearlyont,ChineseintellectualsfoundthattheWestwasshapedbyreligion(Christianity),“Aestheticeducationinsteadofreligion!”LinYutangsaid(inMyCountryandMyPeople):“PoetrymaywellbecalledtheChinaman’sreligion.”TheChineselanguageorscripthasanaestheticdimensionthroughthecharactersalone—andthroughcalligraphy—,,namelytheformalcharacteristics,[intheWest].Despitethislimitationduetothelossofaestheticfeatures,Chinesepoetry,whenitwasdiscoveredherearound1900,,,GustavMahlerwroteagreatsymphoniccantatainhis“TheSongoftheEarth,”basedonthetextsofpoemsbyLiBai,MengHaoran,WangWei,ntfromtheactualoriginals,thisworkrepr,Yin-Yangthinkingplaysaveryimportantrole:ureinChineseculture:parallelism(对仗)inpoetryortheparallelsayings(对联),Daoist,—andperhapsalsothroughthetranslationoftheterm“aesthetics”intoChineseas美学,“doctrineofthebeautiful”—Chinesescholarshavebeenluredontothetrackofsearchingfor“beauty”,“beauty”playedvirtuallynoroleintraditionalChineseart—(Confucian)orthenatural(Daoist).Inanycase,,;andbooksonaestheticsdon’,ontheotherhand,aestheticshasanessentialconnectiontoChina’“aestheticsfever”(asinthe1980s,triggeredbythepublicationofLiZehou’sThePathofBeauty),thatfortraditionalChina,anaestheticsconsciousness(审美境界),suchaspainting,butalsoinliterature,,,itwasratherthedrama,thetragedy,andtheepic,beginningwiththeGreeks,,but,asIsaid,,ifyouknowChinese,:WhatarethemainproblemsintheinterculturaldialoguebetweenChinaandtheWestHowdowefacilitateeffectiveinterculturaldialoguePohl:Thereisalotofcontroversyaroundthetopicof“interculturaldialogue.”,themainquestioniswhereandbetweenwhomsuc,“dialogue”shouldnotbeunderstoodhereinanarrowsense,butinabroaderone,,ourhumanrelationshipstooneanotheraredialogical,,weneedthe“other”inordertoexperienceourselvesas“ourselves.”Thisalsoappliestoculturesinsofarasonecanactuallyonlyexperienceone’,weonlystar,interculturaldialogueshouldbeseenasaneffortforunderstandingthatcantakeplaceatalllevels,betweenindividuals,betweenpoliticians,membersofreligions,,caremustbetakenthatsuch“dialogue”doesnotleadtoa“monologue,”,,,someoneoncesaid,’100years,butonlyexperts(sinologists)knowaboutit,,,itisquitedifferent:Chineseintellectuals,inparticular,havestudiedEuropeanditsculture(philosophy,literature,art,etc.)intensivelysincetheOpiumWar[inthe1840s].—theWest’,’sjustnotmuchusetothem,becausetheWest,throughitsmilitary,economic,financial,andculturalpower,hasmanagedoverthelastcent,,becauseofChina’spoliticalotherness,,forexample,throughdiscussionsbetweenChineseandWesternersontelevisionorinthemedia,’sfriendsintheWest.

>>>LaTunisiepourraitpariersurlaChinecommeunmodérateuréconomiquemondial2022-05-0111:08:00Misàpartlalternativedopterpourlaconquêtedenouveauxpartenariats"gagnant-gagnant"(àlalumièredesmutationssurlascèneinternationale)avecdespuissancesémergentes,commeenestlecasdelInde,duBrésilouencorelAfriqueduSud,"laChineesttouteautrechose(...)Ellepeutconstituerunblocensoietpeutjouerlintermédiairepourtrouverlapaixmondialesurplusieursniveauxexceptionnellementéconomique",acommentéMajdiHassen,directeurexécutifdelInstitutarabedeschefsdentreprises(IACE)."LaChineabienanticipéeavecsoninitiativeLaCeintureetlaRoute,dautantplusdesonindispensabilitédansléquilibreéconomiquemondialedansuneconjoncturemarquéeparuneéconomiederareté,aggravéerécemmentparleconflitrusso-ukrainien",anotéécemmentaccordéeàXinhuaEtdepoursuivreque"laTunisieserait,probablement,danslacontraintederevoircertainsdesesaccordssousprétextequenospartenaires(particulièrementlUE,quidétientenviron70%deséchangesdelaTunisieaveclextérieur)serontdansunelogiquepluttprotectionniste,enplusdelamontéedesnationalisteslorsdesrécenteséchéancesélectoralesenEurope".Surleplanfinancier,sousleffetàcourtetmoyentermes,a-t-ilexpliqué,"laTunisiepourraitmiserdavantagesurlesdeuxmonnaiesémergentes,leroublerusseetleyuanchinois,quipourraientêtreplusancréesdanslepanierdedevisesdelaBanquecentraledeTunisie(BCT)"."Ilsagitdelunedessolutionspourtrouverunecertaineimmunitéfinancièredanslavenirvuquelesystèmemonétairemondialfondésurlamonnaieuniversellenecessedeseffritermais,également,lerecoursàcesnouvellesdevisescontribueradanslarelancedautressecteursvitauxpourlaTunisie,notammentletourismeainsiquelapprovisionnementenmatièrespremières(principalementlesproduitscéréaliersetpétroliers",aencoreestiméledirecteurexécutifdelIACE."Ainsi,a-t-ilassuré,chaqueblocaurasespropresrèglesdetransactionsetsespropresaccordsquiserventsesintérêtséconomiquesetfinanciersvitauxet,ainsi,rompreavecladominationdeleuroetdudollar".Evoquantleffetdirectduconflitrusso-ukrainienetlanouvellecarteéconomiquemondialesurlesentreprisestunisiennes,étectéauxniveauxdelaproduction,deladisponibilitéetducotdelamatièrepremière(...)celamèneraégalementdesproblèmesauniveaudel,"onpeutsattendreàdesflambéesdesprixdelélectricité,dutransportetdescarburants(...)etplusparticulièrement,desmenacessurleplandedéveloppementàsavoirunetendanceinflationnistequineferaquenourrirunetensionetdespressionssocialesgraves."AnoterqueledéficitdelabalancecommercialedelaTunisiesestaggravépoursesituerà,8millionsdedinars(undinaréquivautà0,33dollaraméricain),aupremiertrimestredelannéeencours,,3millionsdedinarspourlamêmepériodede2021,daprèsleschiffresofficielsdelInstitutnationaldelastatistique(INS)

GaoJianpingisaresearchfellowfromtheCASS,directoroftheInstituteofAestheticsandLiteraryCriticismatShenzhenUniversity,:COURTESYOFGAOAsaseniorscholar,ProfessorGaoJianpinghaslongbeendevotedtotheresearchofaesthetics,literarytheories,aestheticeducation,contemporaryculturalstudies,,GaosharedhisstudiesofC:HowdoweunderstandaestheticsGao:Thedefinitionofaestheticshasbeenrepeatedlydiscussedinacademia,astheobjectofthisdisciplinehasundergonemanychanges,’satte,humanbeingswillhavevariousfeelings,,andhumanbeingsneedabstractiontounderstandconcretethings,,whichmayberelatedtothetranslationoftheword“aesthetics.”AlexanderGottliebBaumgartenderivedtheterm“Aesthetica”,generationsofscholarshavehaddifferentinterpretationsofthisterm,Chōmintranslatedtheterm“Aesthetica”into美学accordingtotheJapaneseunderstandingof“Aesthetica”,ChinesescholarsintroducedthisdisciplinetoChinaanddirectlyadoptedtheterm美学[literallystudyofbeauty].Becauseofthistranslation,,therearemanykindsofbeauty,nlystudybeautyinanarrowsense,’saffectionarenotnecessarilybeautiful,whichmayrelatetoothercategoriesofaestheticsbesides“thebeautiful,”suchas“thesublime.”CSST:Accordingtoyou,inadditiontotheclassicaestheticcategoriessuchasthebeautifulandthesublime,aestheticobjectsshouldalsobeconsideredfortheir“senseofhistory”and“senseofnovelty.”CanyouelaboratefurtheronthisGao:“gu-ya”[guinChinesemeansancientorage-old,andyagraceorelegance]asanewcategoryofbeauty,,especiallyart,embodyasenseoftime,,,,,,thebeautyofanan,,mythsaredominatedbythesenseofnovelty[fromtheperspectiveofaesthetics].Inaddition,:WhataretheuniquefeaturesofChineseaestheticsGao:Asweallknow,ChineseandWesterna,Westernaestheticsresearchhasbeensystematicfromtheverybeginning,notonlyattachingimportancetothedefinitionandinterpretationofconceptsandcategories,-Qinperiod(priorto221BCE).,accordingtoTheAnalects,Confuciusdistinguishesbetweenmusicthatisbeautifulandmorallygood[Shaomusic],andmusicthatisbeautifulbutnotmorallygood[Wumusic],whichexpressestheConfucianaestheticconcept:,,Confucianbeautydependsonmoralgoodness,,,however,theexplorationanddemonstrationofbeautyinancientChinafocusedmoreonsensibility,intuition,andindividualperception,,inancientChina,therewasnotanideologicalsystemofaestheticsasintegratedasthatoftheWest,,undertheinfluenceofthespiritofscience,,theChinesebelievethateverythingintheworldisinmotion,and,representativ,ontheotherhand,stressadynamicvisualtourthroughthewindingpathsandzig-zaggalleries,onofgeometricforms,,whichhasbeeninfluencedbyChinesecalligraphy,breaksthelayoutofgeometricfiguresandemphasizesthemovementandstrengthofthebrush,istsmovetheirhandsonseeingtheircalligraphyorpaintings,andthenassociatetheartists’,wecanunderstandthecoreconceptsofChineseart,suchasqi-yun[verve,spiritresonance]andfeng-shen[vimandvigor].WhatI’,aestheticshasevolvedthroughanextremelylongprocess,:DoyouhaveanyadviceforcontemporaryChineseaestheticsresearchGao:Abigprobleminthecomparativestudyofaestheticsissimplydividingtheworldintotwoparts:“West”,wh,,[oneofthefoundersofthestudyofaestheticsin20th-centuryChina]fromtheWest,andfoundthatwhenhecitedChineseexamplesfortheoreticalexplanation,,China’smodernaestheticstudyisnotasimplecombinationofChineseandWesternideas,buttheabsorptionoftheessenceofWeste’:“Goingglobal”ticsGao:Inmyopinion,whatscholarsshouldpayattentiontotodayishowtopromoteChina’smodernandcontemporaryculturalachievementsto“goglobal.”Inasense,ancientChineseculturehasalready“goneglobal.”Manyancienttexts,suchastheConfucianclassics,’,,,researchersaremostlyengagedinthestudyofWesternaestheticsandtraditionalaesthetics,,justlikeChina,thesecountrieshavemadeachievementsinlocalizingWesternaestheticsandmodernizingtheirownancientaesthetics,,theChineseculturalsymbolscontainedinthisopeningceremonywerestilltheachievementsofancientChinesecivilization,suchasthe“FourGreatInventions.”Thisrevealsanoldwayofthinkingininternationalcommunication:lookingforChinesesymbolsinthemindsofWesterners,’,’sanswerreflectsasenseofhelplessness,,itisnecessarytosummar’mwritingahistoryofChineseaestheticsinthe20thcentury,andI’mgoingtotranslateitintoEnglishafterfinishingthebook,withahopetohelpChineseaesthetics“goglobal.”WhenitcomestotheinternationalcommunicationofChineseculture,itisalsoceisnotreally“goingglobal.”IncreasingtheexposureofChineseacademicachwithoutbringingthemtheoreticalinspiration,isnomorethanapracticeofsatisfyingtheircuriosity,whichdoesn’heworld,otherwiseitcanonlybea“transporter”“goglobal”dependsonwhetherouracademicresearchershavetheabilityto“goglobal.”Itrequiresscholarstoestablishagoodgroundingintheiracademicfieldsandproducerealstuff.“Goingglobal”isnotour“terminal,”andgoodscholarswon’tspendalldaythinkingabouthowtogetWesternerstorecognizetheirresearch,,themostimportantdrivefortheinternationalcommunicationofChineseacademicstudiesisthatourresearchmustbevaluable,cutting-edge,andhigh-quality.

AnAsia-PacificcommunitywithasharesrecenttriptoSoutheastAsiahasmadenewprogressinpromotingthebuildingofacommunityo,includingapandemicunseeninacentury,,Chinashouldaddmoresubstia-PacificregionhasbeentithPakistan,Laos,Cambodia,Indonesia,Thailand,Malaysia,,Chinaalsoputforwardtheconceptonmanyoccasions,liketheBoaoForumforAsia,Lancang-MekongCooperation,dRailway,assymbolicprojectspromotingregionalconnectivity,realizethefullflowofgoods,ser,15tradingpartnershavesignedbilateralfreetradeagreementswithChina,ofwhichnineareregionalcountriesororganizations;fivetradingpartnershavesignedanupgradedversion,,theUShaslaunchedexclusivesmallgroupssuchas"TheQuad",USPresidsgoict,globalinflationkeepsrising,internationalfinancialmarketsareinturmoilandsomeAsia-Pacificcountrie,,ultilateralizationin2010,,,the"PartnershipforGlobalInfrastructureandInvestment"isasalwaysbeenapromoterofopencooperationin,byworkingwithcountriesintheregiontoexpandanewtypeofinternationalrelationsandbuildtheregionintoapilotare,PresidentXiJinpingsummedupthevaluableexperienceofChina-ASEANdialoguerelations,includingrespectingeachotherandactingbythebasicnormsofinternationalrelations,cooperatingforwin-winresultsandfollowingapathofpeacefuldevelopment,lookingoutforeachotherandhonoringtheprinciplesofamity,sincerity,mutualbenefitandinclusiveness,andupholdinginclusconnectivityintheregion,continuetoimplementtheInitiativeforBeltandRoadPartnershiponCOVID-19VaccineCooperationandethasharedfuturebycoordinatingAsia-Pacificcountriestomaximizetheirrespectivead,,Asia-PacificregionaleconomiccooperationwillcontinuetoderiveanddevelopunderRCEPandCPTPP,consideringtheinterestsofallcountriesintheglobalvalue,openintegrationanddevelopmentofvariousfreetradeagreements,andpromotebuildinganAsia-Pacificcommunitywithasharedfutu,Chinamustseizetheopportunitypresentedbythedigitaleconomyandpromotegreen,,manyenterprisesinAsia-Pacificeconomiesrelymoreonnewdigitalinfrastructuressuchasartificialintelligence,bigdata,internetofthingsandcloudcomputing,andopencooperationindigitalindustrieswillgr,Chinashouldgivefullplaytoitsadvantagesindigitalscienceandtechnology,strengthenscientificandtechnologicalcooperationintheregion,helpimprovethedigitalanti-COVIDcapabilityofAsia-Pacificcountries,andhelpsolvethedomesticrisksofdevelopingcountriessoastopromotetheregiontobecomeacommunityofinnovation,,ChinaOceanPress,myandDevelopmentStudies,ChinaInstituteofInternationalStudies.

TwosidesagreeonpromotingpracticalcooperationandcopingwithchallengesThehigh-leveldialoguebetweenChinaandtheEuropeanUniondemonstratedthetwosideswillingnesstostrengthenbilateralcooperationandfendoffexternalrisksagainstthebackdropofapossibleglobalrecession,increasingfinancialmarketvolatilityandgeopoliticaltensions,9thHigh-LevelEconomicandTradeDialogueonTuesdaytodiscusstopicssuchasthemacroeconomy,industrialandsupplychains,bilateraltradeandinvestment,,ldoftheeconomyandtrade,andtojointlycopewiththechallengesfacingtheglobaleconomy,esincludingindustrialandsupplychainsandfinancialservices,whilestablerelationsbetweenthetwowillhelppromotesteadygrowthforboth,contributetothestabilityoftheinternationalsituation,,aresearcherwiththeBankofChinaResearchInstitute,saidtheeconomiesofChinaandtheEUarehighlycomplementaryandthetwosid,greenenergy,thecarbonmarket,greenfinance,climatechange,tradeondigitalinformationandcommunicationtechnology,tradeindigitalproductsandthedigitalservicetrade."Againstthebackdropofsoaringinflationandtheincreasingriskofeconomicrecessionaroundtheglobe,EuropeneedstoimportChinesegoodstohelpensurestability,anditalsoneedstostrengthentradeandinvestmentcooperationinfieldssuchasindustriesandinfrastructuretogathernewgrowthmomentum,"Yesaid."Meanwhile,Europesadvancedtechnologies,talentsandmanagementexperiencewillhelpChinapromoteindustrialupgradingandgreentransformationoftheeconomy."Asstagflationpressuresanddebtriskscloudgrowthprospects,theattractivenessoftheeurozonetoglobalinvestorshasdimmed,withtheeurosinkingbelowparityagainsttheUSdollarforthefirsttimein20years,,YesaidChina-EUcooperationwillboostEuropeanmarketconfidenceandimprovemarketexpectationsforfuturerecoveryintheregion,clineinexports,thushelpingsupportChinassecond-largesttradingpartner,($401billion)inbilateraltradeduringthefirstsixmonthsofthisyear,,aresearcherattheInternationalMonetaryInstituteoftheRenminUniversityofChina,saidthegrowthinChina-EUtradehaslaidasspositivegrowthinthefirsthalfof2022despitepressuresandchallengesbothathomeandabroad,Chensaidthenationseconomyenjoysstrongresilienceandvitality,servinga,deanoftheHainanUniversityBeltandRoadResearchInstitute,saidChinaandEuropeshouldstrengthentheircooperationinthefinancialsector,anditisadvisableforthetwosidestoexpandthescaleofbilateralcurrencyswapsandsettlement,,PresidentXiJinpingsaidduringameetingviavideolinkthatChinawillstaycommittedtodeepeningreformandfurtheropeningup,anditwelcomesEuropeanbusinessinvestmentandexpectstheEUtoprovideafair,transparentandnondiscriminato,globalexecutivevice-presidentofGermanysSiemensGroupandchairman,presidentandCEOofSiemensChina,saidthatdespitethechallengesposedbyCOVID-19,Chinaiscapableofmaintaininghigh-qualitygrowth,givenitscompleteindustrialchainsystem."Amidallofthechangesanduncertaintiesinglobalmarkets,Chinasdeterminationtocontinuouslyopenuphasremainedunchangedoverthepastfewyears,"hesaid,addingthatgreatermarketopennessbenefitssustainablesocioeconomicdevelopmentinChina,andalsohelpsrevitalizetheglobaleconomy.

GaoJianpingisaresearchfellowfromtheCASS,directoroftheInstituteofAestheticsandLiteraryCriticismatShenzhenUniversity,:COURTESYOFGAOAsaseniorscholar,ProfessorGaoJianpinghaslongbeendevotedtotheresearchofaesthetics,literarytheories,aestheticeducation,contemporaryculturalstudies,,GaosharedhisstudiesofC:HowdoweunderstandaestheticsGao:Thedefinitionofaestheticshasbeenrepeatedlydiscussedinacademia,astheobjectofthisdisciplinehasundergonemanychanges,’satte,humanbeingswillhavevariousfeelings,,andhumanbeingsneedabstractiontounderstandconcretethings,,whichmayberelatedtothetranslationoftheword“aesthetics.”AlexanderGottliebBaumgartenderivedtheterm“Aesthetica”,generationsofscholarshavehaddifferentinterpretationsofthisterm,Chōmintranslatedtheterm“Aesthetica”into美学accordingtotheJapaneseunderstandingof“Aesthetica”,ChinesescholarsintroducedthisdisciplinetoChinaanddirectlyadoptedtheterm美学[literallystudyofbeauty].Becauseofthistranslation,,therearemanykindsofbeauty,nlystudybeautyinanarrowsense,’saffectionarenotnecessarilybeautiful,whichmayrelatetoothercategoriesofaestheticsbesides“thebeautiful,”suchas“thesublime.”CSST:Accordingtoyou,inadditiontotheclassicaestheticcategoriessuchasthebeautifulandthesublime,aestheticobjectsshouldalsobeconsideredfortheir“senseofhistory”and“senseofnovelty.”CanyouelaboratefurtheronthisGao:“gu-ya”[guinChinesemeansancientorage-old,andyagraceorelegance]asanewcategoryofbeauty,,especiallyart,embodyasenseoftime,,,,,,thebeautyofanan,,mythsaredominatedbythesenseofnovelty[fromtheperspectiveofaesthetics].Inaddition,:WhataretheuniquefeaturesofChineseaestheticsGao:Asweallknow,ChineseandWesterna,Westernaestheticsresearchhasbeensystematicfromtheverybeginning,notonlyattachingimportancetothedefinitionandinterpretationofconceptsandcategories,-Qinperiod(priorto221BCE).,accordingtoTheAnalects,Confuciusdistinguishesbetweenmusicthatisbeautifulandmorallygood[Shaomusic],andmusicthatisbeautifulbutnotmorallygood[Wumusic],whichexpressestheConfucianaestheticconcept:,,Confucianbeautydependsonmoralgoodness,,,however,theexplorationanddemonstrationofbeautyinancientChinafocusedmoreonsensibility,intuition,andindividualperception,,inancientChina,therewasnotanideologicalsystemofaestheticsasintegratedasthatoftheWest,,undertheinfluenceofthespiritofscience,,theChinesebelievethateverythingintheworldisinmotion,and,representativ,ontheotherhand,stressadynamicvisualtourthroughthewindingpathsandzig-zaggalleries,onofgeometricforms,,whichhasbeeninfluencedbyChinesecalligraphy,breaksthelayoutofgeometricfiguresandemphasizesthemovementandstrengthofthebrush,istsmovetheirhandsonseeingtheircalligraphyorpaintings,andthenassociatetheartists’,wecanunderstandthecoreconceptsofChineseart,suchasqi-yun[verve,spiritresonance]andfeng-shen[vimandvigor].WhatI’,aestheticshasevolvedthroughanextremelylongprocess,:DoyouhaveanyadviceforcontemporaryChineseaestheticsresearchGao:Abigprobleminthecomparativestudyofaestheticsissimplydividingtheworldintotwoparts:“West”,wh,,[oneofthefoundersofthestudyofaestheticsin20th-centuryChina]fromtheWest,andfoundthatwhenhecitedChineseexamplesfortheoreticalexplanation,,China’smodernaestheticstudyisnotasimplecombinationofChineseandWesternideas,buttheabsorptionoftheessenceofWeste’:“Goingglobal”ticsGao:Inmyopinion,whatscholarsshouldpayattentiontotodayishowtopromoteChina’smodernandcontemporaryculturalachievementsto“goglobal.”Inasense,ancientChineseculturehasalready“goneglobal.”Manyancienttexts,suchastheConfucianclassics,’,,,researchersaremostlyengagedinthestudyofWesternaestheticsandtraditionalaesthetics,,justlikeChina,thesecountrieshavemadeachievementsinlocalizingWesternaestheticsandmodernizingtheirownancientaesthetics,,theChineseculturalsymbolscontainedinthisopeningceremonywerestilltheachievementsofancientChinesecivilization,suchasthe“FourGreatInventions.”Thisrevealsanoldwayofthinkingininternationalcommunication:lookingforChinesesymbolsinthemindsofWesterners,’,’sanswerreflectsasenseofhelplessness,,itisnecessarytosummar’mwritingahistoryofChineseaestheticsinthe20thcentury,andI’mgoingtotranslateitintoEnglishafterfinishingthebook,withahopetohelpChineseaesthetics“goglobal.”WhenitcomestotheinternationalcommunicationofChineseculture,itisalsoceisnotreally“goingglobal.”IncreasingtheexposureofChineseacademicachwithoutbringingthemtheoreticalinspiration,isnomorethanapracticeofsatisfyingtheircuriosity,whichdoesn’heworld,otherwiseitcanonlybea“transporter”“goglobal”dependsonwhetherouracademicresearchershavetheabilityto“goglobal.”Itrequiresscholarstoestablishagoodgroundingintheiracademicfieldsandproducerealstuff.“Goingglobal”isnotour“terminal,”andgoodscholarswon’tspendalldaythinkingabouthowtogetWesternerstorecognizetheirresearch,,themostimportantdrivefortheinternationalcommunicationofChineseacademicstudiesisthatourresearchmustbevaluable,cutting-edge,andhigh-quality.

TheChinesePeoplesLiberationArmy(PLA)AirForceandNavalAviationForcehaverecentlymadenewprogressintheirnewpilotrecruitmentandtrainingprogramsatatimewhenChinaisexpandingitswarplanefleetwithrecord-breakingwarplaneproductioncapability,withanalystssayingonSundaythatthePLAwillmaksbrandnewpersonneltrainingprogram,thefirstgroupofpilotcadetstrainedonJ-10s-atypeofChinasdomesticallydevelopedfourthgenerationfighterjet-recentlygraduatedfromtheShijiazhuangFlightAcademyandweredispatchedtofrontlinecombatforces,ChinaCentralTelevision(CCTV),theShijiazhuangFlightAcademyforthefirsttimereceiveddelivequalifiedtoflyafourthgenerationfighterjetundertheoldtrainingprogram,thenewprogramtakesonlythreeyears,greatlyshorteningthetimeneededtotrainacadettobecomeacombat-readypilot,,thisfirstgroupofpilotcadetsinthenewprogramwasselectedfrompilotcadetswhotrain,theyswitchedtotrainonJ-10sinJulylastyearandcompletedhigh-standard,realistictrainingincludingair-to-airmockcombatagainstinstructorsandmockair-to-groundcombatagainstairdefensetroopsofthePLAArmy,theCCTVreportsaid."Thisgroupofpilotcadetswillbecomeanimportantforceinaircombat,whichhaskeysignificanceinthepromotionoftheAirForcesstrategictransformationanditscarryingoutofdutiesandmissionsinthenewera,"XieHao,abrigadecommanderattheShijiazhuangFlightAcademy,ogramforshipborneaircraft,accordingtoavideoreleasedbythePLANavysofficialWeiboaccountonFriday."Outofthenewlyrecruitedpilotcadets,ighterjets,"ChuHanqiang,headofthePLANavyspilotrecruitmentoffice,aircraftincludingcarrier-basedearlywarningaircraft,transportaircraftorvessel-basedhelicopters,sthirdaircraftcarrier,theFujian,whichisalsothecountrysfirstcarrierequippedwithelectromagneticcatapults,thePLANavynotonlyneedsmorepilots,thePLAAirForceandNavalAviationForswarplanes,theShenyangAircraftCorporationthatbuildstheJ-15carrier-basedfighterjetandtheJ-16multirolefighterjetaswellastheChengduAircraftIndustrialGroupCoLtdthatbuildstheJ-20stealthfighterjetandtheJ-10fighterjet,bothbrokerecordsintermsofaircraftdeliverylastyear,,weaponsandequipment,,weaponsandequipmentdevelopmentmusttakeplaceintandem,aChinesemilitaryexpertwhorequestedanonymitytoldtheGlobalTimesonSunday.

ShenJiaxuanPhoto:InstituteofLinguistics,CASSOnNovember15,2020,thebookNounsandVerbswrittenbytheChineselinguistShenJiaxuanwont,ShenputforwardatheorythatinChinesealltheverbsareverbalnouns,orthen,ShenhasthoroughlydemonstratedthetheorythatChineseverbsarepartofnounswithover60essaysandsixbooks,settingoffarevolutionarywaveinthefieldofChineselinguistics,andshakingthedeep-rootedtraditionofapplyingthe’’sharvestwasdeeplyrootedinthe“SpringofScience”jingin1978,GuoMoruo,thenthepresidentoftheChineseAcademyofSciences(CAS),deliveredaspeechunderthetitleof“SpringofScience,”whichpoeticallypronouncedthatthe“SpringofScience”[aneweraofrevitalizedscientificresearchinChina]rs,includingShenJiaxuan,’sreturnbanquetwhenheworkedasliaisonforChinesetelecommunicationsduringtheUSPresidentRichardNixon’,beingintrovertedbynature,“SpringofScience,”ShendecidedtoapplytotheInstituteofLinguisticsattheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences(CASS),andwasadmittedtothein,histeacherZhaoShikaigavehimalonglistofbooks,,’nmathematicallinguisticsclassesinotheruniversities,andattendpsychologyseminarsattheInstituteofPsychology,(1904–1998),founderofmodernChineselinguisticstudies,wasalsooneofShen’’sthesis,[linguistic]studyprogramsoverseaswerebetterthanathome,andgaveShenadvicethatseemedincredible,butwasofgreatsignificance:toextensivelycollectarticlesonoverseasstudiesoftheChineselanguage,whichwerepublishedinEnglish,andma,becausein1980,,,itwasajourneytoanunknownworld,,,Shenreadtheabstract,madenotes,’sthesisconsistsoftwoparts:asummaryofoverseasstudiesofChineselanguagesasapreface,,Shen’sEnglishindexwaspublished,’,andstillfeelsthatwritingsuchapaperwasgoodacademictraining,whichhelpedhimhaveacomprehensiveunderstan,’sclassics,introducingpragmatics,cognitivelinguistics,andtheoriesoflinguistictypology,grammaticalization,uistics,,withlessthan100pages,wasthecrystallizationofLyu’slife-longwork,,“Everytimethebook[AnalysisofChineseGrammar]becameworn,,Iwouldlearnsomethingnew.”ShenhasownedfourcopiesofAnalysisofChineseGrammar,eachwornwithuse,:“Aperson’slifeisfinite,,mated,”“Thinkoutofthebox”Lyuoncesaid:“Itiscrucialtothinkoutofthebox……Wemusttemporarilythrowasidetheconceptssuchas‘word,’‘verb,’‘adjective,’‘subject,’and‘object.’Theseconceptsmaybe‘pickedup’‘thrownaside’and‘pickedup’again,becausethemeaningandvaluegiventothesetermshavechanged,andwearenolongerhedgedinwithrulesandregulations.”Inthepastdecadeorso,Shen’sworkhasbeencenteredon“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain.”In2007,Shen’spapertitled“NounsandVerbsinChinese”waspublished,layingthefoundationforhistheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”HeholdstheviewthatinChinese,verbsareaspecialtypeofnounthatexpressanaction,anevent,orastate,becauseChineseverbs,likenouns,“NounsandVerbsinChinese,”Shenhaspublisheddozensofpapers,focusingonthemostimportanttwopairsofgrammaticalcategories—“nounsandverbs,”and“subjectandpredicate,”“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain”thatbroughtarevolutionarywavetoChineselinguistics,overthrowingtheframeworkoftheoldtheoreticalsystem,andbrewingthestartofthetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”,Shensaid:“Itwouldbeha,however,wecanfindsomethingdifferent.”However,mechanicallyadoptingthestructuralfoundationandtheoreticalsystemofIndo-EuropeanlanguagesforChineselanguagesandframingChineselanguageaccordingtothepatternofIndo-Europeanlanguages,“thinkingoutofthebox”andgettingridofthe“shacklesoftheIndo-Europeanpattern.”Thetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs”explodedthefoundationofthethen-currenttheoreticalframeworkofChinesegrammar,,Shenmadef’stheoryisnowbeingrecognizedbymoreandmoreofhispeers,’seyes,,whenheseespostersbytheroadside,withChineseaboveandEnglishbelow,hewillnoticethedifferentwaysthetwolanguagesareexpressed,,healwayscarriedasmallnotebookandre,heestablishedawordbookofChineseverbalslipsandwroteseveralimportantarticles,suchas“TypesofTongueSlips.”ShenonceborrowedtheWoxianCaotangeditionofRulinWaishi[TheScholars,aChinesenovelcompletedin1750;itsearliestextanteditionisthe1803WoxianCaotangedition]“SentencesWheretheSubjectisaVerbandthePredicateisaNoun,”anarticlehewro,Shendidn’tmissoutonthenovelBlossoms,:“WhenreadingBlossoms,Ihavethedelightoffollowingtherhythm.”Afterreadingthenovel,Shenwroteamonographonlinguistics—,WeiGangqiang,deputyeditor-in-chiefof21stCenturyPublishingGroup,commented:“Itisrareandsignificantforlinguiststopayattentiontoandinterpretthelanguageofcurrentliteraryworks……ShenJiaxuan’sinsightsarenotonlytheachievementsofhislinguisticresearch,butalsovaluablereferenceforotherpeopleintermsofliterarycreation,translation,criticism,andgeneralacademicwork.”Shenmentionedthemovie“ZeroDarkThirty”lybasedondata,,becauseasmallfragmentofdatai,heoftentellshisstudentsthatthekeytosearchingforlinguisticinstancesdoesn’tlieinhowmanyinstancesyouhavecollected,hcontrast,

>LaChinesefixeunobjectifdecroissancepour2022auxalentoursde5,5%2022-04-1115:08:00LaChines’estfixéunobjectifdecroissanceéconomiqueauxalentoursde5,5%pour2022,alorsqueleslégislateursetlesconseillerspolitiquesdupayssesontréunisàPékinpourdéfinirlesprioritésdedéveloppementnationalpourcetteannéérieurbrutviséapparatcommelundesprincipauxobjectifsinscritsdansletrèsattendurapportdactivitédugouvernement,présentéparlePremierministreLiKeqiangàlassembléelégislative,dontlasessionannuelleadébutééalisablesHongXianghua,professeuràlécoleduComitécentralduPCC,adéclaréquelerevenudisponibleparhabitantenChineaaugmentéde8,1%en2021parrapportàl’annéeprécédente,etque12,69millionsdenouveauxemploisontétécréésdansleszonesurbainespourcetteanné,denouvellesréductionsdimptsetdetaxespourunmontantsupérieuràplusdemillemilliardsdeyuansontétéintroduites,etplusde85%desChinoisontsuiviunschémadevaccinationcompletcontreleCOVID-19."AtteindreunecroissanceduPIBdenviron5,5%cetteannéeestunobjectifréaliste",adéclaréàlaCSSTZhangYuyan,économisteàlAcadémiedesSciencessocialesdeChine(ASSC)etconseillerpolitiquenational,ajoutantquecetobjectifcorrespondnonseulementauxévolutionsdecroissancepotentielleàlongtermedupays,maistientégalementcomptedesrisques,desdéfis,desforcesetdesavantagesquicaractérisentléagitdunobjectifformuléentenantcomptedelapopulationactuelleenChine,desoncapitalhumain,delamargedemanuvreetdelavitessedesprogrèstechnologiques,ainsiquedescontraintesenmatièrederessourcesetdée,leFondsmonétaireinternationalaprévuqueléconomiemondialeconnatraitunecroissancede4,4%en2022,autrementditunecroissancemoyenneàélevée,aobservéêmesicertainsfacteursd’incertitudepersistentetpeuventjouerunrlenégatifsurléconomiemondiale,commelarésurgencedelapandémieetladétériorationdelasituationgéopolitiqueinternationale,lareprisedeléconomiemondialefourniradansl’ensembleuneconfigurationfavorablepourquelaChineatteignecetauxdecroissancede5,5%.LesdéfisPouryparvenir,deseffortsserontnécessaires,adéclaréHeQiang,professeuràlUniversitécentraledesfinancesetdelééconomiechinoiseseredresseprogressivement,affichantuneconjoncturemacroéconomiquesainemêmesidesdifficultésmicroéécelerunereprisestructurelledenotreéestquelorsquelespetitesetmicro-entreprisesseserontrelevéesqueléconomiedupayspourravéritablementembrasserunereprisecomplète.àcetitre,lespolitiquesen2022devraientsattacheràsoutenirvigoureusementledéécessairedêtrepleinementconscientdeladépendancesystémiquequ’entretiennententreeuxdesrisquesparnaturedifférents,etquelefaitdetraiteruncertaintypederisquesdistinctementdesautresestsusceptibled’engendrerdautresrisques,adéclaréChenYanbin,professeuràlUniversitééfis,érédesentenirauprincipegénéralvisantàrechercherleprogrèstoutenmaintenantlastabilitéémacroéconomiqueconstitueeneffetuneréponseadapté,érédoptimiserdavantagelastructureéconomique,ledéséquilibrestructurelétantunesourceimportantederisquesetdedé,ilestimportantderenforcerladynamiquedecroissancedeléconomieàlongterme,enrépondantauxrisquesetauxdéfisparlebiaisdundéveloppementqualitatif."Enrésumé,larégulationmacroéconomiquedoitrenforcerlacoordinationetlintégrationdetroistypesdepolitiques:unepolitiquedestabilisation,unepolitiquestructurelleetunepolitiquedecroissance,"ée,laChineambitionnedecréerplusde11millionsdenouveauxemploisurbainsetdemainteniruntauxdechmageurbaininférieurà5,5%.ZhengBingwen,directeurduCentredétudesinternationalessurlasécuritésocialeàlASSC,afaitvaloirquelegouvernementaccordesaprioritéàlastabilisationdelemploiparlastabilisationdesacteursdumarché,toutenrenforantlesperspectivesdelentrepreneuriatetlespritdentrepriseafindestimulerlactivitédugouvernementsoulignequelespolitiquesfiscales,financièresetmacroéconomiquesdoiventprioritairementseconcentrersurlèlement,unenouvellepolitiquecombinantsoutienfiscaletprotectiondupouvoird’achatseramiseenuvre,appuyéepardesréductionsetdesremisesd,é,lerapportdactivitédugouvernementproposeclairementuneexpansionvigoureusedescanauxdemploi,enparticulierdanslarestauration,lhtellerie,lecommercededétail,étéfortementtouchéesparlapandémie,ilestdoncnécessairedelessoutenirpoursurmonterlesdifficultésettoutmettreenuvrepourstabiliseretdévelopperlemploi,adéclaré

InJuly2021,thegeneralofficesoftheCPCCentralCommitteeandtheStateCouncilissuedtheOpinionsonFurtherReducingtheBurd“doublereduction”policy,theregulationswererolledoutwiththeaimofhelpingtoeasestudents’,,oneofthewidelyacceptedsuggestionsistoabolishthehighschoolentranceexamination,ulsoryeducationfrom9to11or12years,,hattheyhavelearned,,aseducationisplayinganincreasinglyimportantroleinsociety,examinationcanalsoevaluateschools’,theimpactofexaminationoneducation,whetherpositiveornegative,(keju)inancientChina,perialcourt,,becauseemploymentinsocietyandthepromotionofscholarshadbecomeinseparablefromschoolingandlearning,theImperialExaminationhadahugebearingonschoolsystemsandsocialethos,affectingschools’educationalcontent,talentcultivation,teachingatmosphere,andintellectuals’,,first,assesstheoperationalqualityofschoolsdedicatedtonine-yearcompulsoryeducationwithinaprovinceorcity,andsecond,tosplitmiddleschoolstudentsi’growingdemandforhigher-leveleducation,“degraded”andsenttovocationalschools[whichallegedlyforebodesaworsefutureduetounsatisfactoryvocationaleducationsystemsinChina]leadsparentsandstudentstohighlyvaluethezhongkaoandengageinirrationallevelsofcompetition,cahavedeviatedfarfromthesystem’,theexaminationislikeanarrowfootbridge:thosewhosucceedincrossingitwillbeallowedtofurthertakeacademicpathways,,somestudentsareabandonedtotheothersideofsociety,whichtosomeextentinhibitstheircreativityandadaptability,,orgaokao,thechannelstowhichstudentsaredistributedfollowingthezhongkaoarelessdiversified,whereasthegaokaowi,students’parentsaremoreconcernedwithwh,“involution”’academicloadbecomesheavierandheavier,rightfromkindergarten,toprimaryschool,nforoveracentury,eversincerenownedlate-QingDynastyeducatorsandthinkersKang,compulsoryeducationwasextendedfromjuniorprimaryschooltoseniorprimaryschool,andfurthertojuniorhighschool,,,lawsandregulationswerethereafterenactedtograduallydefineitscompulsory,free,mandatory,avebroughtabouttremendousachievementsincompulsoryeducation,withthefoundingofthePeople’,Chinesepeoplesufferedfrompoverty,sotheimplementationofcompulsoryeducationwaslargelyemptytalk,,undertheCPCleadership,Chinahasmaintainedprolongedstabilityinsociety,politics,economy,andeducation,pro,thestrategicgoalofuni,imbalancesstillloomlargebetweencounty-levelareasacrossthenation,andbetweenurbanandruralareas,posingchallengestoimprovingthequalityo,theEducationInspectionCommitteeoftheStateCouncilinitiatedacounty-leveleva,a,theMinistryofEducationstartedtheevaluati,thestartofthe14thFive-YearPlanningPeriod(2021–25)whenChinaembarkeduponthenewjourneytobuildamodernsocialistcountryinallrespects,allcountiesandcounty-levelcitieswithineachprovinceandmunicipalityprogressivelyrealizedhigh-quality,well-balanceddevelopmentofcompulsoryeducationonthecountylevel,tobolstertheconstructionofastrongnationwithabundanthumanre(2016–20),provincesandmunicipalitiesacrossChinasnevenearlier,providingnecessarycon,%in2020,whichlaysa,however,allcitiesandcountiesareobligedbyeducationpoliciestorunbothgeneralacademichighschoolsandvocationalinstitutionsforseniorsecondaryeducation,,somestudentswhoprefertoreceiveacademichighschooleducationareforcedtoattendvocationalschools[duetotheirsubparacademicperformances].Thishasinviteddiscussionsontwoissues:ShouldChinaacceleratetheextensionofcompulsoryeducationfromnineyearsto12yearsIsitnecessarytotransformsecondaryvocationaleducationcompletelyintohighervocationaleducationTheanswertothefirstquestionis,objectiveandfoundationalcondi,universalizingcompulsoryeducationtotheseniorhighstageisaninevitabletrendforbasiceducationindevelopedcountriesaroundtheworld,andalsotheobjectiverequirementforbuildingChinaintoaprosperous,democratic,civilized,harmonious,,citiesandcountiescangraduallyandbystagesprolongcompulsoryeducationto12or11years,andelevatesec,whonotedthatschoolbuildingsandteachershavebeenequippedtopopularize12-yearcompulsoryeducation,anditsavesmorehumanandfinanci,theparalleldevelopmentofgeneralacademichighschoolsandvocationalschoolslagsbehindrealsocialneeds,,theStateCouncilpromulgatedtheDecisiononVigorouslyPromotingtheReformandDevelopmentofVocationalEducation,urgingeffortstofocusonsecondaryvocationaleducationandmaintainroug,asChina’sindustriallevelsriseandintelligentmanufacturingtechnologyadvances,thepreviousmodelhasbeenu,laborerswhohavereachedtheageof16,butnot18,,theirphysicalandmentalhealth,aswellaspersonalgrowth,,thisagerangeisthekeystageforstudentstogrowintomatureyouth,theprimetimeforthemtolearnbasicknowledgeandshapegoodmoralqualities,,mostparentshopetheirchildrencanattendgeneralacademichighschoo,afterrealizingbalanceddevelopmentofthecompulsoryeducationsystemincounty-levelareasinanall-roundmanner,Chinashouldpromote12-yearcompulsoryeducationforprimaryandsecondaryeducationstagesstep-by-stepandterminatethedivisionofjuniorandseniorinhighschool,enforcinggeneralseniorhighschooleducationandelevatingsecondacteristicsandtheinstitutional

FILEPHOTO:CaiMeibiaoandAGeneralHistoryofChinaTheChinesehistorianCaiMeibiao(1928–2021),orAGeneralHistoryofChina,ce,aswellasamicrocosmofCai’,FanWenlan(1893–1969),aleadingChinesehistorianandthedirectoroftheinstitute,wasrevisingZhongguoTongshiJianbian,orAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition).,FanwasreceivedbyMaoZedonginYan’an,andwasappointedasthedirectoroftheOffic,MaoZedongcalledonthewholepartytolearnChinesehistoryandtounderstandChina’ofChina’,whichwasnamedAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition),,Fanbegantorewritethebookhehadn’,knownastheRevisedVersionofAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition),wasnotasimplerevisionofthepreviousthree-volumework,,eachpersonwhoassistedFanwasresponsibleforresearchingafieldinhistory,,fourvolumesofAGeneralHistoryofChina(RevisedandConciseEdition)weresuccessivelypublished,coveringChina’shistoryfromantiquitytotheSui(581–618),Tang(618–907),andFiveDynasties(907–960),Fansufferedfromheartdisease,,Fansaidthathecouldnolongerwritebyhimself,andhop,’sdeathbroughtthecompilationofthebooktoastandstill,dtotheunfinishedundertakingleftbehindbyFan.‘AGeneralHistoryofChina’ContinuingwiththecompilationofAGeneralHistoryofChina(RevisedandConciseEdition),,heplanne,thebookwasnolongerarevisedversionofAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition)asitscontentincreased,anditwasmorethana“conciseedition”ofChina’“AGeneralHistoryofChina”,theInstituteofModernHistorycouldnotcompletealltheworkoftheprojectalone,soCaiinvitedscholarsfromNankaiUniversity,FudanUniversity,,’tsimplyeditthesedraftsormaterials,,000characters,only30,(1925–2006),aprofessorattheUniversityofLondon,andoneoftheco-editorsofTheCambridgeHistoryofChina,oncetoldCaithattheyhadneverfinishedthefirstvolumeofTheCambridgeHistoryofChina,becausetheycouldn’tkeeppacewithChina’,theyhadtogiveupthepre-Qin(before221BCE)historyofthefirstvolumeandstartfromtheQin(221–207BCE)andHan(206BCE–220CE)alfindingsatalltimescertainlywouldleadtotheproblemof“failingtokeeppace.”Therefore,Caip,CaiinheritedFan’sideasandmethodsofwritingAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition).Meanwhile,hehadhisownunderstandingandmadeinnovationsduringtheprocess,whichcanbeseenfromthefollowingexample:Cai’sAGeneralHistoryofChinabeganwiththeSong(960–1279),Liao(907–1125),Jin(1115–1234),andYuan(1279–1368),,000yearsfromtheHantothefalloftheQingDynasty(1644–1911),theHanpeoplehadruledovernon-Hanethnicgroupsmanytimes,,therewereconflictsandwarsbetweentheHanandnon-Hanethnicgroups,,theseconflictsandwarsdidn’tcreatedistancesbutstr,thenon-Hanethnicgoups,andgainedn,inAGeneralHistoryofChina,CaiaddedachapterfortheWesternXia[alsoknownastheTangutEmpire,existingfrom1038to1227inpresent-daynorthwesternChina],whichwasnotfoundinpreviousgeneralhistorybooks,inthesectiononSong,Liao,Jin,“thevariousethnicgroupsundertheruleoftheYuanDynasty”k,,hecouldbefoundinhisofficeeveryday,,sixvolumesofAGeneralHistoryofChinaweresuccessivelycompleted,’,thetenthvolumeendedwiththereignoftheJiaqingEmperor(–1820)—fromthereignoftheDaoguangEmperor(–1850)tothatoftheXuantongEmperor[thefinalQingDynastyruler,whowasforcedtoabdicatein1912]—,Caiwasalreadyinhisseventies,’scallsliponhandforthelibraryoftheInstituteofModernHistory,andthedatewrittenonitisJanuary7,,twovolumesofmanuscriptswerefinallycompleted,,thesetwonewvolumeswerecombinedwiththefirsttenvolumesandwerepublishedtogether,’,(1019–1086),ahigh-rankingSongDynastyscholar-official,spentover20yearscompilingtheZizhiTongjian[ComprehensiveMirrorforAidinGovernment,apioneeringreferenceworkinChinesehistoriographycovering16dynastiesandspanningalmost1,400years].,Simasaidthathesufferedfromblurryvisionandtoothloss,,the12volumeswerepublishedasaboxset,,,Caisaid:“LookingbackatthetimewhenIparticipatedineditingthefirstvolumeofthisbookin1953,55yearshavepassedbeforeIknewit.”XiuXiaoboisaprofessorfromtheSchoolofHistoryatQingdaoUniversity.

DesdignitairesétrangersetdesresponsablesdorganisationsinternationalesontfélicitémercredileConseilchinoispourlapromotionducommerceinternational(CCPIT)àlésidentindonésienJokoWidodo,quiaparticipéàunsommetparvidéomarquantcetanniversaire,aditquelIndonésieetlaChineontbeaucoupencommun,carlacoopérationcommercialesestdéveloppéerapidement,etquelesinvestissementsdansdiverssecteurs,notammentdanslesminesetlamétallurgie,lélectricitéetlesinfrastructures,lindustriemanufacturière,lagricultureetlapêche,reflètentdesintérêhui,lemondeabesoindedavantagedactionscollectivesetdecollaborationsinclusivesentrelespaysdéveloppésetleséconomiesendéveloppement,a-t-ilaffirmé.LIndonésieoptimiserasaprésidenceduG20pourcesquestions,aditlepréésidentéquatorienGuillermoLassoaconsidéréquesetournerverslAsie,cestsetournerverslavenirdumonde;cestpourquoi,a-t-ilpoursuivi,léquateurafaitdeladhésionàlAccordglobaletprogressifpourlepartenariattranspacifiqueuneprioritééquateursengageànégocieretàsignerunaccorddelibre-échangeaveclaChineafinderendrelesrelationscommercialesentrelesdeuxpaysplusfortesetplusdiversifiées,aaffirmé,ajoutantqueléquateuraccueillefavorablementlesnouvellesformesdinvestissementchinoisdanslessecteursdupétroleetdugaz,desmines,destélécommunications,deléénéraledelOrganisationmondialeducommerce(OMC),NgoziOkonjo-Iweala,aditlorsdesoninterventionausommetquencestempsdepandémies,deconflits,decrisesalimentaires,dedégradationdelenvironnementetderisquesderécession,lacoopésurdesquestionsdepointetellesquelafacilitationdelinvestissement,lecommercenumérique,unlargeéventaildepréoccupationsenvironnementales,notammentlapollutionparlesplastiques,etleseffortsvisantàrenforcerlaparticipationdesmicro,petitesetmoyennesentreprises(MPME)etdesfemmesaucommerce,aajoutélacheffedelutilisateursquotidiensdesrèglesetdisciplinesdelOMC,lesentreprisesenChineetdanslemondeentiersontdesacteursclésdusystèmecommercialmultilatéral,a-t-ellelancé.Lorsdusommet,LimJockHoi,secrétairegénéraldelAssociationdesnationsdelAsieduSud-Est(ASEAN),aindiquéqueleCCPITaréussiàpromouvoirlacoopérationenmatièredecommerceextérieuretdinvestissemententrelaChineetlemonde,ajoutantquelesrelationséconomiquesentrelASEANetlaChinenontjamaisétéaussifortesetétroitesquaujourdhui."Enréponseàlévolutionrapidedupaysageéconomiquemondialdanslèrepost-pandémique,lASEANetlaChinesoriententversunnouveaupartenariattournéverslavenir",a-t-ilconsidéré,ajoutantque"laportéedecepartenariatestvasteetcomprenddenombreusesprioritésémergentestellesqueleschanesdapprovisionnementrésistantes,léconomienumériqueetladurabilité",domainesdanslesquels,selonlui,l,présidentdel-ChinaBusinessCouncil(USCBC),aditqueleconseilestfierdeconsidérerleCériode,lesdeuxpartiesontaccomplidemagnifiquesréalisationsensemble,entravaillantdurpourdévelopperlesrelationscommercialesbilatéralesentrelesétats-UnisetlaChine,états-UnisetlaChinesonttousdeuxdegrandesnationscommercialesdotéesdunerichehistoireenmatièredentrepreneuriatetdinnovation,a-t-ilaffirmé,ajoutantquelesentreprisesaméricainescontinuentdeseconcentrersurlaChineavecunevisionàlongtermedesrelationsbilatéapasétéfacile,maislesobjectifsetlesvaleurspartagésrestentorientésdanslamêmedirectionversunecroissance,uneproductivitéetuneprospéritécontinues,a-t-ildit,rai,présidentdelAssociationjaponaisepourlapromotionducommerceinternational(JAPIT),asoulignééquecetteannéemarquele50eanniversaireéàcréerunenvironnementpropiceàééenmai1952,leCCPITapourobjectifdepromouvoirlecommerceextérieuretlerecoursauxinvestissementsétrangers,dintroduiredestechnologiesétrangèresavancéesetdemenerdesactivitésdecoopérationéconomiqueettechnologiquesino-étrangè

ArchaeologistTianJianwen(Middle)andhiscolleaguesattheBalipingsiteinQinshuiCounty,ShanxiProvincePhoto:PROVIDEDTOCSSTIntheearlystageofreformandopeningup,therewasashortageofyoungtalent,,,hepassedupjobopportunitiesinbigcitiesandwenttoHouma[asmalltowninShanxiprovince],hometoXintian,thelastcapitaloftheJinprincipality(1033–376BCE)[nowaveteranarchaeologistattheShanxiArchaeologyInstitute],[atYichengCounty]discoveredbyTianandhiscolleagu,TiancameupwithacompletegenealogydatedfromtheZaoyuanCulturetotheXiyinCulture[anearlyNeolithicsiteinShanxiProvince]incipality’s“XintianPattern”[thelayoutoftheXintiancitywasdifferentfromthatofpreviouscities].Forthefirsttime,heidentifiedtombsoftheXiongnu[nomadicpeoplewhoinhabitedtheeasternEurasianSteppefromthe3rdcenturyBCEtothe1stcenturyCE]intheLü,sincethereignofEmperorWuofHan(–87BCE),theHanEmpirehadsetupcounty-levelresidencesfortheXiongnupeoplewhosurrenderedtotheHanEmpireandmigratedtotheCentralPlain,,whichisthelargesttombdatedtotheEasternZhouperiod(770–256BCE),w:Inrecentyears,manyscholarshaveproposedthatthesignificanceofarchaeologyisto“writeChinesehistory”and“tracethepathofancestors.”HowdoyouunderstandthesestatementsTianJianwen:Ancientarchives,oraltraditions,,advantages,’,canhelpclarifythedateandexistenceofdifferentrelicsandruins,aswellastheexist,whichisalsothefoundationofthe“theoreticalsystemofarchaeologywithChinesecharacteristics.”“Tracingthepathofancestors”:InearlyMay1991,whenyouwereinvestigatingtheZaoyuansiteinShanxi,,,ianwen:Sincethe1970s,ancientculturalrelicsdatedto10,000yearsagohavebeendiscoveredinJiangxi,Hunan,Guangxi,andZhejiangprovincesinsouthChina,aswellasShandong,Hebei,Henan,,however,therehadbeennosimilararchaeologicaldiscoveriesforalongtime,exceptforaslabandanelongatedhandstone[asetofgrindingstonesoftheCishanculture,datedfrom8,000to7,600yearsago],1991,mycolleaguesXueXinmin,YangLinzhong,,wenameditthe“ZaoyuanH1Remains,”asweregardeditasthepredecessorofMiao-digouculture[–2780BCE].Later,itwasofficiallynamed“ZaoyuanCulture,”whichmeansthatinthestudyofearlyNeolithicculture,oculture[aculturewhichexistedbetween6700and6000BCE,locatednearXi’an,ShaanxiProvince]andMiao-digoucultureoftheYangshaoera[aNeolithicculturethatexistedalongtheYellowRiverbetween5000BCEand3000BCE;theBanpoandMiao-digouperiodsrepresenttwodifferentphasesoftheYangshaoculture],PuCounty[inShanxiProvince]ofmorethan1,,,suchasanimalsburiedwiththedeceased,byusinggenealogicalmethods,weidentified24shafttombsthatbelongedtothenativesduringtheWarringStatesPeriod(475–221BCE),andtheQin(221–207BCE)andHan(206BCE–220CE)ofHanbelongedtothesubordinatesofMarquiseQi,orJuji[aXiongnucavalryofficerwhofoughtfortheHanEmpireagainsttheXiongnuarmy].TheCaojiazhuangsitewasthereforeconfirmedasthesoutheasternmosthabitatoftheXiongnuinChina,,wedidn’tfindanynarrow-neckedpotswithholesnearthebottom—npartoftheLü,westartedtodoarchaeologicalresearchinPuCounty,Daning,Yonghe,,2017,,wefoundaceramicpotwithaninscriptionofthecharacter“上”ontheshoulderandholesnearthebottominavillager’attheXigoupansiteintheInnerMongo,thehistoricalex,wefoundthatsimilarpotswerealsodiscoveredattheYongheLongtunquansite[inShanxi]le[theRouzhiwereancientnomadicpastoralistslivingintheHexiCorridorduringthe1stmillenniumBCE;afteramajordefeatbytheXiongnuin176BCE,theRouzhisplitintotwogroupsmigratingindifferentdirections:theDarouzhiwhomigratednorthwestandXiaorouzhiwhomigratedsouthward]whomigratedfromtheQilian,namedYuzhe,:HaveyoumadeanynewarchaeologicaldiscoveriesrecentlyTianJianwen:FromAugust2018toJune2019,,,[perhapsaJinruler’swife],wedidn’,bronze,iron,gold,jade,stone,shell,bone,,weexcavatedandexploredtheShangguoancientcityruins,whichcoversanareaofover400,,anotherpolitical,military,economic,andculturalcenteroftheJinstate,,weconductedarchaeologicalexcavationsattheremainsofthenotedtotheearlySpringandAutumnPeriod(770–476BCE),evenlargerthanYicity,,,,,hewasmadethelegalrulerofJin,,DukeXianofJin,enlargedtheJincapital,whileancientQuwostillremainedthesecondlargestcityofJin,andplayedapivotalroleinJin’:WhatadvicedoyouhaveforyoungscholarsTianJianwen:Myexperiencestellmethat[thebestwaytostudyarchaeologymaybe]memorizingclassicworksofarchaeologicalresearch,keepingtypicalarchaeologicalartifactsinmind,andreadinga,,JilinUniversityPresspublishedAnOutlineofChineseArchaeology:ACenturyofDiscoveryandResearch(1921–2021)writtenbyProfessorZhaoBinfu,,,myfeelingisthatalthoughChina’scentury-oldmodernarchaeologyhasbeengivenahigherprofile,t,createbetterenvironments,andcultivatemoreprofessionalsinarchaeology,soastocarryontheessentialworkofprimary-levelarchaeology.

FILEPHOTO:CaiMeibiaoandAGeneralHistoryofChinaTheChinesehistorianCaiMeibiao(1928–2021),orAGeneralHistoryofChina,ce,aswellasamicrocosmofCai’,FanWenlan(1893–1969),aleadingChinesehistorianandthedirectoroftheinstitute,wasrevisingZhongguoTongshiJianbian,orAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition).,FanwasreceivedbyMaoZedonginYan’an,andwasappointedasthedirectoroftheOffic,MaoZedongcalledonthewholepartytolearnChinesehistoryandtounderstandChina’ofChina’,whichwasnamedAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition),,Fanbegantorewritethebookhehadn’,knownastheRevisedVersionofAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition),wasnotasimplerevisionofthepreviousthree-volumework,,eachpersonwhoassistedFanwasresponsibleforresearchingafieldinhistory,,fourvolumesofAGeneralHistoryofChina(RevisedandConciseEdition)weresuccessivelypublished,coveringChina’shistoryfromantiquitytotheSui(581–618),Tang(618–907),andFiveDynasties(907–960),Fansufferedfromheartdisease,,Fansaidthathecouldnolongerwritebyhimself,andhop,’sdeathbroughtthecompilationofthebooktoastandstill,dtotheunfinishedundertakingleftbehindbyFan.‘AGeneralHistoryofChina’ContinuingwiththecompilationofAGeneralHistoryofChina(RevisedandConciseEdition),,heplanne,thebookwasnolongerarevisedversionofAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition)asitscontentincreased,anditwasmorethana“conciseedition”ofChina’“AGeneralHistoryofChina”,theInstituteofModernHistorycouldnotcompletealltheworkoftheprojectalone,soCaiinvitedscholarsfromNankaiUniversity,FudanUniversity,,’tsimplyeditthesedraftsormaterials,,000characters,only30,(1925–2006),aprofessorattheUniversityofLondon,andoneoftheco-editorsofTheCambridgeHistoryofChina,oncetoldCaithattheyhadneverfinishedthefirstvolumeofTheCambridgeHistoryofChina,becausetheycouldn’tkeeppacewithChina’,theyhadtogiveupthepre-Qin(before221BCE)historyofthefirstvolumeandstartfromtheQin(221–207BCE)andHan(206BCE–220CE)alfindingsatalltimescertainlywouldleadtotheproblemof“failingtokeeppace.”Therefore,Caip,CaiinheritedFan’sideasandmethodsofwritingAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition).Meanwhile,hehadhisownunderstandingandmadeinnovationsduringtheprocess,whichcanbeseenfromthefollowingexample:Cai’sAGeneralHistoryofChinabeganwiththeSong(960–1279),Liao(907–1125),Jin(1115–1234),andYuan(1279–1368),,000yearsfromtheHantothefalloftheQingDynasty(1644–1911),theHanpeoplehadruledovernon-Hanethnicgroupsmanytimes,,therewereconflictsandwarsbetweentheHanandnon-Hanethnicgroups,,theseconflictsandwarsdidn’tcreatedistancesbutstr,thenon-Hanethnicgoups,andgainedn,inAGeneralHistoryofChina,CaiaddedachapterfortheWesternXia[alsoknownastheTangutEmpire,existingfrom1038to1227inpresent-daynorthwesternChina],whichwasnotfoundinpreviousgeneralhistorybooks,inthesectiononSong,Liao,Jin,“thevariousethnicgroupsundertheruleoftheYuanDynasty”k,,hecouldbefoundinhisofficeeveryday,,sixvolumesofAGeneralHistoryofChinaweresuccessivelycompleted,’,thetenthvolumeendedwiththereignoftheJiaqingEmperor(–1820)—fromthereignoftheDaoguangEmperor(–1850)tothatoftheXuantongEmperor[thefinalQingDynastyruler,whowasforcedtoabdicatein1912]—,Caiwasalreadyinhisseventies,’scallsliponhandforthelibraryoftheInstituteofModernHistory,andthedatewrittenonitisJanuary7,,twovolumesofmanuscriptswerefinallycompleted,,thesetwonewvolumeswerecombinedwiththefirsttenvolumesandwerepublishedtogether,’,(1019–1086),ahigh-rankingSongDynastyscholar-official,spentover20yearscompilingtheZizhiTongjian[ComprehensiveMirrorforAidinGovernment,apioneeringreferenceworkinChinesehistoriographycovering16dynastiesandspanningalmost1,400years].,Simasaidthathesufferedfromblurryvisionandtoothloss,,the12volumeswerepublishedasaboxset,,,Caisaid:“LookingbackatthetimewhenIparticipatedineditingthefirstvolumeofthisbookin1953,55yearshavepassedbeforeIknewit.”XiuXiaoboisaprofessorfromtheSchoolofHistoryatQingdaoUniversity.

GaoJianpingisaresearchfellowfromtheCASS,directoroftheInstituteofAestheticsandLiteraryCriticismatShenzhenUniversity,:COURTESYOFGAOAsaseniorscholar,ProfessorGaoJianpinghaslongbeendevotedtotheresearchofaesthetics,literarytheories,aestheticeducation,contemporaryculturalstudies,,GaosharedhisstudiesofC:HowdoweunderstandaestheticsGao:Thedefinitionofaestheticshasbeenrepeatedlydiscussedinacademia,astheobjectofthisdisciplinehasundergonemanychanges,’satte,humanbeingswillhavevariousfeelings,,andhumanbeingsneedabstractiontounderstandconcretethings,,whichmayberelatedtothetranslationoftheword“aesthetics.”AlexanderGottliebBaumgartenderivedtheterm“Aesthetica”,generationsofscholarshavehaddifferentinterpretationsofthisterm,Chōmintranslatedtheterm“Aesthetica”into美学accordingtotheJapaneseunderstandingof“Aesthetica”,ChinesescholarsintroducedthisdisciplinetoChinaanddirectlyadoptedtheterm美学[literallystudyofbeauty].Becauseofthistranslation,,therearemanykindsofbeauty,nlystudybeautyinanarrowsense,’saffectionarenotnecessarilybeautiful,whichmayrelatetoothercategoriesofaestheticsbesides“thebeautiful,”suchas“thesublime.”CSST:Accordingtoyou,inadditiontotheclassicaestheticcategoriessuchasthebeautifulandthesublime,aestheticobjectsshouldalsobeconsideredfortheir“senseofhistory”and“senseofnovelty.”CanyouelaboratefurtheronthisGao:“gu-ya”[guinChinesemeansancientorage-old,andyagraceorelegance]asanewcategoryofbeauty,,especiallyart,embodyasenseoftime,,,,,,thebeautyofanan,,mythsaredominatedbythesenseofnovelty[fromtheperspectiveofaesthetics].Inaddition,:WhataretheuniquefeaturesofChineseaestheticsGao:Asweallknow,ChineseandWesterna,Westernaestheticsresearchhasbeensystematicfromtheverybeginning,notonlyattachingimportancetothedefinitionandinterpretationofconceptsandcategories,-Qinperiod(priorto221BCE).,accordingtoTheAnalects,Confuciusdistinguishesbetweenmusicthatisbeautifulandmorallygood[Shaomusic],andmusicthatisbeautifulbutnotmorallygood[Wumusic],whichexpressestheConfucianaestheticconcept:,,Confucianbeautydependsonmoralgoodness,,,however,theexplorationanddemonstrationofbeautyinancientChinafocusedmoreonsensibility,intuition,andindividualperception,,inancientChina,therewasnotanideologicalsystemofaestheticsasintegratedasthatoftheWest,,undertheinfluenceofthespiritofscience,,theChinesebelievethateverythingintheworldisinmotion,and,representativ,ontheotherhand,stressadynamicvisualtourthroughthewindingpathsandzig-zaggalleries,onofgeometricforms,,whichhasbeeninfluencedbyChinesecalligraphy,breaksthelayoutofgeometricfiguresandemphasizesthemovementandstrengthofthebrush,istsmovetheirhandsonseeingtheircalligraphyorpaintings,andthenassociatetheartists’,wecanunderstandthecoreconceptsofChineseart,suchasqi-yun[verve,spiritresonance]andfeng-shen[vimandvigor].WhatI’,aestheticshasevolvedthroughanextremelylongprocess,:DoyouhaveanyadviceforcontemporaryChineseaestheticsresearchGao:Abigprobleminthecomparativestudyofaestheticsissimplydividingtheworldintotwoparts:“West”,wh,,[oneofthefoundersofthestudyofaestheticsin20th-centuryChina]fromtheWest,andfoundthatwhenhecitedChineseexamplesfortheoreticalexplanation,,China’smodernaestheticstudyisnotasimplecombinationofChineseandWesternideas,buttheabsorptionoftheessenceofWeste’:“Goingglobal”ticsGao:Inmyopinion,whatscholarsshouldpayattentiontotodayishowtopromoteChina’smodernandcontemporaryculturalachievementsto“goglobal.”Inasense,ancientChineseculturehasalready“goneglobal.”Manyancienttexts,suchastheConfucianclassics,’,,,researchersaremostlyengagedinthestudyofWesternaestheticsandtraditionalaesthetics,,justlikeChina,thesecountrieshavemadeachievementsinlocalizingWesternaestheticsandmodernizingtheirownancientaesthetics,,theChineseculturalsymbolscontainedinthisopeningceremonywerestilltheachievementsofancientChinesecivilization,suchasthe“FourGreatInventions.”Thisrevealsanoldwayofthinkingininternationalcommunication:lookingforChinesesymbolsinthemindsofWesterners,’,’sanswerreflectsasenseofhelplessness,,itisnecessarytosummar’mwritingahistoryofChineseaestheticsinthe20thcentury,andI’mgoingtotranslateitintoEnglishafterfinishingthebook,withahopetohelpChineseaesthetics“goglobal.”WhenitcomestotheinternationalcommunicationofChineseculture,itisalsoceisnotreally“goingglobal.”IncreasingtheexposureofChineseacademicachwithoutbringingthemtheoreticalinspiration,isnomorethanapracticeofsatisfyingtheircuriosity,whichdoesn’heworld,otherwiseitcanonlybea“transporter”“goglobal”dependsonwhetherouracademicresearchershavetheabilityto“goglobal.”Itrequiresscholarstoestablishagoodgroundingintheiracademicfieldsandproducerealstuff.“Goingglobal”isnotour“terminal,”andgoodscholarswon’tspendalldaythinkingabouthowtogetWesternerstorecognizetheirresearch,,themostimportantdrivefortheinternationalcommunicationofChineseacademicstudiesisthatourresearchmustbevaluable,cutting-edge,andhigh-quality.

Linguistictypologyisadisciplineinwhichlinguiststrytoclassifyallthelanguagesinthew,internalconnectionsandtypesofgrammaticalphenomena,,linguistictypologyhasreachedanimportantjunctureafterdecadesofdevelopment,saidWuFuxiang,directoroftheResearchCent,tlanguagesimilarity,especiallyfocusingonthegeographicaldistributionpatternsanddiachronicca,formerdirectoroftheInstituteofLinguisticsattheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences,believesthatinrecentyears,theinternationallinguisticcirclehasreflectedonandtheoreticallyrefinedlinguistictypologyconcepts,suchaslinguisticuniversalsandlanguagedifferences,andputforwardsuchtheoriesastheconcep,,inrecentyears,semanticmapping,adescriptiontoolemerginginthestudyoflinguistictypology,isattemptingtousebigdataandothermethodstomoreaccuratelyandclearlyshowthedifferencesinfunctionsandformsinvolvedincross-linguisticresearch,,thebiggestsuccessf’sview,fromapprovingnational-levelresearchprojectstoyieldingoutcomes,thecross-linguisticperspectiveoftypology,,suchasthefoundingoflingui,thedisciplinehasmadeachievementsinthefoundationalconstructionoftypology,suchasbookseriesonthereferencegrammarofethniclanguagesandChinesedialects,bookseriesonthegrammartextannotationofethniclanguages,,thecurrentresearchobjectsoflinguistictypologytendtoberegionalized,primarilyfollowingthefinemulti-dimensionalpara,withtheriseandrapiddevelopmentofregionaltypology,scholarshavepaidcloseattentiontothecommonalityandindividualityoflan,aprofessorfromtheInstituteofLinguisticsatShanghaiInternationalStudiesUniversity,saidthatmanypaperspublishedrecentlyinLinguisticTypology,atopinternationaljournaloftypology,,someofthemhaveexaminedquantifiersintheThailanguageandotherSoutheastAsianlanguages,thelexicalizationofmotioneventsoftheWenzhoudialect,edasafirst-leveldiscipline,whichseriouslyrestrictstheove,,withlittleattentiontoandle,butalsoaffectstheinternationalexpressionofChina’,thebiggestproblemoflinguistictypologyinChinaisthatsomeresearchoutcomesaremerelylabeledas“linguistictypology,”n,’sview,somescholctypology,ignoringthatlinguistictypologyisauniqueresearchframework,whichhasasdefinitionsforsomeinstrumentalterms,,repeatability,andverifiability,,itisapitythatplentyofliteratureonlyusesconceptualdefinitionsinsteadofoperationaldefinitions,nerallinguistics,,theyshouldbeconcernedwiththeessenceandcharacteristicsofhumanlangugroundofhumanlinguisticuniversalsandtypologicaldifferenceswhenworkingonaparticularlanguage,producingmoreresultsandenhancingChina’,itisnecessarytoconsolidatethefoundationbuildingoflinguistictypology,buildinglarge-scalecross-languageandcross-dialectcomparablecorpora,andconductingbasicresearchsuchasreferencegrammarandtextannotation.

>Les“DeuxSessions“delaChine,unefenêtrepourmieuxcomprendrelaChine2022-03-0716:49:00LesexpertsmondiauxontfaitpartleurintérêtenverslesprogrammesnationauxpourlannéedelaChinequisontdévoiléslorsdes"DeuxSessions"annuellestenuesàéunionsannuellesdelAssembléepopulairenationale(APN),lorganelégislatifsuprêmedupays,etduComiténationaldelaConférenceconsultativepolitiquedupeuplechinois(CCPPC),lorganeconsultatifpolitiquesuprê,auteuretcommentateurpolitiquebritannique,adéclaréqueles"DeuxSessions"sontunefenêtrepourobserverledéveloppementdelaChine,car"lesdécisionsquiémanentdecesréunionsreflèterontlesidéesetlescontributionsde(...)millionsdeChinoisordinaires".Deléconomieàladiplomatie,avecledéveloppementdelaChine,les"DeuxSessions"attirentdeplusenpluslélobjectifdecroissancedesonproduitintérieurbrut(PIB)àenviron5,5%pour2022,selonunrapportdactivitédugouvernementprésentésamediàlorganelégislatifnationalpourdélibéheureoùléconomiemondialeesttoujoursconfrontéeàunepressioncroissantedueàlapandémieetàdautresincertitudes,notammentlestensionsgéopolitiques,unobjectifdecroissancedenviron5,5%pourladeuxièmeplusgrandeéconomiedumondedevraitstimulerdemanièresignificativelarepriseéconomiquemondiale,avenir,larepriseestremplacéeparlemaintiendelastabilitéetdelaprogressiondudééeverslaveniretdéterminéeàmaintenirledéveloppementtoutenconservantunecroissanceraisonnable,aestiméStephenPerry,présidentdu48GroupClub,uneorganisationbritanniqueàbutnonlucratifquiviseaudéveloppementducommerceentrelaChineetleRoyaume-Uni."LapolitiquedéfinitivementstabledelaChineetlacroissanceéconomiquedemêmenousdonnentdesgarantiesquelaChinepeutjouerunrletrèspositifdansledéveloppementcontemporaindumonde",asaluéIvoJosipovi,ancienprééesdegrandeimportancepourlamodernisationdecepaysdAsiedelEst,lapromotiondundéveloppementdehautequalitéestmiseenavantcommelunedestachesmajeuresdanslerapportdactivité,directeurduCentreturcdétudesAsie-PacifiquebaséàAnkara,apréditqueleredressementrégulierdelaChinemalgrélapandémie,sondéveloppementdehautequalitéetsonactionenfaveurduneplusgrandeouverturedonnerontunélanplusfortàlareprisemondialedanslèêtedundéveloppementdequalité,laChineredoubledeffortsenmatièred,letotaldesinvestissementsenrecherchedé(environ442milliarddedollars),soitunehaussede14,2%englissementannuel,selonleministèinnovation,AnnaMalindog-Uy,professeuretchercheuseauseindugroupederéflexionPhilippines-BRICSStrategicStudies,baséàManille,aditàXinhuaquelapromotionparlaChineduneinnovationdehautequalité"estsansaucundouteunsuccèsphénoménal",quiaconduitàlatransitionrapidedelaChineversunenouvellephasededéveloppementéconomiquebaséesurlaàcesmesures,a-t-ellenoté,léconomiechinoiseestdevenuedavantageaxéesurlatechnologie,ajoutantquelesPhilippinesdevraientseninspirerpourexploiterleurpotentieléconomiqueetaméliorerlacompétitivité.KiyoyukiSeguchi,directeurderechercheauCanonInstituteforGlobalStudies(CIGS),asoulignéquelacapacitédinnovationseralaforcemotricedelamacroéconomiechinoiseàlécologique,quiestunélémentessentieldundéveloppementdequalité,laChineaannoncéquellesefforceraitdatteindrelepicdesémissionsdedioxydedecarbonedici2030etlaneutralitécarboned,ilsagitdunexemplecrucialpourlaluttecontreladéémergencedelapandémiedeCOVID-19,laChineetsespartenairesdanslemondeentiersesontmutuellementaidé,1milliardsdedosesdevaccinscontrelaCOVID-19àplusde120paysetorganisationsinternationales,aindiquéGuoWeimin,porte-paroledela5esessiondu13eComité,ministreégyptiendelEnseignementsupérieuretdelaRecherchescientifiqueetministredelaSantéparintérim,anotéquelaChineatoujoursrespectésonengagementàconstruireunecommunautédesantépourlhumanité.LaideapportéeparlaChineenmatièredevaccinsestlaplusimportanteaideétrangèrequelEgypteaitreuejusquàprésentpourluttercontrelapandémie,arappelé,ajoutantquelaChineaobtenudesrésultatsremarquablesdanssapropreluttecontrelapandé,laChineaprnéaussisonengagementàpromouvoirledéveloppementmondialparlouvertureetlacoopé,spécialistedesrelationsinternationalesbaséauKenya,asoulignéquelaChineétaitdevenueuneferventepartisanedumultilatéralismeetdelamondialisation,etquedenombreuxpayssattendaientàcequelleprennedenouvellesmesuresdouvertureetderéformelorsdesaréuniversitairegrecquePelagiaKarpathiotaki,lastabilitééconomiquedelaChineetsesinitiativesvisantàpromouvoirlacoopérationéconomiqueinternationaleapporterontunecontributionsignificativeencemomentdifficile,car"linfluencedelaChineestdésormaisextrêmementimportantepourreleverlesdéfismondiaux".Fin

Duringthesummerof2021,anarticletitled“Non-LocalMothersJoinHandstoRaiseChildreninBigCities”wentviralonChinesesocialmediawithmorethan100,000readers—,thisarticleintendstodelveintothephenomenonofchild-rearing,andhowitmovesbeyondfamilyboundariesinmetropolises,:Whyisthepracticeofparentingre-crossingfamilyboundariesagainstthebackdropofdissolvingsocialfoundationsforcollectivechild-rearingandgrowingresponsibilityforfamily-orientedparentingIsitpossibletoreshapetherolesoffamily,society,state,andthemarketinchildcare“W”StreetisoneofShanghai’sfoursuburbancenters,“S”pioneeredthe,representedbyS,’s“process-event”analysismethod,thisarticleattemptstocapturethesemothers’continuouseffortstohelpparentingtranscendfamilyboundariesandintegratewithregionalresources,includingtheformationofacommunalchild-rearingsupportnetwork,communalchildfriendlyspaces,innovativeparent-childactivities,“slashcareermom,”meaningsheis“raisingchildrenontheonehandandpursuingacareerontheother.”Thiswast,Sstartedherbusinessin2013,,setupapersonalpublicaccountonWeChat,ing,andt,,,,therewasaspaceconvertedfromanoldcontainer,called“LittleBlueRoom,”,SYCsocialorganization,whichoperatesthecommunitygarden,heldvari,uponnegotiation,,Sbecameagrassrootsentrepreneurandbuilthercommunalchild-rearingsupportnetworkaroundtheconceptof“raisingchildrentogether.”Withthehelpofthephysicalspaceandplatformprovidedbythecommunitygarden,theonlinegroupsofmothers,managedbyS,,Splannedplantingclasses,gardendesignclasses,lessonsontraditionaluseofherbs(suchasmugwort)duringtheDragonBoatFestival,,Swasabletoincorporatecommunityactivitieswithherparentinggroups,whichbuiltexter,,Bassociationwasofficiallyapproved,withthepurposeofpromotingresidents’senseofparticipation,volunteering,andpromotingfamilies’’lives,uncovercommunitytalent,advocateforco-creationinthecommunity,enhancepublicwelfareawareness,andimproveresidents’“mothergroups”wonsocialrecognitiona,Sandhermothergroupswentthroughaprocessofseekingexternalsupportandestablishingconnectionsbasedontheirownandtheirfamily’,womenwhoexploredcollectivechild-rearinginthecommunitygraduallysteppedoutofprivatelifeandengagedinthelargersocialstructure,interwovenwithdifferentactorsinthegovernment,market,eireffortstointegratechild-rearingwiththespace,activities,,therearemanyplacesforchildren’sactivities,whichseemabundant,,geographicallyadjacentspacesareoftenadministrativelyrunbydifferentcommunities,,inpractice,,anint,childrenhadphysicaltraininginthegymsandsportcenters,usedrestaurantsforpaintingclasses,warmedupatthebasketballcourtinthepark,visitedsmalllocalexhibitionhalls,plantedvegetablesinthecommunitygarden,andcarriedouttraditionalculturalactivitiessuchas“wearingHanfucostumesandlearningSinology”,theseactivitiesdyn,practicalchild-rearingspacenotonlytransformednormalurbansettingsbutalsobroughtmoreattentiontopeopleintheseactivities,truly,in2020,WstreetwaslistedasShanghai’sfirstchildfriendlydemonstrationcommunity,forminga“onecenter,multiplesites”“bigcommunity,”,therewerefiveeffectivethemeclubsthatSandhermothergroupsran,hosting120formalthemedactivitiesandmorethan100informaladditionalactivitiesamidthepandemic,directlyserving1,965households,whilebenefitingover5,,designed,:Someareindependent,basedonindividualmembers’expertiseandobservationofreallifeneedsinthecommunity;Thesecondtypeofactivityisincollaborationwithlocal,community,andsocialorganizations,,,themothergroupssetupeveningandsummercare,borrowingcom,realizingthegoalof“raisingchildreninacollectiveeffortandlettingthemgrowupinamixed-agecommunityenvironment.”Theseservicesareofferedunderthesloganof“motherknowsmotherbetter,motherknowschildrenbetter,”conveyingnotonlythetrustworthinessofmothers’care,butalsomutualhelpbe,“raisingchildreninadown-to-earthway,”theywouldblendreallifefamilysituationsandcommunityplanningintosmalltasksforchildren,organization,space,andcontent,theconceptofcommunalchild-rearinghasgraduallytakenshape,,parentsvaluepersonalinvolvementintheirchildren’sdevelopment,ratherthanrely,theseparentshavea,smallfamilieswhostayinShanghaid,theirreplaceablevalueofcommunityenvironmentsforchildren’sgrowthhasbeenrecognized,soparticipationincommunitylifeandmakingneighborhoodfriendsarerefinedasakindof“down-to-earthcultivation,”,behindcommun,youngmothersinthisorganizationfurtherexpandedchild-rearingfromfamiliestocommunities,andgrad,SwaselectedbythecommunitytoparticipateinShanghai’,thecoreideasandhermothergroupsreachedalargeraudience,,communalchild-rearingextendsfromcommunities,exploringresourceintegrationbeyondfamilyboundaries,tobalancewomen’sroleasmotherscmulti-bodycooperativeparentingsystem,ttheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences.

IntheResolutionoftheCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistPartyofChina(CPC)ontheMajorAchievementsandHistoricalExperienceofthePartyoverthePastCentury,adoptedattheSixthPlenarySessionofthe19thCPCCentralCommittee,itdeclared“Puttingsocialbenefitsfirstwhilealsostressingeconomicreturns,theParty,andpublicculturalserviceshaveimproved,providingpeoplewithricherculturalnourishment.”ThefilmindustryisacrucialpartofChina’sculturalindustry,andanimportantmeansofprovidingpeople’saestheticentertainmentneeds,,thedomesticfilmboxofficehascontinuedtorise,“OperationRedSea,”“DyingtoSurvive,”and“TheBattleatLakeChangjin”havewonwidespreadpraisefromdomesticaudiences,showcasingChinesecinema’owingaestheticentertainmentneedsofChineseaudiences,domesticfilmswi’culturalpursuits,andothercontentproducers’goalsshouldprioritizequalitycontent,honorthespiritofcraftsmanship,finelycarveeverydetail,,China’sfilmindustryhasbeenbooming,withtheboxoff,thenumberofscreensexceeded80,000,,,,theboxofficedeclinedduetotheCOVID-19pandemic,butin2021,,rankingfirstintheworld,,Chinaproducedmorethan4,000films,hattheboxoffice,andthequalityoffilmtexthasimprovedsignificantly,butcomparedwithEuropeanandAmericanfilms,,Chinesefilmssuchas“OperationRedSea,”“DetectiveChintang2,”“DyingtoSurvive,”“,”and“DetectiveChintang3”haveperformedwellattheboxoffice,butoverall,,audienceratingsforthequ,filmtextis“theinternalstructureandorganizationofanyonefilm;orsimplyafilmwhereveritisconceptualizedasasystemofmeanings.”Itmustbepointedoutthatwecannotuseboxofficetotalsandthisgrowth,theshareofdomesticfilms’boxofficeintotalboxofficerevenues,andthenumberofdomesticfilmswithinthetop10boxofficeranking,toevaluatethetextqualityofChinesefilms,becausethisdataonlyshowsthegrowthofdomesticfilmquantities,andthehugepopulationofmainla’ssustainedboxofficegrowth,butthereisnosigni,China’ssustainedboxofficenumbersarehighlyaffectedbywordofmouth,,thequa,,,Chinesescriptwritersshouldnottaketheblamealone,variou,themainr,thelackofinnovativethinkingandbroadhorizonsleadstomonotonouscontent,stereotypicalplots,homogenizedstoriesingenrefilms,plotimitation,plagiarism,,the“DyingtoSurvive”andafewotherfilms,,,artistic,andaestheticvalueleadstofewfilmmak,thedevelopmentofhigh-qualityIPisinsufficient,includingsubparinnovationofoldandnewclassictexts,,afterthesuccessof“DrawingSword,”quiteafewcopycatsappeared,,andasamatteroffact,,IPintheChinesecontextreferstocreativeintellectualpropertythatattractswideattention,hasahugeimpact,“stareffect”’tbragabouttheiractingskills,buttheystillcantakeawayarelativelyhighproportionofthewholefilm’,generalcontentproducers,anddirectors,producers,,,commercialismdrivesdirectors,stars,andinvestorstopursuemonetarygains,,toencouragescriptstorytellingandartisticprocesses,IPvalueandcontentmustlead,andthespiritofinn’sstorytheory,weshouldfocusonscriptcreation,culturalinnovation,,thecreationofaninnovationenvironmentandincentivesarealsocrucialtoimprovingdomesticfilms’,weneedtocarryoutathoroughex,acomprehensiveanalysisofthee,thecorrespondingstrategiestoimprovethescriptwriter’,wemustraisetheentrythresholdandthevoiceofscriptwriters,enhancetheeffectofIPprotection,perfecteducationandtrainingsystems,,representedbyinternetanddigitaltechnologies,hasbroughtaboutchangestocontentproduction,andonlineliterature’’alandartisticaccomplishmentsandcreativeabilitiesintheaspectsoffilmtypeexploration,themedstories,contentcreationtechniques,narrativeperspectives,expressions,,targetedmeasuresareneededtooptimizecontentapproval,procedures,,theFilmIndustryPromotionLawofthePeople’sRepublicofChinawasadoptedatthe24thSessionoftheStandingCommitteeofthe12thNationalPeople’,filmcreation,shooting,distribution,andprojectionatthenationallevel,,itstipulatedthatafilmshouldbeassessedbynolessthanfiveexperts,,thegovernmentalsointroducedthecorrespondingmeasure:settingupexpertevaluationteamstoassessimitation,reproduction,piracy,,abalancebetweenscriptwriters,contentproduction,distribution,’beliefs,values,andemotionstoguidingaudiences’,,heaudiencewillbreakthe“protectivebalance”ofdomesticfilms,’sopeninguptotheoutsideworld,moreandmoreforeignfilmproducts,especiallyHollywoodfilms,haveenteredChina’ntechnology,China’,wemu,itisnecessarytoobjectivelyandrationallyevaluatemoviecontent,writereviewsandcommentsaboutamoviesincerely,,andavoidusingacid,caustic,abusive,,tongUniversity;YuanHuayuanisfromtheSchoolofMediaandCommunicationatShanghaiJiaotongUniversity.

ShenJiaxuanPhoto:InstituteofLinguistics,CASSOnNovember15,2020,thebookNounsandVerbswrittenbytheChineselinguistShenJiaxuanwont,ShenputforwardatheorythatinChinesealltheverbsareverbalnouns,orthen,ShenhasthoroughlydemonstratedthetheorythatChineseverbsarepartofnounswithover60essaysandsixbooks,settingoffarevolutionarywaveinthefieldofChineselinguistics,andshakingthedeep-rootedtraditionofapplyingthe’’sharvestwasdeeplyrootedinthe“SpringofScience”jingin1978,GuoMoruo,thenthepresidentoftheChineseAcademyofSciences(CAS),deliveredaspeechunderthetitleof“SpringofScience,”whichpoeticallypronouncedthatthe“SpringofScience”[aneweraofrevitalizedscientificresearchinChina]rs,includingShenJiaxuan,’sreturnbanquetwhenheworkedasliaisonforChinesetelecommunicationsduringtheUSPresidentRichardNixon’,beingintrovertedbynature,“SpringofScience,”ShendecidedtoapplytotheInstituteofLinguisticsattheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences(CASS),andwasadmittedtothein,histeacherZhaoShikaigavehimalonglistofbooks,,’nmathematicallinguisticsclassesinotheruniversities,andattendpsychologyseminarsattheInstituteofPsychology,(1904–1998),founderofmodernChineselinguisticstudies,wasalsooneofShen’’sthesis,[linguistic]studyprogramsoverseaswerebetterthanathome,andgaveShenadvicethatseemedincredible,butwasofgreatsignificance:toextensivelycollectarticlesonoverseasstudiesoftheChineselanguage,whichwerepublishedinEnglish,andma,becausein1980,,,itwasajourneytoanunknownworld,,,Shenreadtheabstract,madenotes,’sthesisconsistsoftwoparts:asummaryofoverseasstudiesofChineselanguagesasapreface,,Shen’sEnglishindexwaspublished,’,andstillfeelsthatwritingsuchapaperwasgoodacademictraining,whichhelpedhimhaveacomprehensiveunderstan,’sclassics,introducingpragmatics,cognitivelinguistics,andtheoriesoflinguistictypology,grammaticalization,uistics,,withlessthan100pages,wasthecrystallizationofLyu’slife-longwork,,“Everytimethebook[AnalysisofChineseGrammar]becameworn,,Iwouldlearnsomethingnew.”ShenhasownedfourcopiesofAnalysisofChineseGrammar,eachwornwithuse,:“Aperson’slifeisfinite,,mated,”“Thinkoutofthebox”Lyuoncesaid:“Itiscrucialtothinkoutofthebox……Wemusttemporarilythrowasidetheconceptssuchas‘word,’‘verb,’‘adjective,’‘subject,’and‘object.’Theseconceptsmaybe‘pickedup’‘thrownaside’and‘pickedup’again,becausethemeaningandvaluegiventothesetermshavechanged,andwearenolongerhedgedinwithrulesandregulations.”Inthepastdecadeorso,Shen’sworkhasbeencenteredon“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain.”In2007,Shen’spapertitled“NounsandVerbsinChinese”waspublished,layingthefoundationforhistheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”HeholdstheviewthatinChinese,verbsareaspecialtypeofnounthatexpressanaction,anevent,orastate,becauseChineseverbs,likenouns,“NounsandVerbsinChinese,”Shenhaspublisheddozensofpapers,focusingonthemostimportanttwopairsofgrammaticalcategories—“nounsandverbs,”and“subjectandpredicate,”“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain”thatbroughtarevolutionarywavetoChineselinguistics,overthrowingtheframeworkoftheoldtheoreticalsystem,andbrewingthestartofthetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”,Shensaid:“Itwouldbeha,however,wecanfindsomethingdifferent.”However,mechanicallyadoptingthestructuralfoundationandtheoreticalsystemofIndo-EuropeanlanguagesforChineselanguagesandframingChineselanguageaccordingtothepatternofIndo-Europeanlanguages,“thinkingoutofthebox”andgettingridofthe“shacklesoftheIndo-Europeanpattern.”Thetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs”explodedthefoundationofthethen-currenttheoreticalframeworkofChinesegrammar,,Shenmadef’stheoryisnowbeingrecognizedbymoreandmoreofhispeers,’seyes,,whenheseespostersbytheroadside,withChineseaboveandEnglishbelow,hewillnoticethedifferentwaysthetwolanguagesareexpressed,,healwayscarriedasmallnotebookandre,heestablishedawordbookofChineseverbalslipsandwroteseveralimportantarticles,suchas“TypesofTongueSlips.”ShenonceborrowedtheWoxianCaotangeditionofRulinWaishi[TheScholars,aChinesenovelcompletedin1750;itsearliestextanteditionisthe1803WoxianCaotangedition]“SentencesWheretheSubjectisaVerbandthePredicateisaNoun,”anarticlehewro,Shendidn’tmissoutonthenovelBlossoms,:“WhenreadingBlossoms,Ihavethedelightoffollowingtherhythm.”Afterreadingthenovel,Shenwroteamonographonlinguistics—,WeiGangqiang,deputyeditor-in-chiefof21stCenturyPublishingGroup,commented:“Itisrareandsignificantforlinguiststopayattentiontoandinterpretthelanguageofcurrentliteraryworks……ShenJiaxuan’sinsightsarenotonlytheachievementsofhislinguisticresearch,butalsovaluablereferenceforotherpeopleintermsofliterarycreation,translation,criticism,andgeneralacademicwork.”Shenmentionedthemovie“ZeroDarkThirty”lybasedondata,,becauseasmallfragmentofdatai,heoftentellshisstudentsthatthekeytosearchingforlinguisticinstancesdoesn’tlieinhowmanyinstancesyouhavecollected,hcontrast,

GaoJianpingisaresearchfellowfromtheCASS,directoroftheInstituteofAestheticsandLiteraryCriticismatShenzhenUniversity,:COURTESYOFGAOAsaseniorscholar,ProfessorGaoJianpinghaslongbeendevotedtotheresearchofaesthetics,literarytheories,aestheticeducation,contemporaryculturalstudies,,GaosharedhisstudiesofC:HowdoweunderstandaestheticsGao:Thedefinitionofaestheticshasbeenrepeatedlydiscussedinacademia,astheobjectofthisdisciplinehasundergonemanychanges,’satte,humanbeingswillhavevariousfeelings,,andhumanbeingsneedabstractiontounderstandconcretethings,,whichmayberelatedtothetranslationoftheword“aesthetics.”AlexanderGottliebBaumgartenderivedtheterm“Aesthetica”,generationsofscholarshavehaddifferentinterpretationsofthisterm,Chōmintranslatedtheterm“Aesthetica”into美学accordingtotheJapaneseunderstandingof“Aesthetica”,ChinesescholarsintroducedthisdisciplinetoChinaanddirectlyadoptedtheterm美学[literallystudyofbeauty].Becauseofthistranslation,,therearemanykindsofbeauty,nlystudybeautyinanarrowsense,’saffectionarenotnecessarilybeautiful,whichmayrelatetoothercategoriesofaestheticsbesides“thebeautiful,”suchas“thesublime.”CSST:Accordingtoyou,inadditiontotheclassicaestheticcategoriessuchasthebeautifulandthesublime,aestheticobjectsshouldalsobeconsideredfortheir“senseofhistory”and“senseofnovelty.”CanyouelaboratefurtheronthisGao:“gu-ya”[guinChinesemeansancientorage-old,andyagraceorelegance]asanewcategoryofbeauty,,especiallyart,embodyasenseoftime,,,,,,thebeautyofanan,,mythsaredominatedbythesenseofnovelty[fromtheperspectiveofaesthetics].Inaddition,:WhataretheuniquefeaturesofChineseaestheticsGao:Asweallknow,ChineseandWesterna,Westernaestheticsresearchhasbeensystematicfromtheverybeginning,notonlyattachingimportancetothedefinitionandinterpretationofconceptsandcategories,-Qinperiod(priorto221BCE).,accordingtoTheAnalects,Confuciusdistinguishesbetweenmusicthatisbeautifulandmorallygood[Shaomusic],andmusicthatisbeautifulbutnotmorallygood[Wumusic],whichexpressestheConfucianaestheticconcept:,,Confucianbeautydependsonmoralgoodness,,,however,theexplorationanddemonstrationofbeautyinancientChinafocusedmoreonsensibility,intuition,andindividualperception,,inancientChina,therewasnotanideologicalsystemofaestheticsasintegratedasthatoftheWest,,undertheinfluenceofthespiritofscience,,theChinesebelievethateverythingintheworldisinmotion,and,representativ,ontheotherhand,stressadynamicvisualtourthroughthewindingpathsandzig-zaggalleries,onofgeometricforms,,whichhasbeeninfluencedbyChinesecalligraphy,breaksthelayoutofgeometricfiguresandemphasizesthemovementandstrengthofthebrush,istsmovetheirhandsonseeingtheircalligraphyorpaintings,andthenassociatetheartists’,wecanunderstandthecoreconceptsofChineseart,suchasqi-yun[verve,spiritresonance]andfeng-shen[vimandvigor].WhatI’,aestheticshasevolvedthroughanextremelylongprocess,:DoyouhaveanyadviceforcontemporaryChineseaestheticsresearchGao:Abigprobleminthecomparativestudyofaestheticsissimplydividingtheworldintotwoparts:“West”,wh,,[oneofthefoundersofthestudyofaestheticsin20th-centuryChina]fromtheWest,andfoundthatwhenhecitedChineseexamplesfortheoreticalexplanation,,China’smodernaestheticstudyisnotasimplecombinationofChineseandWesternideas,buttheabsorptionoftheessenceofWeste’:“Goingglobal”ticsGao:Inmyopinion,whatscholarsshouldpayattentiontotodayishowtopromoteChina’smodernandcontemporaryculturalachievementsto“goglobal.”Inasense,ancientChineseculturehasalready“goneglobal.”Manyancienttexts,suchastheConfucianclassics,’,,,researchersaremostlyengagedinthestudyofWesternaestheticsandtraditionalaesthetics,,justlikeChina,thesecountrieshavemadeachievementsinlocalizingWesternaestheticsandmodernizingtheirownancientaesthetics,,theChineseculturalsymbolscontainedinthisopeningceremonywerestilltheachievementsofancientChinesecivilization,suchasthe“FourGreatInventions.”Thisrevealsanoldwayofthinkingininternationalcommunication:lookingforChinesesymbolsinthemindsofWesterners,’,’sanswerreflectsasenseofhelplessness,,itisnecessarytosummar’mwritingahistoryofChineseaestheticsinthe20thcentury,andI’mgoingtotranslateitintoEnglishafterfinishingthebook,withahopetohelpChineseaesthetics“goglobal.”WhenitcomestotheinternationalcommunicationofChineseculture,itisalsoceisnotreally“goingglobal.”IncreasingtheexposureofChineseacademicachwithoutbringingthemtheoreticalinspiration,isnomorethanapracticeofsatisfyingtheircuriosity,whichdoesn’heworld,otherwiseitcanonlybea“transporter”“goglobal”dependsonwhetherouracademicresearchershavetheabilityto“goglobal.”Itrequiresscholarstoestablishagoodgroundingintheiracademicfieldsandproducerealstuff.“Goingglobal”isnotour“terminal,”andgoodscholarswon’tspendalldaythinkingabouthowtogetWesternerstorecognizetheirresearch,,themostimportantdrivefortheinternationalcommunicationofChineseacademicstudiesisthatourresearchmustbevaluable,cutting-edge,andhigh-quality.

ShenJiaxuanPhoto:InstituteofLinguistics,CASSOnNovember15,2020,thebookNounsandVerbswrittenbytheChineselinguistShenJiaxuanwont,ShenputforwardatheorythatinChinesealltheverbsareverbalnouns,orthen,ShenhasthoroughlydemonstratedthetheorythatChineseverbsarepartofnounswithover60essaysandsixbooks,settingoffarevolutionarywaveinthefieldofChineselinguistics,andshakingthedeep-rootedtraditionofapplyingthe’’sharvestwasdeeplyrootedinthe“SpringofScience”jingin1978,GuoMoruo,thenthepresidentoftheChineseAcademyofSciences(CAS),deliveredaspeechunderthetitleof“SpringofScience,”whichpoeticallypronouncedthatthe“SpringofScience”[aneweraofrevitalizedscientificresearchinChina]rs,includingShenJiaxuan,’sreturnbanquetwhenheworkedasliaisonforChinesetelecommunicationsduringtheUSPresidentRichardNixon’,beingintrovertedbynature,“SpringofScience,”ShendecidedtoapplytotheInstituteofLinguisticsattheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences(CASS),andwasadmittedtothein,histeacherZhaoShikaigavehimalonglistofbooks,,’nmathematicallinguisticsclassesinotheruniversities,andattendpsychologyseminarsattheInstituteofPsychology,(1904–1998),founderofmodernChineselinguisticstudies,wasalsooneofShen’’sthesis,[linguistic]studyprogramsoverseaswerebetterthanathome,andgaveShenadvicethatseemedincredible,butwasofgreatsignificance:toextensivelycollectarticlesonoverseasstudiesoftheChineselanguage,whichwerepublishedinEnglish,andma,becausein1980,,,itwasajourneytoanunknownworld,,,Shenreadtheabstract,madenotes,’sthesisconsistsoftwoparts:asummaryofoverseasstudiesofChineselanguagesasapreface,,Shen’sEnglishindexwaspublished,’,andstillfeelsthatwritingsuchapaperwasgoodacademictraining,whichhelpedhimhaveacomprehensiveunderstan,’sclassics,introducingpragmatics,cognitivelinguistics,andtheoriesoflinguistictypology,grammaticalization,uistics,,withlessthan100pages,wasthecrystallizationofLyu’slife-longwork,,“Everytimethebook[AnalysisofChineseGrammar]becameworn,,Iwouldlearnsomethingnew.”ShenhasownedfourcopiesofAnalysisofChineseGrammar,eachwornwithuse,:“Aperson’slifeisfinite,,mated,”“Thinkoutofthebox”Lyuoncesaid:“Itiscrucialtothinkoutofthebox……Wemusttemporarilythrowasidetheconceptssuchas‘word,’‘verb,’‘adjective,’‘subject,’and‘object.’Theseconceptsmaybe‘pickedup’‘thrownaside’and‘pickedup’again,becausethemeaningandvaluegiventothesetermshavechanged,andwearenolongerhedgedinwithrulesandregulations.”Inthepastdecadeorso,Shen’sworkhasbeencenteredon“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain.”In2007,Shen’spapertitled“NounsandVerbsinChinese”waspublished,layingthefoundationforhistheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”HeholdstheviewthatinChinese,verbsareaspecialtypeofnounthatexpressanaction,anevent,orastate,becauseChineseverbs,likenouns,“NounsandVerbsinChinese,”Shenhaspublisheddozensofpapers,focusingonthemostimportanttwopairsofgrammaticalcategories—“nounsandverbs,”and“subjectandpredicate,”“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain”thatbroughtarevolutionarywavetoChineselinguistics,overthrowingtheframeworkoftheoldtheoreticalsystem,andbrewingthestartofthetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”,Shensaid:“Itwouldbeha,however,wecanfindsomethingdifferent.”However,mechanicallyadoptingthestructuralfoundationandtheoreticalsystemofIndo-EuropeanlanguagesforChineselanguagesandframingChineselanguageaccordingtothepatternofIndo-Europeanlanguages,“thinkingoutofthebox”andgettingridofthe“shacklesoftheIndo-Europeanpattern.”Thetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs”explodedthefoundationofthethen-currenttheoreticalframeworkofChinesegrammar,,Shenmadef’stheoryisnowbeingrecognizedbymoreandmoreofhispeers,’seyes,,whenheseespostersbytheroadside,withChineseaboveandEnglishbelow,hewillnoticethedifferentwaysthetwolanguagesareexpressed,,healwayscarriedasmallnotebookandre,heestablishedawordbookofChineseverbalslipsandwroteseveralimportantarticles,suchas“TypesofTongueSlips.”ShenonceborrowedtheWoxianCaotangeditionofRulinWaishi[TheScholars,aChinesenovelcompletedin1750;itsearliestextanteditionisthe1803WoxianCaotangedition]“SentencesWheretheSubjectisaVerbandthePredicateisaNoun,”anarticlehewro,Shendidn’tmissoutonthenovelBlossoms,:“WhenreadingBlossoms,Ihavethedelightoffollowingtherhythm.”Afterreadingthenovel,Shenwroteamonographonlinguistics—,WeiGangqiang,deputyeditor-in-chiefof21stCenturyPublishingGroup,commented:“Itisrareandsignificantforlinguiststopayattentiontoandinterpretthelanguageofcurrentliteraryworks……ShenJiaxuan’sinsightsarenotonlytheachievementsofhislinguisticresearch,butalsovaluablereferenceforotherpeopleintermsofliterarycreation,translation,criticism,andgeneralacademicwork.”Shenmentionedthemovie“ZeroDarkThirty”lybasedondata,,becauseasmallfragmentofdatai,heoftentellshisstudentsthatthekeytosearchingforlinguisticinstancesdoesn’tlieinhowmanyinstancesyouhavecollected,hcontrast,

DenouveauxmotifsdebroderieontétéidentifiéslorsderecherchesrécentessurlestissusdesoiedécouvertssurlesitearchéologiquedeMawangdui,,etremarquablepourêtreladernièredemeureduncadavredunefemmeparfaitementconservé,adéclarélemuséeprovincialduHunan,occasionducinquantièmeanniversairedeladécouvertedestombesdeMawangduideladynastiedesHan,lemuséeprovincialduHunanafaituninventairesystématiquedesobjetsarchéologiques,èétéprécédemmentstockéscommeobjetsdedonnées."Descaractèreschinoisontétéidentifiéspourlapremièrefoissurdesfragmentsdesoieqiàmotifsenformedelosanges,témoignantdesgrandescompétencesenmatièredetissagedudébutdeladynastiedesHan",adéclaréYuYanjiao,unechercheusedumuséégalementétéidentifiésdurantcetinventaire,notammentceuxdephénixsurdestissusdesoie,oiseausymboledelongévité,alorsquécouverteaenrichilesconnaissancessurlesobjetsfuné,situédanslabanlieueestdeChangsha,capitaledelaprovinceduHunan,abritelimposanttombeaudumarquisdeDai,deladynastiedesHan,élattentioninternationalelorsquedeschercheursontdécouvertuncadavredefemmequineprésentaitaucunsignededécompositionlorsdesonexhumationdanslesannées1970.

TheConstructionCourseofLiteraryClassicofShijiTheConstructionCourseofLiteraryClassicofShiji,writtenbyZhangXinke,aprofessorfromtheSchoolofChineseLanguageandLiteratureatShaanxiNormalUniversity,revealsthedifferentcharacteristicsofliteraryacceptanceofShiji(RecordsoftheGrandHistorian)indifferenttimesagainstthebroadhistoricalandculturalbackgroundofmorethan2,000years,,’sself-prefaceintheending,theoriginalintentionofSimaQianandhisfathertowriteShijiwastofollowChunqiu(SpringandAutumnAnnals),which,afterbeinginterpretedbytheGongyangSchool,wasthemostimportantgovernanceclassicamongtheFiveClassicsrespectedbyEmperorWuoftheHanDynasty(206BCE–220).HowdidShijigofromacommentaryontheFiveClassicstoaliteraryclassicThedeclineofConfucianclassicsattheendoftheEasternHanDynasty(25–220),theestablishmentofliteratureasaconceptintheWei,Jin,Southern,andNorthernDynasties(220–589),andtheinteractionandseparationbetweenliteratureandhistoriography,aressintheHanDynasty,,whenConfucianclassicsdeclinedfromitspeak,thatliteratureandhistoriographybrokefro’sbiographicalstyle,Qilu(SevenRecords)bybibliographerRuanXiaoxuintheLiangperiod(502–557)setup“therecordofbiographies.”ThebibliographicsectionofSuishu(BookofSui)classifiedbooksintojing(classics),shi(history),zi(philosophy),andji(literature),andShijiwasincludedinthe“officialhistory”,Shij,ynasty(618–907).Forexample,HanYuandLiuZongyuan,mastersofancient-styleproseintheTangDynasty,greatlyadmiredSimaQian’’,,therearepoliticians,philosophers,historians,writers,scholars,eras,therearepoems,essays,scriptsforstory-telling,opera,fiction,academicworks,notes,letters,prefaces,postscripts,ureatGuangdongUniversityofForeignStudies.

Duringthesummerof2021,anarticletitled“Non-LocalMothersJoinHandstoRaiseChildreninBigCities”wentviralonChinesesocialmediawithmorethan100,000readers—,thisarticleintendstodelveintothephenomenonofchild-rearing,andhowitmovesbeyondfamilyboundariesinmetropolises,:Whyisthepracticeofparentingre-crossingfamilyboundariesagainstthebackdropofdissolvingsocialfoundationsforcollectivechild-rearingandgrowingresponsibilityforfamily-orientedparentingIsitpossibletoreshapetherolesoffamily,society,state,andthemarketinchildcare“W”StreetisoneofShanghai’sfoursuburbancenters,“S”pioneeredthe,representedbyS,’s“process-event”analysismethod,thisarticleattemptstocapturethesemothers’continuouseffortstohelpparentingtranscendfamilyboundariesandintegratewithregionalresources,includingtheformationofacommunalchild-rearingsupportnetwork,communalchildfriendlyspaces,innovativeparent-childactivities,“slashcareermom,”meaningsheis“raisingchildrenontheonehandandpursuingacareerontheother.”Thiswast,Sstartedherbusinessin2013,,setupapersonalpublicaccountonWeChat,ing,andt,,,,therewasaspaceconvertedfromanoldcontainer,called“LittleBlueRoom,”,SYCsocialorganization,whichoperatesthecommunitygarden,heldvari,uponnegotiation,,Sbecameagrassrootsentrepreneurandbuilthercommunalchild-rearingsupportnetworkaroundtheconceptof“raisingchildrentogether.”Withthehelpofthephysicalspaceandplatformprovidedbythecommunitygarden,theonlinegroupsofmothers,managedbyS,,Splannedplantingclasses,gardendesignclasses,lessonsontraditionaluseofherbs(suchasmugwort)duringtheDragonBoatFestival,,Swasabletoincorporatecommunityactivitieswithherparentinggroups,whichbuiltexter,,Bassociationwasofficiallyapproved,withthepurposeofpromotingresidents’senseofparticipation,volunteering,andpromotingfamilies’’lives,uncovercommunitytalent,advocateforco-creationinthecommunity,enhancepublicwelfareawareness,andimproveresidents’“mothergroups”wonsocialrecognitiona,Sandhermothergroupswentthroughaprocessofseekingexternalsupportandestablishingconnectionsbasedontheirownandtheirfamily’,womenwhoexploredcollectivechild-rearinginthecommunitygraduallysteppedoutofprivatelifeandengagedinthelargersocialstructure,interwovenwithdifferentactorsinthegovernment,market,eireffortstointegratechild-rearingwiththespace,activities,,therearemanyplacesforchildren’sactivities,whichseemabundant,,geographicallyadjacentspacesareoftenadministrativelyrunbydifferentcommunities,,inpractice,,anint,childrenhadphysicaltraininginthegymsandsportcenters,usedrestaurantsforpaintingclasses,warmedupatthebasketballcourtinthepark,visitedsmalllocalexhibitionhalls,plantedvegetablesinthecommunitygarden,andcarriedouttraditionalculturalactivitiessuchas“wearingHanfucostumesandlearningSinology”,theseactivitiesdyn,practicalchild-rearingspacenotonlytransformednormalurbansettingsbutalsobroughtmoreattentiontopeopleintheseactivities,truly,in2020,WstreetwaslistedasShanghai’sfirstchildfriendlydemonstrationcommunity,forminga“onecenter,multiplesites”“bigcommunity,”,therewerefiveeffectivethemeclubsthatSandhermothergroupsran,hosting120formalthemedactivitiesandmorethan100informaladditionalactivitiesamidthepandemic,directlyserving1,965households,whilebenefitingover5,,designed,:Someareindependent,basedonindividualmembers’expertiseandobservationofreallifeneedsinthecommunity;Thesecondtypeofactivityisincollaborationwithlocal,community,andsocialorganizations,,,themothergroupssetupeveningandsummercare,borrowingcom,realizingthegoalof“raisingchildreninacollectiveeffortandlettingthemgrowupinamixed-agecommunityenvironment.”Theseservicesareofferedunderthesloganof“motherknowsmotherbetter,motherknowschildrenbetter,”conveyingnotonlythetrustworthinessofmothers’care,butalsomutualhelpbe,“raisingchildreninadown-to-earthway,”theywouldblendreallifefamilysituationsandcommunityplanningintosmalltasksforchildren,organization,space,andcontent,theconceptofcommunalchild-rearinghasgraduallytakenshape,,parentsvaluepersonalinvolvementintheirchildren’sdevelopment,ratherthanrely,theseparentshavea,smallfamilieswhostayinShanghaid,theirreplaceablevalueofcommunityenvironmentsforchildren’sgrowthhasbeenrecognized,soparticipationincommunitylifeandmakingneighborhoodfriendsarerefinedasakindof“down-to-earthcultivation,”,behindcommun,youngmothersinthisorganizationfurtherexpandedchild-rearingfromfamiliestocommunities,andgrad,SwaselectedbythecommunitytoparticipateinShanghai’,thecoreideasandhermothergroupsreachedalargeraudience,,communalchild-rearingextendsfromcommunities,exploringresourceintegrationbeyondfamilyboundaries,tobalancewomen’sroleasmotherscmulti-bodycooperativeparentingsystem,ttheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences.

>>>Linitiativechinoise“laCeintureetlaRoute”favoriseledéveloppementdelAfrique,indiquentdesexperts2022-05-2814:20:00Linitiative"laCeintureetlaRoute"proposéparlaChineconstitueuneplate-formeouvertedecoopérationetinjecteunélanetunestabilitécroissantsdansledéveloppementdespaysafricains,ontdéclarédesexpertslorsdupremiercolloqueinternationalsur"laCeintureetlaRoute"érencedetroisjoursaréunidanslacapitalecamerounaiseYaoundédescentainesdeparticipants,dontdeshommespolitiques,desuniversitaires,desreprésentantsdentrepriseschinoisesetdesé,conseillerdelambassadedeChineauCameroun,aindiquélorsdudiscoursdouverturequelinitiative"laCeintureetlaRoute"visaitàrenforcerlaconnectivitémondiale,àaméliorerleniveaudecoopérationcommercialeetdinvestissementetàpromouvoirlacoopérationinternationaleenmatièredecapacitésdeproductionetdefabricationdéérationgagnant-gagnantsontlesprincipalescaractéristiquesdelinitiativechinoise,aditJimmyYab,présidentdelObservatoireChine-Afriquefrancophone,ungroupederéflexion,teinitiativepourfavoriserledéveloppementducontinent,a-t-ilpoursuivi,qualifiantlinitiativedevéritablecoopérationgagnant-gagnant."CemodedepartenariatnestpascequinitiativelaCeintureetlaRoutenestpasuneaideaudéveloppement,maisunecoopérationgagnant-gagnantoùlespartenairessontassissurlamêèreauxinfrastructurescarcestdudéveloppement,commeonditdansnotrerégionquandlaroutepasse,ledéveloppementsuit",,économisteetchercheuràlUniversitédeYaoundéII,afaitremarquerquelacontributiondelinitiativechinoiseaprouvédemanièrepratiquequelleestbaséesurlacoopération,léchangedavantagesetdintérêtscommuns."LepartenariataveclaChineestdifférent,ilestdifférentsurleplandelapproche,lapprochegagnant-gagnant,etsurlefaitquonnesentpasunecertainedominationdanslepartenariat,etc,cequonvoyaitilya50ansnestpluscequonvoitaujourdhui",a-t-ilmartelé."CetteinitiativequinourritassezdespoirparcequonespèrequecetteinitiativevaseréaliserdifféremmentetcestdanscetespoirlàquelesgouvernementsafricainsvonttoutfairepourtravaillerenpartenariataveclaChinepourquelesobjectifssoientréalisésenbonneformepourtous",aindiquédesonctéNorbertAiméMelinguiAyissi,professeurdhistoireetdéconomieàlUniversitédeDouala,spécialistedelacoopérationaudéàLouisDominiqueBiakoloKomo,professeurdephilosophieafricaineetcomparativeàlUniversitédeDouala,ilaaffirméquelinitiativechinoiseestunmodèledecoopérationexemplaire,inclusiveetvisantàdéàsaparticipationàlinitiative"laCeintureetlaRoute",leCamerounaaméliorésesinfrastructures,restaurésesindustriesetcréédesemplois,,quiacommencémercredi,aportésurcinqthèmesprincipaux,àsavoirlacoopérationéconomique,ledéveloppementvert,ledéveloppementnumérique,ledéveloppementsociocultureletlasécurité.Fin

>>>LaTunisiepourraitpariersurlaChinecommeunmodérateuréconomiquemondial2022-05-0111:08:00Misàpartlalternativedopterpourlaconquêtedenouveauxpartenariats"gagnant-gagnant"(àlalumièredesmutationssurlascèneinternationale)avecdespuissancesémergentes,commeenestlecasdelInde,duBrésilouencorelAfriqueduSud,"laChineesttouteautrechose(...)Ellepeutconstituerunblocensoietpeutjouerlintermédiairepourtrouverlapaixmondialesurplusieursniveauxexceptionnellementéconomique",acommentéMajdiHassen,directeurexécutifdelInstitutarabedeschefsdentreprises(IACE)."LaChineabienanticipéeavecsoninitiativeLaCeintureetlaRoute,dautantplusdesonindispensabilitédansléquilibreéconomiquemondialedansuneconjoncturemarquéeparuneéconomiederareté,aggravéerécemmentparleconflitrusso-ukrainien",anotéécemmentaccordéeàXinhuaEtdepoursuivreque"laTunisieserait,probablement,danslacontraintederevoircertainsdesesaccordssousprétextequenospartenaires(particulièrementlUE,quidétientenviron70%deséchangesdelaTunisieaveclextérieur)serontdansunelogiquepluttprotectionniste,enplusdelamontéedesnationalisteslorsdesrécenteséchéancesélectoralesenEurope".Surleplanfinancier,sousleffetàcourtetmoyentermes,a-t-ilexpliqué,"laTunisiepourraitmiserdavantagesurlesdeuxmonnaiesémergentes,leroublerusseetleyuanchinois,quipourraientêtreplusancréesdanslepanierdedevisesdelaBanquecentraledeTunisie(BCT)"."Ilsagitdelunedessolutionspourtrouverunecertaineimmunitéfinancièredanslavenirvuquelesystèmemonétairemondialfondésurlamonnaieuniversellenecessedeseffritermais,également,lerecoursàcesnouvellesdevisescontribueradanslarelancedautressecteursvitauxpourlaTunisie,notammentletourismeainsiquelapprovisionnementenmatièrespremières(principalementlesproduitscéréaliersetpétroliers",aencoreestiméledirecteurexécutifdelIACE."Ainsi,a-t-ilassuré,chaqueblocaurasespropresrèglesdetransactionsetsespropresaccordsquiserventsesintérêtséconomiquesetfinanciersvitauxet,ainsi,rompreavecladominationdeleuroetdudollar".Evoquantleffetdirectduconflitrusso-ukrainienetlanouvellecarteéconomiquemondialesurlesentreprisestunisiennes,étectéauxniveauxdelaproduction,deladisponibilitéetducotdelamatièrepremière(...)celamèneraégalementdesproblèmesauniveaudel,"onpeutsattendreàdesflambéesdesprixdelélectricité,dutransportetdescarburants(...)etplusparticulièrement,desmenacessurleplandedéveloppementàsavoirunetendanceinflationnistequineferaquenourrirunetensionetdespressionssocialesgraves."AnoterqueledéficitdelabalancecommercialedelaTunisiesestaggravépoursesituerà,8millionsdedinars(undinaréquivautà0,33dollaraméricain),aupremiertrimestredelannéeencours,,3millionsdedinarspourlamêmepériodede2021,daprèsleschiffresofficielsdelInstitutnationaldelastatistique(INS)

DesarchéologuesontrécemmentfaitdesdécouvertesétonnantessurlecélèbresitedesruinesdeSanxingdui,danslaprovincechinoiseduSichuan(sud-ouest);Untrésordobjetsraffinésenbronze,enoretenjade,dontaumoins10objetsenbronzedécouvertspourlapremièrefoisdanslhistoiredelacivilisationhumaine,aétééquipeconjointedarchéologuesdelInstitutprovincialderecherchesurlesreliquesculturellesetlarchéologieduSichuan,delUniversitédeBeijing,delUniversitéduSichuanetdautresinstitutionsderechercheetuniversitésaeffectuéécouvertesproviennentprincipalementdesfossessacrificiellesnuméro7etnuméro8,portantlenombretotaldobjetsdécouvertsdanslessixfossesdeSanxingduiàprè,selonlInstitutprovincialderecherchesurlesreliquesculturellesetlarché,découvertedanslafossenuméro7,estléticulésenformedetortue,etlesctésdelabotesontornésdunecharnièreenbronze,depoignéesenformedetêanalysedesmicrotracesarévéléquelaboteétaitenveloppéedesoie,selonlesarchéologues."Ilneseraitpasexagérédedirequececontenantestuniqueensongenre,comptetenudesaformedistinctive,desafinesseartisanaleetdesaconceptioningéàquoiilservait,nouspouvonssupposerquelesanciensleconservaientprécieusement",aexpliquéLiHaichao,professeurdelUniversitéduSichuanetresponsabledesfouillesdanslafossenuméécorationsenbronze,desfigurinesetdesclochesontégalementétédééro8voisine,lesarchéologuesontmisaujourdiversobjets,notammentdestêtesenbronzeavecdesmasquesenor,unesculptureenbronzeavecunetêtehumaineetuncorpsdeserpent,unautelenbronze,unecréaturemythiquegéanteenbronzeetunobjetenbronzeenformededragonavecunnezdecochon."Lessculpturessonttrèscomplexesetimaginatives,reflétantlemondeféeriqueimaginéparlesgensàcetteépoque-là,etellesillustrentladiversitéetlarichessedelacivilisationchinoise",aindiquéZhaoHao,professeurassociéàlUniversitédeBeijing,quidirigelesfouillesdelafossenumé,lesarchéologuesontégalementtrouvédesfossésàcendres,desfondationsarchitecturalesetdepetitesfossesàsacrificielles,desreliquesculturelles,ainsiquedesbambous,desroseaux,desgrainesdesoja,etdesbovinsetdessangliersquiontpuêtresacrifiéécouvertesàlafindesannées1920,lesruinesdeSanxingduisontconsidéréescommelunedesplusgrandesdécouvertesarchéologiquesduXXesièéesdanslavilledeGuanghan,àenviron60kmdeChengdu,capitaleprovinciale,lesruines,couvrantunesuperficiede12km2,seraientlesvestigesduroyaumeShu,datantdà

FILEPHOTO:CaiMeibiaoandAGeneralHistoryofChinaTheChinesehistorianCaiMeibiao(1928–2021),orAGeneralHistoryofChina,ce,aswellasamicrocosmofCai’,FanWenlan(1893–1969),aleadingChinesehistorianandthedirectoroftheinstitute,wasrevisingZhongguoTongshiJianbian,orAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition).,FanwasreceivedbyMaoZedonginYan’an,andwasappointedasthedirectoroftheOffic,MaoZedongcalledonthewholepartytolearnChinesehistoryandtounderstandChina’ofChina’,whichwasnamedAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition),,Fanbegantorewritethebookhehadn’,knownastheRevisedVersionofAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition),wasnotasimplerevisionofthepreviousthree-volumework,,eachpersonwhoassistedFanwasresponsibleforresearchingafieldinhistory,,fourvolumesofAGeneralHistoryofChina(RevisedandConciseEdition)weresuccessivelypublished,coveringChina’shistoryfromantiquitytotheSui(581–618),Tang(618–907),andFiveDynasties(907–960),Fansufferedfromheartdisease,,Fansaidthathecouldnolongerwritebyhimself,andhop,’sdeathbroughtthecompilationofthebooktoastandstill,dtotheunfinishedundertakingleftbehindbyFan.‘AGeneralHistoryofChina’ContinuingwiththecompilationofAGeneralHistoryofChina(RevisedandConciseEdition),,heplanne,thebookwasnolongerarevisedversionofAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition)asitscontentincreased,anditwasmorethana“conciseedition”ofChina’“AGeneralHistoryofChina”,theInstituteofModernHistorycouldnotcompletealltheworkoftheprojectalone,soCaiinvitedscholarsfromNankaiUniversity,FudanUniversity,,’tsimplyeditthesedraftsormaterials,,000characters,only30,(1925–2006),aprofessorattheUniversityofLondon,andoneoftheco-editorsofTheCambridgeHistoryofChina,oncetoldCaithattheyhadneverfinishedthefirstvolumeofTheCambridgeHistoryofChina,becausetheycouldn’tkeeppacewithChina’,theyhadtogiveupthepre-Qin(before221BCE)historyofthefirstvolumeandstartfromtheQin(221–207BCE)andHan(206BCE–220CE)alfindingsatalltimescertainlywouldleadtotheproblemof“failingtokeeppace.”Therefore,Caip,CaiinheritedFan’sideasandmethodsofwritingAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition).Meanwhile,hehadhisownunderstandingandmadeinnovationsduringtheprocess,whichcanbeseenfromthefollowingexample:Cai’sAGeneralHistoryofChinabeganwiththeSong(960–1279),Liao(907–1125),Jin(1115–1234),andYuan(1279–1368),,000yearsfromtheHantothefalloftheQingDynasty(1644–1911),theHanpeoplehadruledovernon-Hanethnicgroupsmanytimes,,therewereconflictsandwarsbetweentheHanandnon-Hanethnicgroups,,theseconflictsandwarsdidn’tcreatedistancesbutstr,thenon-Hanethnicgoups,andgainedn,inAGeneralHistoryofChina,CaiaddedachapterfortheWesternXia[alsoknownastheTangutEmpire,existingfrom1038to1227inpresent-daynorthwesternChina],whichwasnotfoundinpreviousgeneralhistorybooks,inthesectiononSong,Liao,Jin,“thevariousethnicgroupsundertheruleoftheYuanDynasty”k,,hecouldbefoundinhisofficeeveryday,,sixvolumesofAGeneralHistoryofChinaweresuccessivelycompleted,’,thetenthvolumeendedwiththereignoftheJiaqingEmperor(–1820)—fromthereignoftheDaoguangEmperor(–1850)tothatoftheXuantongEmperor[thefinalQingDynastyruler,whowasforcedtoabdicatein1912]—,Caiwasalreadyinhisseventies,’scallsliponhandforthelibraryoftheInstituteofModernHistory,andthedatewrittenonitisJanuary7,,twovolumesofmanuscriptswerefinallycompleted,,thesetwonewvolumeswerecombinedwiththefirsttenvolumesandwerepublishedtogether,’,(1019–1086),ahigh-rankingSongDynastyscholar-official,spentover20yearscompilingtheZizhiTongjian[ComprehensiveMirrorforAidinGovernment,apioneeringreferenceworkinChinesehistoriographycovering16dynastiesandspanningalmost1,400years].,Simasaidthathesufferedfromblurryvisionandtoothloss,,the12volumeswerepublishedasaboxset,,,Caisaid:“LookingbackatthetimewhenIparticipatedineditingthefirstvolumeofthisbookin1953,55yearshavepassedbeforeIknewit.”XiuXiaoboisaprofessorfromtheSchoolofHistoryatQingdaoUniversity.

Thecreativetransformationandinnovativedevelopmentoftraditionalhandcraftedworkisconducivetonourishingourculturalecology,enrichingculturalresources,andimprovingChina’,andthenationalresearchreportsfrom2018to2021publishedbyChineseHandicraft,thisarticlesummarizesthecurrentcreativetransformationandinnovativedevelopmentofthetraditionalhandcraftingindustry,,handc:thesetwotypesofbrandsaccountforover65%ofthe407nationioninbothqualityandoutput,withhouseholditems,fashionableculturalandcreativeproducts,,morethan20%ofartisansattachimnofculturalconceptsandlifestyleswhilefocusingontheirskills,ulturalservicehasattractedmorepeopletoparticipateintlhandcraftswithlowthresholdstoentry,suchaspaper-cutting,patchwork,embroidery,,ondaryschools,studentscandeepentheirknowledgeoftraditionalcultureandexercisecreat,,theshareofcraftexperiencepr,,moreandmorehandcraftingtechniqueshavebeenintegratedintocommunityclasses,arietyshows,andthefusionoftraditionalcraftswithdocumentariesandvarietyshowshascreatedaratingsboom,inadditiontotheusualceentraditionalcraftsandaudiencesbytellingthevividlifes“MastersintheForbiddenCity,”“ExtraordinaryIngenuity,”“EarthandIngenuity,”and“TheGreatShokunin.”“MastersintheForbiddenCity”[aChinesesocialnetworkingservicewebsite],withmorethan110,,ashortvideoplatform,over15mi,Douyin,anothershortvideoplatform,launched“TheWonderofCraft”program,whichhighlightshandcraftsthroughtrafficsupport,feeconcessions,,theformerlyIntangibleCulturalHeritageDepartmentoftheMinistryofCulture,incollaborationwithhighereducationinstitutions,implementedatra,theprogramreceivedacumulativeinvestmentofRMB500millionfromthecentralgovernmentandsawover100,,comprehensivequality,andenthusiasmoedpeopleandcooperatewithhandcraftenterprises,institutionsthataimtoprotectintangibleculturalheritage,’practicalskillshavebeenimprovedwithproductionandteaching,andcon,incollaborationwithintangibleculturalheritageprotectioninstitutions,,promotingthetransformationofenthusiastsintocraftsmen,andprovyandinfluence,sseminationrelyingonregionalculturesandpolicybenefits,,thecultur,,,manyofthehandcraftsselectedforsharingareets,,,,leadthepublic,whichisdetrim,buthavelittleknowledgeoftheculturalconnotations,patentprotection,andmarketoperationsofhandcrafts,andcrafttrainingworkshops,,sotheycannotprovideauthoritativeandcutting-edgeinformationontheindustry,andtrainees’,theresourceintegratiotheintegrationofbrandresources,guidecross-categoryandcross-regionalcooperationamonghandcrafts,tapintopotentialconsumergroups,andhelpbrandsbrea,enhanceourabilitytoexportculture,improveculturalnarratives’awarenessofserviceandfunction,demonstratespecificcontentinplainlanguage,focusonconveyingtheculturalconnotationsembeddedinhandcrafts,andleadahealthy,environmentallyfriendly,,,developteachingandexperientialcoursesfordifferentgroupsofpeoplebasedonschools,communities,andconsumptionplaces,enrichtheteachingcontent,andaddculturalhistoryexplanationsandaestheticknowledgeinadditiontodemonstratingskills,tomobilizepeople’iaryplatforms,standardizetheiroperation,andpromotecooperationbetweenhandcraftsandindustriessuchasclothing,beauty,homefurnishing,realestate,andarchitecture,withafocusoninvestmentininter-generationaleducation,leisure,,themanagementofcommunicationplatformsshouldberegulated,,setupprofessionalteamstoidentifybadcontent,toimprovethecreativityandprofessionallevelofvideos,providepositiveguidancetoviewers,andleadtheindustry’,promoteintegrationofhandcraftsintothedecorationofconsumerspaces,publicculturalspaces,andcommunitylivingspaces,andfullydemonstratetheaestheticcharacteristicsofhandcraftedgoodsinpublicspacesthroughcarrierssuchastext,sound,images,andvideo,aswellasnewtechnologiessuchasVR,sothathandicraftsbecomevisible,audible,,trainingofhigh-qualitytalentmustbeaccelerated,alcraftsmen,focusonshoringuptheshortcomingsofcraftsmeninculturalhistory,patentprotection,marketoperation,andmoderndesign,promotedeepexchangeandcooperationamongpeers,providecraftsmenwithrelevantplatformresourcestosupportthem,ry,enhancethedesigncapabilitiesofcraftsmen,payattentiontoguidingdesignprofessionalstojoininthecreationofhandcraftedworks,andcarryoutcreativedesignsbasedonanin-depthunderstandingoftheculturalconnotations,materials,techniques,,andoffercourseswhichfitthetrainees’actualskilllevel,’qualifications,raisetheselectioncriteria,andinviteexpertDevelopmentatEastChinaNormalUniversity.

InJuly2021,thegeneralofficesoftheCPCCentralCommitteeandtheStateCouncilissuedtheOpinionsonFurtherReducingtheBurd“doublereduction”policy,theregulationswererolledoutwiththeaimofhelpingtoeasestudents’,,oneofthewidelyacceptedsuggestionsistoabolishthehighschoolentranceexamination,ulsoryeducationfrom9to11or12years,,hattheyhavelearned,,aseducationisplayinganincreasinglyimportantroleinsociety,examinationcanalsoevaluateschools’,theimpactofexaminationoneducation,whetherpositiveornegative,(keju)inancientChina,perialcourt,,becauseemploymentinsocietyandthepromotionofscholarshadbecomeinseparablefromschoolingandlearning,theImperialExaminationhadahugebearingonschoolsystemsandsocialethos,affectingschools’educationalcontent,talentcultivation,teachingatmosphere,andintellectuals’,,first,assesstheoperationalqualityofschoolsdedicatedtonine-yearcompulsoryeducationwithinaprovinceorcity,andsecond,tosplitmiddleschoolstudentsi’growingdemandforhigher-leveleducation,“degraded”andsenttovocationalschools[whichallegedlyforebodesaworsefutureduetounsatisfactoryvocationaleducationsystemsinChina]leadsparentsandstudentstohighlyvaluethezhongkaoandengageinirrationallevelsofcompetition,cahavedeviatedfarfromthesystem’,theexaminationislikeanarrowfootbridge:thosewhosucceedincrossingitwillbeallowedtofurthertakeacademicpathways,,somestudentsareabandonedtotheothersideofsociety,whichtosomeextentinhibitstheircreativityandadaptability,,orgaokao,thechannelstowhichstudentsaredistributedfollowingthezhongkaoarelessdiversified,whereasthegaokaowi,students’parentsaremoreconcernedwithwh,“involution”’academicloadbecomesheavierandheavier,rightfromkindergarten,toprimaryschool,nforoveracentury,eversincerenownedlate-QingDynastyeducatorsandthinkersKang,compulsoryeducationwasextendedfromjuniorprimaryschooltoseniorprimaryschool,andfurthertojuniorhighschool,,,lawsandregulationswerethereafterenactedtograduallydefineitscompulsory,free,mandatory,avebroughtabouttremendousachievementsincompulsoryeducation,withthefoundingofthePeople’,Chinesepeoplesufferedfrompoverty,sotheimplementationofcompulsoryeducationwaslargelyemptytalk,,undertheCPCleadership,Chinahasmaintainedprolongedstabilityinsociety,politics,economy,andeducation,pro,thestrategicgoalofuni,imbalancesstillloomlargebetweencounty-levelareasacrossthenation,andbetweenurbanandruralareas,posingchallengestoimprovingthequalityo,theEducationInspectionCommitteeoftheStateCouncilinitiatedacounty-leveleva,a,theMinistryofEducationstartedtheevaluati,thestartofthe14thFive-YearPlanningPeriod(2021–25)whenChinaembarkeduponthenewjourneytobuildamodernsocialistcountryinallrespects,allcountiesandcounty-levelcitieswithineachprovinceandmunicipalityprogressivelyrealizedhigh-quality,well-balanceddevelopmentofcompulsoryeducationonthecountylevel,tobolstertheconstructionofastrongnationwithabundanthumanre(2016–20),provincesandmunicipalitiesacrossChinasnevenearlier,providingnecessarycon,%in2020,whichlaysa,however,allcitiesandcountiesareobligedbyeducationpoliciestorunbothgeneralacademichighschoolsandvocationalinstitutionsforseniorsecondaryeducation,,somestudentswhoprefertoreceiveacademichighschooleducationareforcedtoattendvocationalschools[duetotheirsubparacademicperformances].Thishasinviteddiscussionsontwoissues:ShouldChinaacceleratetheextensionofcompulsoryeducationfromnineyearsto12yearsIsitnecessarytotransformsecondaryvocationaleducationcompletelyintohighervocationaleducationTheanswertothefirstquestionis,objectiveandfoundationalcondi,universalizingcompulsoryeducationtotheseniorhighstageisaninevitabletrendforbasiceducationindevelopedcountriesaroundtheworld,andalsotheobjectiverequirementforbuildingChinaintoaprosperous,democratic,civilized,harmonious,,citiesandcountiescangraduallyandbystagesprolongcompulsoryeducationto12or11years,andelevatesec,whonotedthatschoolbuildingsandteachershavebeenequippedtopopularize12-yearcompulsoryeducation,anditsavesmorehumanandfinanci,theparalleldevelopmentofgeneralacademichighschoolsandvocationalschoolslagsbehindrealsocialneeds,,theStateCouncilpromulgatedtheDecisiononVigorouslyPromotingtheReformandDevelopmentofVocationalEducation,urgingeffortstofocusonsecondaryvocationaleducationandmaintainroug,asChina’sindustriallevelsriseandintelligentmanufacturingtechnologyadvances,thepreviousmodelhasbeenu,laborerswhohavereachedtheageof16,butnot18,,theirphysicalandmentalhealth,aswellaspersonalgrowth,,thisagerangeisthekeystageforstudentstogrowintomatureyouth,theprimetimeforthemtolearnbasicknowledgeandshapegoodmoralqualities,,mostparentshopetheirchildrencanattendgeneralacademichighschoo,afterrealizingbalanceddevelopmentofthecompulsoryeducationsystemincounty-levelareasinanall-roundmanner,Chinashouldpromote12-yearcompulsoryeducationforprimaryandsecondaryeducationstagesstep-by-stepandterminatethedivisionofjuniorandseniorinhighschool,enforcinggeneralseniorhighschooleducationandelevatingsecondacteristicsandtheinstitutional

ArchaeologistTianJianwen(Middle)andhiscolleaguesattheBalipingsiteinQinshuiCounty,ShanxiProvincePhoto:PROVIDEDTOCSSTIntheearlystageofreformandopeningup,therewasashortageofyoungtalent,,,hepassedupjobopportunitiesinbigcitiesandwenttoHouma[asmalltowninShanxiprovince],hometoXintian,thelastcapitaloftheJinprincipality(1033–376BCE)[nowaveteranarchaeologistattheShanxiArchaeologyInstitute],[atYichengCounty]discoveredbyTianandhiscolleagu,TiancameupwithacompletegenealogydatedfromtheZaoyuanCulturetotheXiyinCulture[anearlyNeolithicsiteinShanxiProvince]incipality’s“XintianPattern”[thelayoutoftheXintiancitywasdifferentfromthatofpreviouscities].Forthefirsttime,heidentifiedtombsoftheXiongnu[nomadicpeoplewhoinhabitedtheeasternEurasianSteppefromthe3rdcenturyBCEtothe1stcenturyCE]intheLü,sincethereignofEmperorWuofHan(–87BCE),theHanEmpirehadsetupcounty-levelresidencesfortheXiongnupeoplewhosurrenderedtotheHanEmpireandmigratedtotheCentralPlain,,whichisthelargesttombdatedtotheEasternZhouperiod(770–256BCE),w:Inrecentyears,manyscholarshaveproposedthatthesignificanceofarchaeologyisto“writeChinesehistory”and“tracethepathofancestors.”HowdoyouunderstandthesestatementsTianJianwen:Ancientarchives,oraltraditions,,advantages,’,canhelpclarifythedateandexistenceofdifferentrelicsandruins,aswellastheexist,whichisalsothefoundationofthe“theoreticalsystemofarchaeologywithChinesecharacteristics.”“Tracingthepathofancestors”:InearlyMay1991,whenyouwereinvestigatingtheZaoyuansiteinShanxi,,,ianwen:Sincethe1970s,ancientculturalrelicsdatedto10,000yearsagohavebeendiscoveredinJiangxi,Hunan,Guangxi,andZhejiangprovincesinsouthChina,aswellasShandong,Hebei,Henan,,however,therehadbeennosimilararchaeologicaldiscoveriesforalongtime,exceptforaslabandanelongatedhandstone[asetofgrindingstonesoftheCishanculture,datedfrom8,000to7,600yearsago],1991,mycolleaguesXueXinmin,YangLinzhong,,wenameditthe“ZaoyuanH1Remains,”asweregardeditasthepredecessorofMiao-digouculture[–2780BCE].Later,itwasofficiallynamed“ZaoyuanCulture,”whichmeansthatinthestudyofearlyNeolithicculture,oculture[aculturewhichexistedbetween6700and6000BCE,locatednearXi’an,ShaanxiProvince]andMiao-digoucultureoftheYangshaoera[aNeolithicculturethatexistedalongtheYellowRiverbetween5000BCEand3000BCE;theBanpoandMiao-digouperiodsrepresenttwodifferentphasesoftheYangshaoculture],PuCounty[inShanxiProvince]ofmorethan1,,,suchasanimalsburiedwiththedeceased,byusinggenealogicalmethods,weidentified24shafttombsthatbelongedtothenativesduringtheWarringStatesPeriod(475–221BCE),andtheQin(221–207BCE)andHan(206BCE–220CE)ofHanbelongedtothesubordinatesofMarquiseQi,orJuji[aXiongnucavalryofficerwhofoughtfortheHanEmpireagainsttheXiongnuarmy].TheCaojiazhuangsitewasthereforeconfirmedasthesoutheasternmosthabitatoftheXiongnuinChina,,wedidn’tfindanynarrow-neckedpotswithholesnearthebottom—npartoftheLü,westartedtodoarchaeologicalresearchinPuCounty,Daning,Yonghe,,2017,,wefoundaceramicpotwithaninscriptionofthecharacter“上”ontheshoulderandholesnearthebottominavillager’attheXigoupansiteintheInnerMongo,thehistoricalex,wefoundthatsimilarpotswerealsodiscoveredattheYongheLongtunquansite[inShanxi]le[theRouzhiwereancientnomadicpastoralistslivingintheHexiCorridorduringthe1stmillenniumBCE;afteramajordefeatbytheXiongnuin176BCE,theRouzhisplitintotwogroupsmigratingindifferentdirections:theDarouzhiwhomigratednorthwestandXiaorouzhiwhomigratedsouthward]whomigratedfromtheQilian,namedYuzhe,:HaveyoumadeanynewarchaeologicaldiscoveriesrecentlyTianJianwen:FromAugust2018toJune2019,,,[perhapsaJinruler’swife],wedidn’,bronze,iron,gold,jade,stone,shell,bone,,weexcavatedandexploredtheShangguoancientcityruins,whichcoversanareaofover400,,anotherpolitical,military,economic,andculturalcenteroftheJinstate,,weconductedarchaeologicalexcavationsattheremainsofthenotedtotheearlySpringandAutumnPeriod(770–476BCE),evenlargerthanYicity,,,,,hewasmadethelegalrulerofJin,,DukeXianofJin,enlargedtheJincapital,whileancientQuwostillremainedthesecondlargestcityofJin,andplayedapivotalroleinJin’:WhatadvicedoyouhaveforyoungscholarsTianJianwen:Myexperiencestellmethat[thebestwaytostudyarchaeologymaybe]memorizingclassicworksofarchaeologicalresearch,keepingtypicalarchaeologicalartifactsinmind,andreadinga,,JilinUniversityPresspublishedAnOutlineofChineseArchaeology:ACenturyofDiscoveryandResearch(1921–2021)writtenbyProfessorZhaoBinfu,,,myfeelingisthatalthoughChina’scentury-oldmodernarchaeologyhasbeengivenahigherprofile,t,createbetterenvironments,andcultivatemoreprofessionalsinarchaeology,soastocarryontheessentialworkofprimary-levelarchaeology.

DesdignitairesétrangersetdesresponsablesdorganisationsinternationalesontfélicitémercredileConseilchinoispourlapromotionducommerceinternational(CCPIT)àlésidentindonésienJokoWidodo,quiaparticipéàunsommetparvidéomarquantcetanniversaire,aditquelIndonésieetlaChineontbeaucoupencommun,carlacoopérationcommercialesestdéveloppéerapidement,etquelesinvestissementsdansdiverssecteurs,notammentdanslesminesetlamétallurgie,lélectricitéetlesinfrastructures,lindustriemanufacturière,lagricultureetlapêche,reflètentdesintérêhui,lemondeabesoindedavantagedactionscollectivesetdecollaborationsinclusivesentrelespaysdéveloppésetleséconomiesendéveloppement,a-t-ilaffirmé.LIndonésieoptimiserasaprésidenceduG20pourcesquestions,aditlepréésidentéquatorienGuillermoLassoaconsidéréquesetournerverslAsie,cestsetournerverslavenirdumonde;cestpourquoi,a-t-ilpoursuivi,léquateurafaitdeladhésionàlAccordglobaletprogressifpourlepartenariattranspacifiqueuneprioritééquateursengageànégocieretàsignerunaccorddelibre-échangeaveclaChineafinderendrelesrelationscommercialesentrelesdeuxpaysplusfortesetplusdiversifiées,aaffirmé,ajoutantqueléquateuraccueillefavorablementlesnouvellesformesdinvestissementchinoisdanslessecteursdupétroleetdugaz,desmines,destélécommunications,deléénéraledelOrganisationmondialeducommerce(OMC),NgoziOkonjo-Iweala,aditlorsdesoninterventionausommetquencestempsdepandémies,deconflits,decrisesalimentaires,dedégradationdelenvironnementetderisquesderécession,lacoopésurdesquestionsdepointetellesquelafacilitationdelinvestissement,lecommercenumérique,unlargeéventaildepréoccupationsenvironnementales,notammentlapollutionparlesplastiques,etleseffortsvisantàrenforcerlaparticipationdesmicro,petitesetmoyennesentreprises(MPME)etdesfemmesaucommerce,aajoutélacheffedelutilisateursquotidiensdesrèglesetdisciplinesdelOMC,lesentreprisesenChineetdanslemondeentiersontdesacteursclésdusystèmecommercialmultilatéral,a-t-ellelancé.Lorsdusommet,LimJockHoi,secrétairegénéraldelAssociationdesnationsdelAsieduSud-Est(ASEAN),aindiquéqueleCCPITaréussiàpromouvoirlacoopérationenmatièredecommerceextérieuretdinvestissemententrelaChineetlemonde,ajoutantquelesrelationséconomiquesentrelASEANetlaChinenontjamaisétéaussifortesetétroitesquaujourdhui."Enréponseàlévolutionrapidedupaysageéconomiquemondialdanslèrepost-pandémique,lASEANetlaChinesoriententversunnouveaupartenariattournéverslavenir",a-t-ilconsidéré,ajoutantque"laportéedecepartenariatestvasteetcomprenddenombreusesprioritésémergentestellesqueleschanesdapprovisionnementrésistantes,léconomienumériqueetladurabilité",domainesdanslesquels,selonlui,l,présidentdel-ChinaBusinessCouncil(USCBC),aditqueleconseilestfierdeconsidérerleCériode,lesdeuxpartiesontaccomplidemagnifiquesréalisationsensemble,entravaillantdurpourdévelopperlesrelationscommercialesbilatéralesentrelesétats-UnisetlaChine,états-UnisetlaChinesonttousdeuxdegrandesnationscommercialesdotéesdunerichehistoireenmatièredentrepreneuriatetdinnovation,a-t-ilaffirmé,ajoutantquelesentreprisesaméricainescontinuentdeseconcentrersurlaChineavecunevisionàlongtermedesrelationsbilatéapasétéfacile,maislesobjectifsetlesvaleurspartagésrestentorientésdanslamêmedirectionversunecroissance,uneproductivitéetuneprospéritécontinues,a-t-ildit,rai,présidentdelAssociationjaponaisepourlapromotionducommerceinternational(JAPIT),asoulignééquecetteannéemarquele50eanniversaireéàcréerunenvironnementpropiceàééenmai1952,leCCPITapourobjectifdepromouvoirlecommerceextérieuretlerecoursauxinvestissementsétrangers,dintroduiredestechnologiesétrangèresavancéesetdemenerdesactivitésdecoopérationéconomiqueettechnologiquesino-étrangè

Duringthesummerof2021,anarticletitled“Non-LocalMothersJoinHandstoRaiseChildreninBigCities”wentviralonChinesesocialmediawithmorethan100,000readers—,thisarticleintendstodelveintothephenomenonofchild-rearing,andhowitmovesbeyondfamilyboundariesinmetropolises,:Whyisthepracticeofparentingre-crossingfamilyboundariesagainstthebackdropofdissolvingsocialfoundationsforcollectivechild-rearingandgrowingresponsibilityforfamily-orientedparentingIsitpossibletoreshapetherolesoffamily,society,state,andthemarketinchildcare“W”StreetisoneofShanghai’sfoursuburbancenters,“S”pioneeredthe,representedbyS,’s“process-event”analysismethod,thisarticleattemptstocapturethesemothers’continuouseffortstohelpparentingtranscendfamilyboundariesandintegratewithregionalresources,includingtheformationofacommunalchild-rearingsupportnetwork,communalchildfriendlyspaces,innovativeparent-childactivities,“slashcareermom,”meaningsheis“raisingchildrenontheonehandandpursuingacareerontheother.”Thiswast,Sstartedherbusinessin2013,,setupapersonalpublicaccountonWeChat,ing,andt,,,,therewasaspaceconvertedfromanoldcontainer,called“LittleBlueRoom,”,SYCsocialorganization,whichoperatesthecommunitygarden,heldvari,uponnegotiation,,Sbecameagrassrootsentrepreneurandbuilthercommunalchild-rearingsupportnetworkaroundtheconceptof“raisingchildrentogether.”Withthehelpofthephysicalspaceandplatformprovidedbythecommunitygarden,theonlinegroupsofmothers,managedbyS,,Splannedplantingclasses,gardendesignclasses,lessonsontraditionaluseofherbs(suchasmugwort)duringtheDragonBoatFestival,,Swasabletoincorporatecommunityactivitieswithherparentinggroups,whichbuiltexter,,Bassociationwasofficiallyapproved,withthepurposeofpromotingresidents’senseofparticipation,volunteering,andpromotingfamilies’’lives,uncovercommunitytalent,advocateforco-creationinthecommunity,enhancepublicwelfareawareness,andimproveresidents’“mothergroups”wonsocialrecognitiona,Sandhermothergroupswentthroughaprocessofseekingexternalsupportandestablishingconnectionsbasedontheirownandtheirfamily’,womenwhoexploredcollectivechild-rearinginthecommunitygraduallysteppedoutofprivatelifeandengagedinthelargersocialstructure,interwovenwithdifferentactorsinthegovernment,market,eireffortstointegratechild-rearingwiththespace,activities,,therearemanyplacesforchildren’sactivities,whichseemabundant,,geographicallyadjacentspacesareoftenadministrativelyrunbydifferentcommunities,,inpractice,,anint,childrenhadphysicaltraininginthegymsandsportcenters,usedrestaurantsforpaintingclasses,warmedupatthebasketballcourtinthepark,visitedsmalllocalexhibitionhalls,plantedvegetablesinthecommunitygarden,andcarriedouttraditionalculturalactivitiessuchas“wearingHanfucostumesandlearningSinology”,theseactivitiesdyn,practicalchild-rearingspacenotonlytransformednormalurbansettingsbutalsobroughtmoreattentiontopeopleintheseactivities,truly,in2020,WstreetwaslistedasShanghai’sfirstchildfriendlydemonstrationcommunity,forminga“onecenter,multiplesites”“bigcommunity,”,therewerefiveeffectivethemeclubsthatSandhermothergroupsran,hosting120formalthemedactivitiesandmorethan100informaladditionalactivitiesamidthepandemic,directlyserving1,965households,whilebenefitingover5,,designed,:Someareindependent,basedonindividualmembers’expertiseandobservationofreallifeneedsinthecommunity;Thesecondtypeofactivityisincollaborationwithlocal,community,andsocialorganizations,,,themothergroupssetupeveningandsummercare,borrowingcom,realizingthegoalof“raisingchildreninacollectiveeffortandlettingthemgrowupinamixed-agecommunityenvironment.”Theseservicesareofferedunderthesloganof“motherknowsmotherbetter,motherknowschildrenbetter,”conveyingnotonlythetrustworthinessofmothers’care,butalsomutualhelpbe,“raisingchildreninadown-to-earthway,”theywouldblendreallifefamilysituationsandcommunityplanningintosmalltasksforchildren,organization,space,andcontent,theconceptofcommunalchild-rearinghasgraduallytakenshape,,parentsvaluepersonalinvolvementintheirchildren’sdevelopment,ratherthanrely,theseparentshavea,smallfamilieswhostayinShanghaid,theirreplaceablevalueofcommunityenvironmentsforchildren’sgrowthhasbeenrecognized,soparticipationincommunitylifeandmakingneighborhoodfriendsarerefinedasakindof“down-to-earthcultivation,”,behindcommun,youngmothersinthisorganizationfurtherexpandedchild-rearingfromfamiliestocommunities,andgrad,SwaselectedbythecommunitytoparticipateinShanghai’,thecoreideasandhermothergroupsreachedalargeraudience,,communalchild-rearingextendsfromcommunities,exploringresourceintegrationbeyondfamilyboundaries,tobalancewomen’sroleasmotherscmulti-bodycooperativeparentingsystem,ttheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences.

Theintegrationofinterdisciplinaryknowledgehaseffectivelyspurredtheem“Traditionaldisciplinarytheoriesarenolongerabletoeffectivelyanswerandsolvesomenewproblemsresultingfromsocialdevelopment,”saidZhangQiang,deputydeanndtheindustrialrevolutionhavepromptedthereor,academicsystem,anddiscoursesystemofphilosophyandsocialscienceswithChinesecharacteristicsinthenewera,themostvigorousnewgrowthpointiscontributedbytheutilizationofmoderninformationtechnologya,directoroftheResearchCenterforDigitalHumanitiesatNanjingAgriculturalUniversity,theapplicationofbigdataandmoderninformationtechnologycanelevatethefreshness,convenience,,theexertionofmodernsci-techintraditionalpathsofhumanitiesandhistoricalresearcha’sview,comparedtobasicdisciplinesandtraditionaldisciplines,emergingdisciplinesencompassnewinterdisciplinarydisciplinesformedthroughthemutualpenetrationandintegrationofliberalarts,sciences,andengineering;newiterativedisciplinesgeneratedbyembracingnewtechnologies;andnewa,emergingdisciplinesoftenhavetheabovethreeattributessimultaneously,,beingattheintersectionofcontemporarylinguistics,brainscience,cognitivescience,artificialintelligence,andothercutting-edgescientificfields,couldnolongerbehandledbytraditio,afterastageofexploration,accumulation,andsublimation,psychologyandneuroscience,blendingknowledgefromsuchfieldsasphysics,engineering,computerscience,statistics,cognitivescience,psychology,physiology,rspectiveof“gene-protein-brain-behavior-cognition.”ZhongYuan,aprofessorfromtheSchoolofPsychologyatNanjingNormalUniversity,hastriedformanyyearstoresearchthebrain’semotionalprocessingcircuitsandthebrainnetworkconnectivityofpatientswithaffectivedisorderssuchasanxietydisorder,depressivedisorder,post-traumaticstressdisorder,andadolescentbipolardisorder,adoptingmulti-modal,multi-omics,andotherneuroimagingmethodsandemployingartificialintelligence,machinelearning,,Zhongaimstolocatethecoretargetoftheoccurrenceanddevelopmentofdiseases,anddecipherthebrainsciencecodeofdiseases,achievingtheclassificationoftargetdiseasesaswellasindividualizedprediction,prevention,,mainlyusingquestionnairemeasurementsandbehavioralobservations,lacksenoughreliabilityandvalidity,emergingdisciplinesvisualizethepreviouslyin,inwhichrecentchangescanbedescribedas“earth-shaking.”Modernlinguisticresearchisgettingincreasinglytiedtocutting-edgescienceaswellaseconomicandsocialdevelopment,umanitiesh,aresearchteamfromJiangsuNormalUniversityisalsoworkingonbrainscienceandartificiaularlinguistics,surveyingthelangu,adisciplineexaminingtherelationshipandtheinteractionmechanismbetweenlanguageandenvironment,hasquietlyemergedintheprocessofsoc,deputydirectoroftheNationalResearchCenterforStateLanguageCapacityatBeijingForeignStudiesUniversity,saidthatinagoodmomentumofdevelopment,ecolinguisticshasseentwoparadigms—theHaugenModelthatinspectstheimpactofenvironmentsonthesurvival,state,anddevelopmentoflanguages,andtheHallid,moreandmoreyoungscholarsareattractedtothediscipline,andstrivetocontinuouslybroadentheresearch,ecolinguisticshasstretcheditsconcernfromthesurvival,state,anddevelopmentoflanguagestonaturalenvironments,,theresearchpurposeofecolinguisticsextendsfromtheh,ecolinguisticsisnolongerconfinedtoindividualtheoriesinsystemicfunctionallinguistics,cognitivelinguistics,andsociolinguistics,butgraduallyexpandstotheentiresystemoftheirdisciplinarytheories,onglydrivetraditionalhumanitiesresearch,,digitalhumanitiesresearchisaproductof,drawingahostofscholarsfromtraditionaldisciplines.

>LaChinepoursuivrasonrêvederenouveaunationalàl’occasiondelacélébrationducentenaireduPCC2021-07-2008:33:00ZhongZhe    Le1erjuillet,lePCCcélèbresoncentièmeanniversairesurlaplaceTiananmenàPé:XINHUA  Le1erjuillet,leParticommunistechinois(PCC)acélébrééclaréqu’unobjectifdedéveloppementimportantavaitatteintetaannoncéquelanationchinoiseavanceavecunélaninexorableverssonrenouveau.  LorsdecerassemblementgrandiosesurlemblématiqueplaceTiananmen,làoùMaoZedongproclamalanaissancedelaRépubliquepopulaire,XiJinping,secrétairegénéralduComitécentralduPCC,asaluélessuccèsdupartiaucoursdusièclepasséetaappelélensembledupartiàpoursuivreavecvolontéetopiniatretésontravailacharné,ainsiqu’àcontinuerlagrandeluttepourparveniraurenouveaunational.  ,égalementprésidentchinoisetprésidentdelaCommissionmilitairecentrale,adéclaréquelaChineavaitatteintl’objectifdupremiercentenaire,àsavoirconstruireàtousleségardsunesociétédeprospéritémodérée.  CelasignifiequenousavonssuapporterunerésolutionhistoriqueauproblèmedelapauvretéabsoluequisévissaitenChine,etquenousavanonsmaintenantàpasassurésverslobjectifdudeuxièmecentenaire,quiestdefairedelaChineungrandpayssocialistemoderneàtousleségards,adéclaré  100ansderéalisations   FangJun,rédacteurenchefdeléditiondesPériodiquesenSciencessocialesdeChine,adéclaréquelediscourssolenneldeXiJinpingtémoignemagnifiquementdelaluttecentenairequ’alivré’,documenthistoriquedumarxismeau21esiècle,appelleenfinàunemobilisationgénéralepourlegrandrenouveaudelanationchinoise.  LediscoursambitieuxdeXiJinpingadémontréaumondeentierletripleforceàl’uvrederrièrelesréalisationsPCCtoutaulongdusièclepassé,àsavoirlapérennitéduparti,sonpouvoirdunificationetsonpouvoirdorganisationetd’exécution,adéclaréZhangZhongjia,secrétairedugroupedirigeantduPartiàlAcadémiedesSciencessocialesduHubei.  LePCCatoujoursrespectéaveclaplusengagementorigineletlamissionduparticonsistentprécisémentàapporterlebonheuraupeuplechinoisetlerenouveauàlanationchinoise,arelevéQuanHeng,vice-présidentdelaFédérationdesassociationsdeSciencessocialesdeShanghai.  Pourcetteraison,lePartiasuguiderlepeupleverslessuccèsquelepaysaconnus,anotéèsavoiratteintunesériedobjectifs,telsqueléradicationdelapauvretéabsolueetlachèvementdelaconstructionintégraledunesociétédeprospéritémodérée,lePartipréservepar-dessustoutsaphilosophieaucurd’undéveloppementcentrésurlepeuple.  Lepeupleestlemotclé,secrétairedupartidelUniversitéd’agriculturedeNankin,asoulignéquelhistoirecentenaireduPartiaréponduprécisémentàlaquestionfondamentaledesavoirpourquinousconstruisonslePartietexeronslagouvernance.  Versl’objectifdudeuxièmecentenaire  Aujourdhui,lespaysageséconomiques,technologiques,culturels,sécuritairesetpolitiquessubissentàl’éédansunepériodedeturbulence,adéclaréZhongYing,chercheuseàlInstitutdétudessurlaChinecontemporainedelAcadémiedesSciencessocialesdeChine.  Pourunepériodeassezlonguedelavenir,nousdevonsavoirunecompréhensionclairedecescirconstancesextérieuresetrépondreactivementauxdiversrisquesetdéfisengendrésparleschangementsdeconfigurationinternationaleadéclaréMmeZhong.  Danslaperspectivedecettenouvelleétape,ilestessentielderésoudrelesproblèmesmajeursliésaudéveloppementdéséquilibréetlacunairedupays,etdepromouvoirundéveloppementdequalité.Ilseraitdifficiledyparvenirsilnétaitguidéquepardesfacteurstelsqueletravail,lecapital,laterreetlesressourcesnaturelles,aindiquééformesinstitutionnellesstructurellesetlinnovationtechnologiquesontnécessairespourréaliserlatransformationdundéveloppementaxésurlesfacteursdeproductionversundéveloppementaxésurlefficacitéetlinnovation,afindaméliorervéritablementlefficacitéetstimulerlinnovation.  Ilestparticulièrementimportantdepromouvoirlautonomietechnologique,denousconcentrersurlaméliorationduniveaudemodernisationdelachaneindustrielledenotrepaysetdemaintenirsastabilité,ainsistéMmeZhong.  Pouraccélérerlaconstructiondunpaysinnovant,LinZhongqin,présidentdelUniversitéJiao-tongdeShanghai,asuggéréquelesuniversitésassumentleurrledematricesscientifiquesettechnologiquesstratégiquesnationalesetréèredapprofondissementdelarecherchefondamentaleetdintégrationinterdisciplinaire,etréaliserdespercéesmajeuresenmatièredinnovationtoutenmatrisantdenombreusestechnologiescléspourcontribueràsurmonterlesobstaclesquilimitentledéveloppementnational.  Ilestégalementimportantdetransféreretappliquerplusefficacementlesréalisationsscientifiquesettechnologiquesdesuniversité,éréderenforcerlaformationindépendantedestalentsdehautniveau.  Danscettenouvelleétapequinousattend,nousdevonsporterhautlabannièredelapaix,dudéveloppement,delacoopérationetdesavantagesmutuels,etadhéreràlavoied’undéveloppementpacifique,adéclaréFanLiming,présidentedelUniversitéduShandong.  MmeFanaégalementsuggérédepromouvoirlaconstructiondunecommunautédavenirpartagépourlhumanité,etledéveloppementqualitatifdelaCeintureetlaRoute,afind’offrirdenouvellesopportunitésaumondeparledéveloppementdelaChine.

Sincethe20thcentury,thedevelopmentpatternsandoperatingmechanismsofhumansocietyhavecontinuouslyalteredinlightofthein-depthadvancementofeconomicglobalization,informatization,,thepossibilitythatasingledis,butaimedataddressingcomplexsystemicproblems,saidZhangWei,deputydirectoroftheInstituteofChina’sScience,search,suchemergingfieldsasmannedspaceflight,deep-seaexploration,cleanenergy,artificialintelligence,andquantuminformationallfallintothesphereofmultidisciplinaryresearch,,adistinguishedprofessorwithNanjingXiaozhuangUniversity,thehistoryofscientificdevelopmentshowsthatmajorscientificbreakthroughs,newgrowthpoints,andeventheemergenceofnewdisciplinesarefrequentlyrealiz,thetheoryofsuperconductivityortheBCStheorywasjointlydevelopedbyJohnBardeen,whowasproficientinsolid-statephysics,andLeonCooperandJohnSchrieffer,,aprofessorfromtheSchoolofSocialandBehavioralSciencesatNanjingUniversity,notedthethreevaluesofcross-disciplinarystudies—expandingtheacademicdomain,updatingresearchparadigms,,whetheritisthe“internalcrossover”ofsocialsciencesandhumanities,orthe“externalcrossover”withnaturalsciences,theresearchvisionandmentalityoftheoriginaldisciplinecangetinspiredandactivatedbythedisciplinesitintersectswith,,theresearchparadigmsoftheoriginaldisciplinescanrealizesystematicexpans,thefusionofrespectivedisciplinaryadvantagesandeventheuseofnaturalscienceresearchmethodsandmindsetcanservethecountry’,aprofessorfromtheSchoolofHumanitiesandSocialSciencesattheUniversityofScienceandTechnologyofChina,saidthatthetransitionfromthe“single-disciplinaryparadigm”tothe“interdisciplinaryparadigm”isarevolutioninthefieldsofscientificresearch,education,softransdisciplinarystudies,thecultivationofspecializedversatiletalent,an,deputydeanoftheSchoolofInformationManagementatWuhanUniversity,well-performedinterdisciplinaryresearchisusuallyteamwork-basedandintricateproblem-,oneneedstofirstbecomeanexpertinacertaintraditionaldiscipline,,drivenbyproblems,sciplinesandcarryingoutcollaborativeresearch,therebystimulatingtheexpancts,theproblemsweencounterinpromotinghigh-qualityeconomicandsocialdevelopmentareoftenmajorcomplicatedsystematicproblems,whichcallfor,goal-oriented,andproblem-oriented,mak,effortsarenecessarytodeepencollaborationamongenterprises,universities,andresearchinstitutesandsmooththecompleteinnovationchainrunningfrombasicresearchtoappliedresearch,promotingtheintegrateddevelopmentoftheinnovationchain,talentchain,,plannedbytheMinistryofEducationduringthe14thFive-YearPlanperiod(2021–25),ialneedsandmajorpracticalneeds,tingnationwideeffortandresourcesonkeynationalsci-techundertakings,inordertoservemajornationalstrategiessuchas“intensifyingnationalstrategicstrengthinscienceandtechnology,”“peakingcarbonemissionsandachievingcarbonneutrality,”“healthyChina,”and“ruralvitalization.”Universitiesunderthe“doublefirst-class”initiativeshouldbebasestobuildabatchofinstitutionsforscientificresearchthatarecross-regional,cross-department,cross-industry,cross-university,umandnewspacefortherenaissanceofChineseculturethatisinherentlyinterdisciplinary,usheringinaneraofintegratingChineseandWesterncultures,“ontology”todeepencomprehensivecross-disciplinaryresearchwithmodernphilosophyofscience,aesthetics,ethics,logic,brainscience,psychology,withChina’snationalconditionsandwiththecharacteristicsofChineseacademicdevelopment.

ModernCommunicationSystemInnovationResearchSeriesModernCommunicationSystemInnovationResearchSeries,editedbyHuZhengrong,directorandaprofessorfromtheInstituteofJournalismandCommunicationattheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences,consistsoffivebookswrittenbydifferentscholars,includingFromCapabilitytoEffectiveness:AStudyontheConstructionofInternationa“theoverallgoalofnationalrejuvenationandinacontextoftheworld’sprofoundchangesunseeninacentury,”fromtheperspectiintheinternationalpatternandtheworldinformationtransmissionorder,cationecology,thenewpatternofpublicopinion,andtheriseofChina,theseriesiscommittedtotheconstructionofaninternationalcommunicationknowledgeparadigmwithChinesecharacteristicsbeyondWesterncentrismandsimpledualism,exploringthestrategy,approach,andmodeofbuildingChina’,theseriestriestosurpassthesinglelinearviewsofhistoryand“civilizationhierarchytheory,”gobeyondthestate-centricdominantanalysismode,andgraspdynamicinterstates,andofferscriticismofthenation-statelogic,forminghistorical,interconnected,dynamic,,ithighlightsmultipledialogues,interactions,alpoliticalandeconomicsystemsreinforceeachother’’srelationshipswithsocialismandmoderncapitalisminhistory,clarifiesthedevelopmentofinternationalcommunication,andpositionsChina’smoderncommunicationsystemintheprocessofinterrelateddynamichistoricalprocesses,establishinganinterdisciplinaryan,basedontheonlinepracticeinChina,itdelvesintotheexternalconstraints,internaldemands,androlecompositionofthestateasthemaintransmissionsubject,interactionsubject,andactionsubject,renderinganewinterpretationframeworkwithbothuniommunicationStudiesatCommunicationUniversityofChina.

,:PROVIDEDTOCSSTChina’saccessionintotheWTOhasfacilitatedeconomicglobalization,saidHolgerGrg,presidentoft:What’syourtakeonChina’saccessionintotheWTOandthismove’sinfluenceonChinaandthewiderworldGrg:China’saccessiontotheWTO,andtheincreaseintrade,investment,andlinksintoglobalvaluechainswhichfollowedit,haveundoubtedlycontributedmassivelytoChina’seconomicgrowth,,Chinesefirmshavebeenexposedtoincreasinginternationalcompetition,,,andperhapssometimesoverlooked,:HowcanChinaandGermanyboosteconomicandtradecooperation,especiallyinservicesGrg:TheperceptioninmanyEuropeancountriesisthatChinaisastrategiccompetitoronworldmarkets,ServicesTr:What’syourtakeontherelationshipbetweentradeinservicesandhigh-qualityeconomicdevelopmentGrg:Thedevelopmen,increaseduetofurtherliberalizationefforts,,–thinkofIT,businessconsulting,finance,architecture–soagrowthinthosesectorsneedshighlyskilledemployees,,comparedtomanyaspectsofmanufacturing,manyservicesare:HowcanChineseenterprisesgoabroadamidthechangesunseeninacenturyGrg:emoreandmoreChinesefirmstogoandinvestabroad,buthowtofurtherencourageChineseoutwardForeignDirectInvestment(FDI)ofhighqualitythpmentinhosteconomiesisespeciallyrelevantnowadayswhenmanycountriesintheworld,particularlyinWesterneconomies,focusonemphasizingeconomicself-sufficiencyandtechnologicalsovereigntythroughre-regionalization,re-nationalization,’outwardFDIprojectscanpositivelysupportthedevelopmentofhostcountries(through,forexample,fosteringspilloversorcooperationwithlocalpartners),theymayfacefarfewerdifficultiesincarryingouttheirprojects.

Thecreativetransformationandinnovativedevelopmentoftraditionalhandcraftedworkisconducivetonourishingourculturalecology,enrichingculturalresources,andimprovingChina’,andthenationalresearchreportsfrom2018to2021publishedbyChineseHandicraft,thisarticlesummarizesthecurrentcreativetransformationandinnovativedevelopmentofthetraditionalhandcraftingindustry,,handc:thesetwotypesofbrandsaccountforover65%ofthe407nationioninbothqualityandoutput,withhouseholditems,fashionableculturalandcreativeproducts,,morethan20%ofartisansattachimnofculturalconceptsandlifestyleswhilefocusingontheirskills,ulturalservicehasattractedmorepeopletoparticipateintlhandcraftswithlowthresholdstoentry,suchaspaper-cutting,patchwork,embroidery,,ondaryschools,studentscandeepentheirknowledgeoftraditionalcultureandexercisecreat,,theshareofcraftexperiencepr,,moreandmorehandcraftingtechniqueshavebeenintegratedintocommunityclasses,arietyshows,andthefusionoftraditionalcraftswithdocumentariesandvarietyshowshascreatedaratingsboom,inadditiontotheusualceentraditionalcraftsandaudiencesbytellingthevividlifes“MastersintheForbiddenCity,”“ExtraordinaryIngenuity,”“EarthandIngenuity,”and“TheGreatShokunin.”“MastersintheForbiddenCity”[aChinesesocialnetworkingservicewebsite],withmorethan110,,ashortvideoplatform,over15mi,Douyin,anothershortvideoplatform,launched“TheWonderofCraft”program,whichhighlightshandcraftsthroughtrafficsupport,feeconcessions,,theformerlyIntangibleCulturalHeritageDepartmentoftheMinistryofCulture,incollaborationwithhighereducationinstitutions,implementedatra,theprogramreceivedacumulativeinvestmentofRMB500millionfromthecentralgovernmentandsawover100,,comprehensivequality,andenthusiasmoedpeopleandcooperatewithhandcraftenterprises,institutionsthataimtoprotectintangibleculturalheritage,’practicalskillshavebeenimprovedwithproductionandteaching,andcon,incollaborationwithintangibleculturalheritageprotectioninstitutions,,promotingthetransformationofenthusiastsintocraftsmen,andprovyandinfluence,sseminationrelyingonregionalculturesandpolicybenefits,,thecultur,,,manyofthehandcraftsselectedforsharingareets,,,,leadthepublic,whichisdetrim,buthavelittleknowledgeoftheculturalconnotations,patentprotection,andmarketoperationsofhandcrafts,andcrafttrainingworkshops,,sotheycannotprovideauthoritativeandcutting-edgeinformationontheindustry,andtrainees’,theresourceintegratiotheintegrationofbrandresources,guidecross-categoryandcross-regionalcooperationamonghandcrafts,tapintopotentialconsumergroups,andhelpbrandsbrea,enhanceourabilitytoexportculture,improveculturalnarratives’awarenessofserviceandfunction,demonstratespecificcontentinplainlanguage,focusonconveyingtheculturalconnotationsembeddedinhandcrafts,andleadahealthy,environmentallyfriendly,,,developteachingandexperientialcoursesfordifferentgroupsofpeoplebasedonschools,communities,andconsumptionplaces,enrichtheteachingcontent,andaddculturalhistoryexplanationsandaestheticknowledgeinadditiontodemonstratingskills,tomobilizepeople’iaryplatforms,standardizetheiroperation,andpromotecooperationbetweenhandcraftsandindustriessuchasclothing,beauty,homefurnishing,realestate,andarchitecture,withafocusoninvestmentininter-generationaleducation,leisure,,themanagementofcommunicationplatformsshouldberegulated,,setupprofessionalteamstoidentifybadcontent,toimprovethecreativityandprofessionallevelofvideos,providepositiveguidancetoviewers,andleadtheindustry’,promoteintegrationofhandcraftsintothedecorationofconsumerspaces,publicculturalspaces,andcommunitylivingspaces,andfullydemonstratetheaestheticcharacteristicsofhandcraftedgoodsinpublicspacesthroughcarrierssuchastext,sound,images,andvideo,aswellasnewtechnologiessuchasVR,sothathandicraftsbecomevisible,audible,,trainingofhigh-qualitytalentmustbeaccelerated,alcraftsmen,focusonshoringuptheshortcomingsofcraftsmeninculturalhistory,patentprotection,marketoperation,andmoderndesign,promotedeepexchangeandcooperationamongpeers,providecraftsmenwithrelevantplatformresourcestosupportthem,ry,enhancethedesigncapabilitiesofcraftsmen,payattentiontoguidingdesignprofessionalstojoininthecreationofhandcraftedworks,andcarryoutcreativedesignsbasedonanin-depthunderstandingoftheculturalconnotations,materials,techniques,,andoffercourseswhichfitthetrainees’actualskilllevel,’qualifications,raisetheselectioncriteria,andinviteexpertDevelopmentatEastChinaNormalUniversity.

FILEPHOTO:CaiMeibiaoandAGeneralHistoryofChinaTheChinesehistorianCaiMeibiao(1928–2021),orAGeneralHistoryofChina,ce,aswellasamicrocosmofCai’,FanWenlan(1893–1969),aleadingChinesehistorianandthedirectoroftheinstitute,wasrevisingZhongguoTongshiJianbian,orAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition).,FanwasreceivedbyMaoZedonginYan’an,andwasappointedasthedirectoroftheOffic,MaoZedongcalledonthewholepartytolearnChinesehistoryandtounderstandChina’ofChina’,whichwasnamedAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition),,Fanbegantorewritethebookhehadn’,knownastheRevisedVersionofAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition),wasnotasimplerevisionofthepreviousthree-volumework,,eachpersonwhoassistedFanwasresponsibleforresearchingafieldinhistory,,fourvolumesofAGeneralHistoryofChina(RevisedandConciseEdition)weresuccessivelypublished,coveringChina’shistoryfromantiquitytotheSui(581–618),Tang(618–907),andFiveDynasties(907–960),Fansufferedfromheartdisease,,Fansaidthathecouldnolongerwritebyhimself,andhop,’sdeathbroughtthecompilationofthebooktoastandstill,dtotheunfinishedundertakingleftbehindbyFan.‘AGeneralHistoryofChina’ContinuingwiththecompilationofAGeneralHistoryofChina(RevisedandConciseEdition),,heplanne,thebookwasnolongerarevisedversionofAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition)asitscontentincreased,anditwasmorethana“conciseedition”ofChina’“AGeneralHistoryofChina”,theInstituteofModernHistorycouldnotcompletealltheworkoftheprojectalone,soCaiinvitedscholarsfromNankaiUniversity,FudanUniversity,,’tsimplyeditthesedraftsormaterials,,000characters,only30,(1925–2006),aprofessorattheUniversityofLondon,andoneoftheco-editorsofTheCambridgeHistoryofChina,oncetoldCaithattheyhadneverfinishedthefirstvolumeofTheCambridgeHistoryofChina,becausetheycouldn’tkeeppacewithChina’,theyhadtogiveupthepre-Qin(before221BCE)historyofthefirstvolumeandstartfromtheQin(221–207BCE)andHan(206BCE–220CE)alfindingsatalltimescertainlywouldleadtotheproblemof“failingtokeeppace.”Therefore,Caip,CaiinheritedFan’sideasandmethodsofwritingAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition).Meanwhile,hehadhisownunderstandingandmadeinnovationsduringtheprocess,whichcanbeseenfromthefollowingexample:Cai’sAGeneralHistoryofChinabeganwiththeSong(960–1279),Liao(907–1125),Jin(1115–1234),andYuan(1279–1368),,000yearsfromtheHantothefalloftheQingDynasty(1644–1911),theHanpeoplehadruledovernon-Hanethnicgroupsmanytimes,,therewereconflictsandwarsbetweentheHanandnon-Hanethnicgroups,,theseconflictsandwarsdidn’tcreatedistancesbutstr,thenon-Hanethnicgoups,andgainedn,inAGeneralHistoryofChina,CaiaddedachapterfortheWesternXia[alsoknownastheTangutEmpire,existingfrom1038to1227inpresent-daynorthwesternChina],whichwasnotfoundinpreviousgeneralhistorybooks,inthesectiononSong,Liao,Jin,“thevariousethnicgroupsundertheruleoftheYuanDynasty”k,,hecouldbefoundinhisofficeeveryday,,sixvolumesofAGeneralHistoryofChinaweresuccessivelycompleted,’,thetenthvolumeendedwiththereignoftheJiaqingEmperor(–1820)—fromthereignoftheDaoguangEmperor(–1850)tothatoftheXuantongEmperor[thefinalQingDynastyruler,whowasforcedtoabdicatein1912]—,Caiwasalreadyinhisseventies,’scallsliponhandforthelibraryoftheInstituteofModernHistory,andthedatewrittenonitisJanuary7,,twovolumesofmanuscriptswerefinallycompleted,,thesetwonewvolumeswerecombinedwiththefirsttenvolumesandwerepublishedtogether,’,(1019–1086),ahigh-rankingSongDynastyscholar-official,spentover20yearscompilingtheZizhiTongjian[ComprehensiveMirrorforAidinGovernment,apioneeringreferenceworkinChinesehistoriographycovering16dynastiesandspanningalmost1,400years].,Simasaidthathesufferedfromblurryvisionandtoothloss,,the12volumeswerepublishedasaboxset,,,Caisaid:“LookingbackatthetimewhenIparticipatedineditingthefirstvolumeofthisbookin1953,55yearshavepassedbeforeIknewit.”XiuXiaoboisaprofessorfromtheSchoolofHistoryatQingdaoUniversity.

ShenJiaxuanPhoto:InstituteofLinguistics,CASSOnNovember15,2020,thebookNounsandVerbswrittenbytheChineselinguistShenJiaxuanwont,ShenputforwardatheorythatinChinesealltheverbsareverbalnouns,orthen,ShenhasthoroughlydemonstratedthetheorythatChineseverbsarepartofnounswithover60essaysandsixbooks,settingoffarevolutionarywaveinthefieldofChineselinguistics,andshakingthedeep-rootedtraditionofapplyingthe’’sharvestwasdeeplyrootedinthe“SpringofScience”jingin1978,GuoMoruo,thenthepresidentoftheChineseAcademyofSciences(CAS),deliveredaspeechunderthetitleof“SpringofScience,”whichpoeticallypronouncedthatthe“SpringofScience”[aneweraofrevitalizedscientificresearchinChina]rs,includingShenJiaxuan,’sreturnbanquetwhenheworkedasliaisonforChinesetelecommunicationsduringtheUSPresidentRichardNixon’,beingintrovertedbynature,“SpringofScience,”ShendecidedtoapplytotheInstituteofLinguisticsattheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences(CASS),andwasadmittedtothein,histeacherZhaoShikaigavehimalonglistofbooks,,’nmathematicallinguisticsclassesinotheruniversities,andattendpsychologyseminarsattheInstituteofPsychology,(1904–1998),founderofmodernChineselinguisticstudies,wasalsooneofShen’’sthesis,[linguistic]studyprogramsoverseaswerebetterthanathome,andgaveShenadvicethatseemedincredible,butwasofgreatsignificance:toextensivelycollectarticlesonoverseasstudiesoftheChineselanguage,whichwerepublishedinEnglish,andma,becausein1980,,,itwasajourneytoanunknownworld,,,Shenreadtheabstract,madenotes,’sthesisconsistsoftwoparts:asummaryofoverseasstudiesofChineselanguagesasapreface,,Shen’sEnglishindexwaspublished,’,andstillfeelsthatwritingsuchapaperwasgoodacademictraining,whichhelpedhimhaveacomprehensiveunderstan,’sclassics,introducingpragmatics,cognitivelinguistics,andtheoriesoflinguistictypology,grammaticalization,uistics,,withlessthan100pages,wasthecrystallizationofLyu’slife-longwork,,“Everytimethebook[AnalysisofChineseGrammar]becameworn,,Iwouldlearnsomethingnew.”ShenhasownedfourcopiesofAnalysisofChineseGrammar,eachwornwithuse,:“Aperson’slifeisfinite,,mated,”“Thinkoutofthebox”Lyuoncesaid:“Itiscrucialtothinkoutofthebox……Wemusttemporarilythrowasidetheconceptssuchas‘word,’‘verb,’‘adjective,’‘subject,’and‘object.’Theseconceptsmaybe‘pickedup’‘thrownaside’and‘pickedup’again,becausethemeaningandvaluegiventothesetermshavechanged,andwearenolongerhedgedinwithrulesandregulations.”Inthepastdecadeorso,Shen’sworkhasbeencenteredon“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain.”In2007,Shen’spapertitled“NounsandVerbsinChinese”waspublished,layingthefoundationforhistheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”HeholdstheviewthatinChinese,verbsareaspecialtypeofnounthatexpressanaction,anevent,orastate,becauseChineseverbs,likenouns,“NounsandVerbsinChinese,”Shenhaspublisheddozensofpapers,focusingonthemostimportanttwopairsofgrammaticalcategories—“nounsandverbs,”and“subjectandpredicate,”“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain”thatbroughtarevolutionarywavetoChineselinguistics,overthrowingtheframeworkoftheoldtheoreticalsystem,andbrewingthestartofthetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”,Shensaid:“Itwouldbeha,however,wecanfindsomethingdifferent.”However,mechanicallyadoptingthestructuralfoundationandtheoreticalsystemofIndo-EuropeanlanguagesforChineselanguagesandframingChineselanguageaccordingtothepatternofIndo-Europeanlanguages,“thinkingoutofthebox”andgettingridofthe“shacklesoftheIndo-Europeanpattern.”Thetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs”explodedthefoundationofthethen-currenttheoreticalframeworkofChinesegrammar,,Shenmadef’stheoryisnowbeingrecognizedbymoreandmoreofhispeers,’seyes,,whenheseespostersbytheroadside,withChineseaboveandEnglishbelow,hewillnoticethedifferentwaysthetwolanguagesareexpressed,,healwayscarriedasmallnotebookandre,heestablishedawordbookofChineseverbalslipsandwroteseveralimportantarticles,suchas“TypesofTongueSlips.”ShenonceborrowedtheWoxianCaotangeditionofRulinWaishi[TheScholars,aChinesenovelcompletedin1750;itsearliestextanteditionisthe1803WoxianCaotangedition]“SentencesWheretheSubjectisaVerbandthePredicateisaNoun,”anarticlehewro,Shendidn’tmissoutonthenovelBlossoms,:“WhenreadingBlossoms,Ihavethedelightoffollowingtherhythm.”Afterreadingthenovel,Shenwroteamonographonlinguistics—,WeiGangqiang,deputyeditor-in-chiefof21stCenturyPublishingGroup,commented:“Itisrareandsignificantforlinguiststopayattentiontoandinterpretthelanguageofcurrentliteraryworks……ShenJiaxuan’sinsightsarenotonlytheachievementsofhislinguisticresearch,butalsovaluablereferenceforotherpeopleintermsofliterarycreation,translation,criticism,andgeneralacademicwork.”Shenmentionedthemovie“ZeroDarkThirty”lybasedondata,,becauseasmallfragmentofdatai,heoftentellshisstudentsthatthekeytosearchingforlinguisticinstancesdoesn’tlieinhowmanyinstancesyouhavecollected,hcontrast,

>LaChinesefixeunobjectifdecroissancepour2022auxalentoursde5,5%2022-04-1115:08:00LaChines’estfixéunobjectifdecroissanceéconomiqueauxalentoursde5,5%pour2022,alorsqueleslégislateursetlesconseillerspolitiquesdupayssesontréunisàPékinpourdéfinirlesprioritésdedéveloppementnationalpourcetteannéérieurbrutviséapparatcommelundesprincipauxobjectifsinscritsdansletrèsattendurapportdactivitédugouvernement,présentéparlePremierministreLiKeqiangàlassembléelégislative,dontlasessionannuelleadébutééalisablesHongXianghua,professeuràlécoleduComitécentralduPCC,adéclaréquelerevenudisponibleparhabitantenChineaaugmentéde8,1%en2021parrapportàl’annéeprécédente,etque12,69millionsdenouveauxemploisontétécréésdansleszonesurbainespourcetteanné,denouvellesréductionsdimptsetdetaxespourunmontantsupérieuràplusdemillemilliardsdeyuansontétéintroduites,etplusde85%desChinoisontsuiviunschémadevaccinationcompletcontreleCOVID-19."AtteindreunecroissanceduPIBdenviron5,5%cetteannéeestunobjectifréaliste",adéclaréàlaCSSTZhangYuyan,économisteàlAcadémiedesSciencessocialesdeChine(ASSC)etconseillerpolitiquenational,ajoutantquecetobjectifcorrespondnonseulementauxévolutionsdecroissancepotentielleàlongtermedupays,maistientégalementcomptedesrisques,desdéfis,desforcesetdesavantagesquicaractérisentléagitdunobjectifformuléentenantcomptedelapopulationactuelleenChine,desoncapitalhumain,delamargedemanuvreetdelavitessedesprogrèstechnologiques,ainsiquedescontraintesenmatièrederessourcesetdée,leFondsmonétaireinternationalaprévuqueléconomiemondialeconnatraitunecroissancede4,4%en2022,autrementditunecroissancemoyenneàélevée,aobservéêmesicertainsfacteursd’incertitudepersistentetpeuventjouerunrlenégatifsurléconomiemondiale,commelarésurgencedelapandémieetladétériorationdelasituationgéopolitiqueinternationale,lareprisedeléconomiemondialefourniradansl’ensembleuneconfigurationfavorablepourquelaChineatteignecetauxdecroissancede5,5%.LesdéfisPouryparvenir,deseffortsserontnécessaires,adéclaréHeQiang,professeuràlUniversitécentraledesfinancesetdelééconomiechinoiseseredresseprogressivement,affichantuneconjoncturemacroéconomiquesainemêmesidesdifficultésmicroéécelerunereprisestructurelledenotreéestquelorsquelespetitesetmicro-entreprisesseserontrelevéesqueléconomiedupayspourravéritablementembrasserunereprisecomplète.àcetitre,lespolitiquesen2022devraientsattacheràsoutenirvigoureusementledéécessairedêtrepleinementconscientdeladépendancesystémiquequ’entretiennententreeuxdesrisquesparnaturedifférents,etquelefaitdetraiteruncertaintypederisquesdistinctementdesautresestsusceptibled’engendrerdautresrisques,adéclaréChenYanbin,professeuràlUniversitééfis,érédesentenirauprincipegénéralvisantàrechercherleprogrèstoutenmaintenantlastabilitéémacroéconomiqueconstitueeneffetuneréponseadapté,érédoptimiserdavantagelastructureéconomique,ledéséquilibrestructurelétantunesourceimportantederisquesetdedé,ilestimportantderenforcerladynamiquedecroissancedeléconomieàlongterme,enrépondantauxrisquesetauxdéfisparlebiaisdundéveloppementqualitatif."Enrésumé,larégulationmacroéconomiquedoitrenforcerlacoordinationetlintégrationdetroistypesdepolitiques:unepolitiquedestabilisation,unepolitiquestructurelleetunepolitiquedecroissance,"ée,laChineambitionnedecréerplusde11millionsdenouveauxemploisurbainsetdemainteniruntauxdechmageurbaininférieurà5,5%.ZhengBingwen,directeurduCentredétudesinternationalessurlasécuritésocialeàlASSC,afaitvaloirquelegouvernementaccordesaprioritéàlastabilisationdelemploiparlastabilisationdesacteursdumarché,toutenrenforantlesperspectivesdelentrepreneuriatetlespritdentrepriseafindestimulerlactivitédugouvernementsoulignequelespolitiquesfiscales,financièresetmacroéconomiquesdoiventprioritairementseconcentrersurlèlement,unenouvellepolitiquecombinantsoutienfiscaletprotectiondupouvoird’achatseramiseenuvre,appuyéepardesréductionsetdesremisesd,é,lerapportdactivitédugouvernementproposeclairementuneexpansionvigoureusedescanauxdemploi,enparticulierdanslarestauration,lhtellerie,lecommercededétail,étéfortementtouchéesparlapandémie,ilestdoncnécessairedelessoutenirpoursurmonterlesdifficultésettoutmettreenuvrepourstabiliseretdévelopperlemploi,adéclaré

FILEPHOTO:CaiMeibiaoandAGeneralHistoryofChinaTheChinesehistorianCaiMeibiao(1928–2021),orAGeneralHistoryofChina,ce,aswellasamicrocosmofCai’,FanWenlan(1893–1969),aleadingChinesehistorianandthedirectoroftheinstitute,wasrevisingZhongguoTongshiJianbian,orAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition).,FanwasreceivedbyMaoZedonginYan’an,andwasappointedasthedirectoroftheOffic,MaoZedongcalledonthewholepartytolearnChinesehistoryandtounderstandChina’ofChina’,whichwasnamedAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition),,Fanbegantorewritethebookhehadn’,knownastheRevisedVersionofAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition),wasnotasimplerevisionofthepreviousthree-volumework,,eachpersonwhoassistedFanwasresponsibleforresearchingafieldinhistory,,fourvolumesofAGeneralHistoryofChina(RevisedandConciseEdition)weresuccessivelypublished,coveringChina’shistoryfromantiquitytotheSui(581–618),Tang(618–907),andFiveDynasties(907–960),Fansufferedfromheartdisease,,Fansaidthathecouldnolongerwritebyhimself,andhop,’sdeathbroughtthecompilationofthebooktoastandstill,dtotheunfinishedundertakingleftbehindbyFan.‘AGeneralHistoryofChina’ContinuingwiththecompilationofAGeneralHistoryofChina(RevisedandConciseEdition),,heplanne,thebookwasnolongerarevisedversionofAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition)asitscontentincreased,anditwasmorethana“conciseedition”ofChina’“AGeneralHistoryofChina”,theInstituteofModernHistorycouldnotcompletealltheworkoftheprojectalone,soCaiinvitedscholarsfromNankaiUniversity,FudanUniversity,,’tsimplyeditthesedraftsormaterials,,000characters,only30,(1925–2006),aprofessorattheUniversityofLondon,andoneoftheco-editorsofTheCambridgeHistoryofChina,oncetoldCaithattheyhadneverfinishedthefirstvolumeofTheCambridgeHistoryofChina,becausetheycouldn’tkeeppacewithChina’,theyhadtogiveupthepre-Qin(before221BCE)historyofthefirstvolumeandstartfromtheQin(221–207BCE)andHan(206BCE–220CE)alfindingsatalltimescertainlywouldleadtotheproblemof“failingtokeeppace.”Therefore,Caip,CaiinheritedFan’sideasandmethodsofwritingAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition).Meanwhile,hehadhisownunderstandingandmadeinnovationsduringtheprocess,whichcanbeseenfromthefollowingexample:Cai’sAGeneralHistoryofChinabeganwiththeSong(960–1279),Liao(907–1125),Jin(1115–1234),andYuan(1279–1368),,000yearsfromtheHantothefalloftheQingDynasty(1644–1911),theHanpeoplehadruledovernon-Hanethnicgroupsmanytimes,,therewereconflictsandwarsbetweentheHanandnon-Hanethnicgroups,,theseconflictsandwarsdidn’tcreatedistancesbutstr,thenon-Hanethnicgoups,andgainedn,inAGeneralHistoryofChina,CaiaddedachapterfortheWesternXia[alsoknownastheTangutEmpire,existingfrom1038to1227inpresent-daynorthwesternChina],whichwasnotfoundinpreviousgeneralhistorybooks,inthesectiononSong,Liao,Jin,“thevariousethnicgroupsundertheruleoftheYuanDynasty”k,,hecouldbefoundinhisofficeeveryday,,sixvolumesofAGeneralHistoryofChinaweresuccessivelycompleted,’,thetenthvolumeendedwiththereignoftheJiaqingEmperor(–1820)—fromthereignoftheDaoguangEmperor(–1850)tothatoftheXuantongEmperor[thefinalQingDynastyruler,whowasforcedtoabdicatein1912]—,Caiwasalreadyinhisseventies,’scallsliponhandforthelibraryoftheInstituteofModernHistory,andthedatewrittenonitisJanuary7,,twovolumesofmanuscriptswerefinallycompleted,,thesetwonewvolumeswerecombinedwiththefirsttenvolumesandwerepublishedtogether,’,(1019–1086),ahigh-rankingSongDynastyscholar-official,spentover20yearscompilingtheZizhiTongjian[ComprehensiveMirrorforAidinGovernment,apioneeringreferenceworkinChinesehistoriographycovering16dynastiesandspanningalmost1,400years].,Simasaidthathesufferedfromblurryvisionandtoothloss,,the12volumeswerepublishedasaboxset,,,Caisaid:“LookingbackatthetimewhenIparticipatedineditingthefirstvolumeofthisbookin1953,55yearshavepassedbeforeIknewit.”XiuXiaoboisaprofessorfromtheSchoolofHistoryatQingdaoUniversity.

ShenJiaxuanPhoto:InstituteofLinguistics,CASSOnNovember15,2020,thebookNounsandVerbswrittenbytheChineselinguistShenJiaxuanwont,ShenputforwardatheorythatinChinesealltheverbsareverbalnouns,orthen,ShenhasthoroughlydemonstratedthetheorythatChineseverbsarepartofnounswithover60essaysandsixbooks,settingoffarevolutionarywaveinthefieldofChineselinguistics,andshakingthedeep-rootedtraditionofapplyingthe’’sharvestwasdeeplyrootedinthe“SpringofScience”jingin1978,GuoMoruo,thenthepresidentoftheChineseAcademyofSciences(CAS),deliveredaspeechunderthetitleof“SpringofScience,”whichpoeticallypronouncedthatthe“SpringofScience”[aneweraofrevitalizedscientificresearchinChina]rs,includingShenJiaxuan,’sreturnbanquetwhenheworkedasliaisonforChinesetelecommunicationsduringtheUSPresidentRichardNixon’,beingintrovertedbynature,“SpringofScience,”ShendecidedtoapplytotheInstituteofLinguisticsattheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences(CASS),andwasadmittedtothein,histeacherZhaoShikaigavehimalonglistofbooks,,’nmathematicallinguisticsclassesinotheruniversities,andattendpsychologyseminarsattheInstituteofPsychology,(1904–1998),founderofmodernChineselinguisticstudies,wasalsooneofShen’’sthesis,[linguistic]studyprogramsoverseaswerebetterthanathome,andgaveShenadvicethatseemedincredible,butwasofgreatsignificance:toextensivelycollectarticlesonoverseasstudiesoftheChineselanguage,whichwerepublishedinEnglish,andma,becausein1980,,,itwasajourneytoanunknownworld,,,Shenreadtheabstract,madenotes,’sthesisconsistsoftwoparts:asummaryofoverseasstudiesofChineselanguagesasapreface,,Shen’sEnglishindexwaspublished,’,andstillfeelsthatwritingsuchapaperwasgoodacademictraining,whichhelpedhimhaveacomprehensiveunderstan,’sclassics,introducingpragmatics,cognitivelinguistics,andtheoriesoflinguistictypology,grammaticalization,uistics,,withlessthan100pages,wasthecrystallizationofLyu’slife-longwork,,“Everytimethebook[AnalysisofChineseGrammar]becameworn,,Iwouldlearnsomethingnew.”ShenhasownedfourcopiesofAnalysisofChineseGrammar,eachwornwithuse,:“Aperson’slifeisfinite,,mated,”“Thinkoutofthebox”Lyuoncesaid:“Itiscrucialtothinkoutofthebox……Wemusttemporarilythrowasidetheconceptssuchas‘word,’‘verb,’‘adjective,’‘subject,’and‘object.’Theseconceptsmaybe‘pickedup’‘thrownaside’and‘pickedup’again,becausethemeaningandvaluegiventothesetermshavechanged,andwearenolongerhedgedinwithrulesandregulations.”Inthepastdecadeorso,Shen’sworkhasbeencenteredon“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain.”In2007,Shen’spapertitled“NounsandVerbsinChinese”waspublished,layingthefoundationforhistheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”HeholdstheviewthatinChinese,verbsareaspecialtypeofnounthatexpressanaction,anevent,orastate,becauseChineseverbs,likenouns,“NounsandVerbsinChinese,”Shenhaspublisheddozensofpapers,focusingonthemostimportanttwopairsofgrammaticalcategories—“nounsandverbs,”and“subjectandpredicate,”“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain”thatbroughtarevolutionarywavetoChineselinguistics,overthrowingtheframeworkoftheoldtheoreticalsystem,andbrewingthestartofthetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”,Shensaid:“Itwouldbeha,however,wecanfindsomethingdifferent.”However,mechanicallyadoptingthestructuralfoundationandtheoreticalsystemofIndo-EuropeanlanguagesforChineselanguagesandframingChineselanguageaccordingtothepatternofIndo-Europeanlanguages,“thinkingoutofthebox”andgettingridofthe“shacklesoftheIndo-Europeanpattern.”Thetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs”explodedthefoundationofthethen-currenttheoreticalframeworkofChinesegrammar,,Shenmadef’stheoryisnowbeingrecognizedbymoreandmoreofhispeers,’seyes,,whenheseespostersbytheroadside,withChineseaboveandEnglishbelow,hewillnoticethedifferentwaysthetwolanguagesareexpressed,,healwayscarriedasmallnotebookandre,heestablishedawordbookofChineseverbalslipsandwroteseveralimportantarticles,suchas“TypesofTongueSlips.”ShenonceborrowedtheWoxianCaotangeditionofRulinWaishi[TheScholars,aChinesenovelcompletedin1750;itsearliestextanteditionisthe1803WoxianCaotangedition]“SentencesWheretheSubjectisaVerbandthePredicateisaNoun,”anarticlehewro,Shendidn’tmissoutonthenovelBlossoms,:“WhenreadingBlossoms,Ihavethedelightoffollowingtherhythm.”Afterreadingthenovel,Shenwroteamonographonlinguistics—,WeiGangqiang,deputyeditor-in-chiefof21stCenturyPublishingGroup,commented:“Itisrareandsignificantforlinguiststopayattentiontoandinterpretthelanguageofcurrentliteraryworks……ShenJiaxuan’sinsightsarenotonlytheachievementsofhislinguisticresearch,butalsovaluablereferenceforotherpeopleintermsofliterarycreation,translation,criticism,andgeneralacademicwork.”Shenmentionedthemovie“ZeroDarkThirty”lybasedondata,,becauseasmallfragmentofdatai,heoftentellshisstudentsthatthekeytosearchingforlinguisticinstancesdoesn’tlieinhowmanyinstancesyouhavecollected,hcontrast,

Withtheaccelerationofpopulationaging,:theprovisionofmedicalcarebyseniorcareinstitutions,theestablishmentofgeriatricswardsinpublichospitals,,thesecondishighlyprofessional,,thesethreemodelslackunifiedandeffectiveservicestandards,assessmentcontent,dataformats,andsafetynorms,:community-basedintegrationofhealthandseniorcareinurbanareas,canintegratethefirstthreemodels,andpulltogethertheadvantageousresourceseachhasinseniorcare,medicalcare,nursing,,therearestillshortcomingsinthismodel,suchasinsufficientcollaborationbetweenrelevantgovernmentdepartments,insufficientintegrationofmedicalandeldercareresources,poorconnectionsbetweenresourcesupplyanddemand,differenthealthdatastandardsfortheelderlyindifferentinstitutions,andthepro,moderndigitaltechnologies,suchascloudcomputing,bigdata,new-generationinternet,theInternetofThings(IoT),andartificialintelligence,canbeusedtobuildacomprehensivemedicalandeldercareplatform,developintelligentmonitoringsystems,healthmonitoringchips,andintelligentdevices(suchasintelligentself-builtplatforms,servicerobots,wearablemonitoringdevices,intelligentterminals,andsoforth).,aseniorhealthdatabasecanbebuiltthroughdataminingtechnology,tofacilitatescientificanalysisandintelligentdecision-making,reducetheburdenofcare,improvetheefficiencyofresourceutilization,bringintelligentdecision-makingandintelligentactionstoanewlevel,jointlypromotepolicyobjectivesshiftfrom“healthyaging”and“activeaging”to“successfulaging,”“digitalaging,”and“productiveaging,”atutionalarrangementsinordertoimprovalandseniorcare,clarifythequasi-public-goodnatureofintegratedmedicalandeldercareservices,anddefinetheresponsibilities,rights,andbenefitsbornebythegovernment,families,enterprises,elderlycareserviceproviders,communities,andothersectorsinthedevelo,allpartiesshouldshouldertheirownresponsibilitiesandworktogethertoensurethedevelo,processing,andapplicationformatsrelatedtotheelderly,aligndatacollectionstandards,networkstoragesystems,intelligentterminals,andapplicationsoftwaresystems,,accesstheadvantagesofdifferentsocialbodies,establishadiversifiedservicesupplysystemandafundingmechanismfortheelderly,andabsorbfundsfromdomesticandforeignenterprises,socialgroups,individuals,jointventures,andcooperatives,,cooperatewithhigh-techenterprisesandtechnologyserviceproviders,andadoptPPP,BT,andABOmodelstopurchasetheirservices,whichwillprovidndeldercarewiththehelpofdigitaltechnologi,weshouldintegrateresourcesfromrelevantpartiessuchastheciviladministration,healthcommission,socialsecurity,andmedicalinsurancetobuildanewdigitizedandintelligentmodelforintegratedmedicalandeldercareservicesbasedontheeffortstobringmedica’,combineallmutuallyfunctioningfactorsinthesupplyanddemandsystemtogether,promotethecoordinatedandsustainabledevelopmentofmedicalandseniorcareservices,buildacomprehensive,coordinated,dynamic,sustainable,andexpandablesupplyanddemandcouplingsystem,and,wewillintegratemedicalandeldercareresourcesandachievea“1+12”,newresourcesareconstantlyadded,newdataisgenerated,newinformationisexchanged,newresultsareoutput,,ormulti-partydisregard,weshouldcoordinateallrelevantdepartmentstobuildapublicinformationplatformandcreateawin-wi“datasilos,”“compartmentalization,”and“datafragmentation,”realizeinformationsharingandtheoptimalallocationofmedicalandnursingresources,governmentpolicies,andnursingtalent,,weshouldestablishelectronicmedicalrecordsan,bigdata,cloudstorage,andothertechnologies,weshoulddevelopsoftwareforthemanagementofa“healthcloudplatform,”,sensors,wearabledevices,intelligentsensing,andvideocaptureshouldbeusedtocollect,mine,andanalyzedataregardingelderlypatients’diets,medication,exerciseintensity,chronicdiseaseindex,“medicalandeldercarecard”shouldbecreatedforpatientswiththehelpofbarcodes,two-dimensionalcodes,RadioFrequencyIdentification,“HealthCloudPlatform,”toes,thesystemwillautomaticallyreminddoctorstoproposetimelyhealthinterventionplansandsendthedatatomobilephonesofthepatient’simmediatefamilymembers,realizinginteractionsamongdoctors,patients,“healthcloudplatform”withrelevantmunicipalanddistrictworkplatformsandimplementahierarchicaldiagnosisandtreatmentmodel—firstmedicaltreatmentincommunities,thentwo-waytreatment,differenttreatmentforacuteandchronicdiseases,,basicmedicalinsurance,andsomecustomized,,rehabilitatedelderlypeoplecanreturntotheircommunities,healthyelderlypeoplecanreturntotheirfamilies,andelderlypeoplewhoarelesscapableoftakingcareofthemselvesandinurgentneedofcarecanreceiveprecisecarefrommedicalandnursingstaff,feldercarein,andthescopeofmedicalinsurancepaymentsforhome-basedmedicalcareshouldbeextendedsothatthosewhoparticipateinurbanandruralresidents’medicalcarecanre,individuals,anityresourcesandestablishamnamongresidents,insurancecompanies,andthehealthcommission(linkinggeneralpractitioners,two-waytransference,elderlyfinancialservices,andnursinginsurance).Seniorcitizensareadvisedtopurchasemedicalandeldercareinsurancebasedontheirneeds,,wewillbeabletobringmedicalresources,publichealthresources,nursinginsurance,andelderlycareservicesintoinstitutionsforeldercare,medicalcare,andnursing,andad“double-edgedsword”thatcanprovidehigh-quality,personalizedservicesfortheelderly,assesstheirconditions,buildadatabaseoftheirneedsbasedontheirabilitytocareforthemselves,theirmedicalhistory,theirfinancialcapacities,theireducationalbackgrounds,theirchildren,theirmaritalstatus,andprovidethemwithservicesthroughacombinationof“artificialintelligenceandsupplyanddemandcouplingsystem.”Itisalsovitaltopreventtheseniorcaredatabasefromleakinginformation,programdeviations,,relevantentitiesshouldjointlydevelopadatasecurityprotectionsystem,introducesecuritymanagementmeasures,developtechnicalsecuritystandards,unifyuserauthorizationmanagement,loginmanagement,accessmanagement,andensurestoragesecurity,applicationsecurity,,supervisionshouldbestrengthenedtopromotesusuzhouUniversity,andZhangLetianisthevicedeanoftheSchoolofSocialDevelopmentandPublicPolicyatFudanUniversity.

GaoJianpingisaresearchfellowfromtheCASS,directoroftheInstituteofAestheticsandLiteraryCriticismatShenzhenUniversity,:COURTESYOFGAOAsaseniorscholar,ProfessorGaoJianpinghaslongbeendevotedtotheresearchofaesthetics,literarytheories,aestheticeducation,contemporaryculturalstudies,,GaosharedhisstudiesofC:HowdoweunderstandaestheticsGao:Thedefinitionofaestheticshasbeenrepeatedlydiscussedinacademia,astheobjectofthisdisciplinehasundergonemanychanges,’satte,humanbeingswillhavevariousfeelings,,andhumanbeingsneedabstractiontounderstandconcretethings,,whichmayberelatedtothetranslationoftheword“aesthetics.”AlexanderGottliebBaumgartenderivedtheterm“Aesthetica”,generationsofscholarshavehaddifferentinterpretationsofthisterm,Chōmintranslatedtheterm“Aesthetica”into美学accordingtotheJapaneseunderstandingof“Aesthetica”,ChinesescholarsintroducedthisdisciplinetoChinaanddirectlyadoptedtheterm美学[literallystudyofbeauty].Becauseofthistranslation,,therearemanykindsofbeauty,nlystudybeautyinanarrowsense,’saffectionarenotnecessarilybeautiful,whichmayrelatetoothercategoriesofaestheticsbesides“thebeautiful,”suchas“thesublime.”CSST:Accordingtoyou,inadditiontotheclassicaestheticcategoriessuchasthebeautifulandthesublime,aestheticobjectsshouldalsobeconsideredfortheir“senseofhistory”and“senseofnovelty.”CanyouelaboratefurtheronthisGao:“gu-ya”[guinChinesemeansancientorage-old,andyagraceorelegance]asanewcategoryofbeauty,,especiallyart,embodyasenseoftime,,,,,,thebeautyofanan,,mythsaredominatedbythesenseofnovelty[fromtheperspectiveofaesthetics].Inaddition,:WhataretheuniquefeaturesofChineseaestheticsGao:Asweallknow,ChineseandWesterna,Westernaestheticsresearchhasbeensystematicfromtheverybeginning,notonlyattachingimportancetothedefinitionandinterpretationofconceptsandcategories,-Qinperiod(priorto221BCE).,accordingtoTheAnalects,Confuciusdistinguishesbetweenmusicthatisbeautifulandmorallygood[Shaomusic],andmusicthatisbeautifulbutnotmorallygood[Wumusic],whichexpressestheConfucianaestheticconcept:,,Confucianbeautydependsonmoralgoodness,,,however,theexplorationanddemonstrationofbeautyinancientChinafocusedmoreonsensibility,intuition,andindividualperception,,inancientChina,therewasnotanideologicalsystemofaestheticsasintegratedasthatoftheWest,,undertheinfluenceofthespiritofscience,,theChinesebelievethateverythingintheworldisinmotion,and,representativ,ontheotherhand,stressadynamicvisualtourthroughthewindingpathsandzig-zaggalleries,onofgeometricforms,,whichhasbeeninfluencedbyChinesecalligraphy,breaksthelayoutofgeometricfiguresandemphasizesthemovementandstrengthofthebrush,istsmovetheirhandsonseeingtheircalligraphyorpaintings,andthenassociatetheartists’,wecanunderstandthecoreconceptsofChineseart,suchasqi-yun[verve,spiritresonance]andfeng-shen[vimandvigor].WhatI’,aestheticshasevolvedthroughanextremelylongprocess,:DoyouhaveanyadviceforcontemporaryChineseaestheticsresearchGao:Abigprobleminthecomparativestudyofaestheticsissimplydividingtheworldintotwoparts:“West”,wh,,[oneofthefoundersofthestudyofaestheticsin20th-centuryChina]fromtheWest,andfoundthatwhenhecitedChineseexamplesfortheoreticalexplanation,,China’smodernaestheticstudyisnotasimplecombinationofChineseandWesternideas,buttheabsorptionoftheessenceofWeste’:“Goingglobal”ticsGao:Inmyopinion,whatscholarsshouldpayattentiontotodayishowtopromoteChina’smodernandcontemporaryculturalachievementsto“goglobal.”Inasense,ancientChineseculturehasalready“goneglobal.”Manyancienttexts,suchastheConfucianclassics,’,,,researchersaremostlyengagedinthestudyofWesternaestheticsandtraditionalaesthetics,,justlikeChina,thesecountrieshavemadeachievementsinlocalizingWesternaestheticsandmodernizingtheirownancientaesthetics,,theChineseculturalsymbolscontainedinthisopeningceremonywerestilltheachievementsofancientChinesecivilization,suchasthe“FourGreatInventions.”Thisrevealsanoldwayofthinkingininternationalcommunication:lookingforChinesesymbolsinthemindsofWesterners,’,’sanswerreflectsasenseofhelplessness,,itisnecessarytosummar’mwritingahistoryofChineseaestheticsinthe20thcentury,andI’mgoingtotranslateitintoEnglishafterfinishingthebook,withahopetohelpChineseaesthetics“goglobal.”WhenitcomestotheinternationalcommunicationofChineseculture,itisalsoceisnotreally“goingglobal.”IncreasingtheexposureofChineseacademicachwithoutbringingthemtheoreticalinspiration,isnomorethanapracticeofsatisfyingtheircuriosity,whichdoesn’heworld,otherwiseitcanonlybea“transporter”“goglobal”dependsonwhetherouracademicresearchershavetheabilityto“goglobal.”Itrequiresscholarstoestablishagoodgroundingintheiracademicfieldsandproducerealstuff.“Goingglobal”isnotour“terminal,”andgoodscholarswon’tspendalldaythinkingabouthowtogetWesternerstorecognizetheirresearch,,themostimportantdrivefortheinternationalcommunicationofChineseacademicstudiesisthatourresearchmustbevaluable,cutting-edge,andhigh-quality.

ShenJiaxuanPhoto:InstituteofLinguistics,CASSOnNovember15,2020,thebookNounsandVerbswrittenbytheChineselinguistShenJiaxuanwont,ShenputforwardatheorythatinChinesealltheverbsareverbalnouns,orthen,ShenhasthoroughlydemonstratedthetheorythatChineseverbsarepartofnounswithover60essaysandsixbooks,settingoffarevolutionarywaveinthefieldofChineselinguistics,andshakingthedeep-rootedtraditionofapplyingthe’’sharvestwasdeeplyrootedinthe“SpringofScience”jingin1978,GuoMoruo,thenthepresidentoftheChineseAcademyofSciences(CAS),deliveredaspeechunderthetitleof“SpringofScience,”whichpoeticallypronouncedthatthe“SpringofScience”[aneweraofrevitalizedscientificresearchinChina]rs,includingShenJiaxuan,’sreturnbanquetwhenheworkedasliaisonforChinesetelecommunicationsduringtheUSPresidentRichardNixon’,beingintrovertedbynature,“SpringofScience,”ShendecidedtoapplytotheInstituteofLinguisticsattheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences(CASS),andwasadmittedtothein,histeacherZhaoShikaigavehimalonglistofbooks,,’nmathematicallinguisticsclassesinotheruniversities,andattendpsychologyseminarsattheInstituteofPsychology,(1904–1998),founderofmodernChineselinguisticstudies,wasalsooneofShen’’sthesis,[linguistic]studyprogramsoverseaswerebetterthanathome,andgaveShenadvicethatseemedincredible,butwasofgreatsignificance:toextensivelycollectarticlesonoverseasstudiesoftheChineselanguage,whichwerepublishedinEnglish,andma,becausein1980,,,itwasajourneytoanunknownworld,,,Shenreadtheabstract,madenotes,’sthesisconsistsoftwoparts:asummaryofoverseasstudiesofChineselanguagesasapreface,,Shen’sEnglishindexwaspublished,’,andstillfeelsthatwritingsuchapaperwasgoodacademictraining,whichhelpedhimhaveacomprehensiveunderstan,’sclassics,introducingpragmatics,cognitivelinguistics,andtheoriesoflinguistictypology,grammaticalization,uistics,,withlessthan100pages,wasthecrystallizationofLyu’slife-longwork,,“Everytimethebook[AnalysisofChineseGrammar]becameworn,,Iwouldlearnsomethingnew.”ShenhasownedfourcopiesofAnalysisofChineseGrammar,eachwornwithuse,:“Aperson’slifeisfinite,,mated,”“Thinkoutofthebox”Lyuoncesaid:“Itiscrucialtothinkoutofthebox……Wemusttemporarilythrowasidetheconceptssuchas‘word,’‘verb,’‘adjective,’‘subject,’and‘object.’Theseconceptsmaybe‘pickedup’‘thrownaside’and‘pickedup’again,becausethemeaningandvaluegiventothesetermshavechanged,andwearenolongerhedgedinwithrulesandregulations.”Inthepastdecadeorso,Shen’sworkhasbeencenteredon“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain.”In2007,Shen’spapertitled“NounsandVerbsinChinese”waspublished,layingthefoundationforhistheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”HeholdstheviewthatinChinese,verbsareaspecialtypeofnounthatexpressanaction,anevent,orastate,becauseChineseverbs,likenouns,“NounsandVerbsinChinese,”Shenhaspublisheddozensofpapers,focusingonthemostimportanttwopairsofgrammaticalcategories—“nounsandverbs,”and“subjectandpredicate,”“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain”thatbroughtarevolutionarywavetoChineselinguistics,overthrowingtheframeworkoftheoldtheoreticalsystem,andbrewingthestartofthetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”,Shensaid:“Itwouldbeha,however,wecanfindsomethingdifferent.”However,mechanicallyadoptingthestructuralfoundationandtheoreticalsystemofIndo-EuropeanlanguagesforChineselanguagesandframingChineselanguageaccordingtothepatternofIndo-Europeanlanguages,“thinkingoutofthebox”andgettingridofthe“shacklesoftheIndo-Europeanpattern.”Thetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs”explodedthefoundationofthethen-currenttheoreticalframeworkofChinesegrammar,,Shenmadef’stheoryisnowbeingrecognizedbymoreandmoreofhispeers,’seyes,,whenheseespostersbytheroadside,withChineseaboveandEnglishbelow,hewillnoticethedifferentwaysthetwolanguagesareexpressed,,healwayscarriedasmallnotebookandre,heestablishedawordbookofChineseverbalslipsandwroteseveralimportantarticles,suchas“TypesofTongueSlips.”ShenonceborrowedtheWoxianCaotangeditionofRulinWaishi[TheScholars,aChinesenovelcompletedin1750;itsearliestextanteditionisthe1803WoxianCaotangedition]“SentencesWheretheSubjectisaVerbandthePredicateisaNoun,”anarticlehewro,Shendidn’tmissoutonthenovelBlossoms,:“WhenreadingBlossoms,Ihavethedelightoffollowingtherhythm.”Afterreadingthenovel,Shenwroteamonographonlinguistics—,WeiGangqiang,deputyeditor-in-chiefof21stCenturyPublishingGroup,commented:“Itisrareandsignificantforlinguiststopayattentiontoandinterpretthelanguageofcurrentliteraryworks……ShenJiaxuan’sinsightsarenotonlytheachievementsofhislinguisticresearch,butalsovaluablereferenceforotherpeopleintermsofliterarycreation,translation,criticism,andgeneralacademicwork.”Shenmentionedthemovie“ZeroDarkThirty”lybasedondata,,becauseasmallfragmentofdatai,heoftentellshisstudentsthatthekeytosearchingforlinguisticinstancesdoesn’tlieinhowmanyinstancesyouhavecollected,hcontrast,

IntheResolutionoftheCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistPartyofChina(CPC)ontheMajorAchievementsandHistoricalExperienceofthePartyoverthePastCentury,adoptedattheSixthPlenarySessionofthe19thCPCCentralCommittee,itdeclared“Puttingsocialbenefitsfirstwhilealsostressingeconomicreturns,theParty,andpublicculturalserviceshaveimproved,providingpeoplewithricherculturalnourishment.”ThefilmindustryisacrucialpartofChina’sculturalindustry,andanimportantmeansofprovidingpeople’saestheticentertainmentneeds,,thedomesticfilmboxofficehascontinuedtorise,“OperationRedSea,”“DyingtoSurvive,”and“TheBattleatLakeChangjin”havewonwidespreadpraisefromdomesticaudiences,showcasingChinesecinema’owingaestheticentertainmentneedsofChineseaudiences,domesticfilmswi’culturalpursuits,andothercontentproducers’goalsshouldprioritizequalitycontent,honorthespiritofcraftsmanship,finelycarveeverydetail,,China’sfilmindustryhasbeenbooming,withtheboxoff,thenumberofscreensexceeded80,000,,,,theboxofficedeclinedduetotheCOVID-19pandemic,butin2021,,rankingfirstintheworld,,Chinaproducedmorethan4,000films,hattheboxoffice,andthequalityoffilmtexthasimprovedsignificantly,butcomparedwithEuropeanandAmericanfilms,,Chinesefilmssuchas“OperationRedSea,”“DetectiveChintang2,”“DyingtoSurvive,”“,”and“DetectiveChintang3”haveperformedwellattheboxoffice,butoverall,,audienceratingsforthequ,filmtextis“theinternalstructureandorganizationofanyonefilm;orsimplyafilmwhereveritisconceptualizedasasystemofmeanings.”Itmustbepointedoutthatwecannotuseboxofficetotalsandthisgrowth,theshareofdomesticfilms’boxofficeintotalboxofficerevenues,andthenumberofdomesticfilmswithinthetop10boxofficeranking,toevaluatethetextqualityofChinesefilms,becausethisdataonlyshowsthegrowthofdomesticfilmquantities,andthehugepopulationofmainla’ssustainedboxofficegrowth,butthereisnosigni,China’ssustainedboxofficenumbersarehighlyaffectedbywordofmouth,,thequa,,,Chinesescriptwritersshouldnottaketheblamealone,variou,themainr,thelackofinnovativethinkingandbroadhorizonsleadstomonotonouscontent,stereotypicalplots,homogenizedstoriesingenrefilms,plotimitation,plagiarism,,the“DyingtoSurvive”andafewotherfilms,,,artistic,andaestheticvalueleadstofewfilmmak,thedevelopmentofhigh-qualityIPisinsufficient,includingsubparinnovationofoldandnewclassictexts,,afterthesuccessof“DrawingSword,”quiteafewcopycatsappeared,,andasamatteroffact,,IPintheChinesecontextreferstocreativeintellectualpropertythatattractswideattention,hasahugeimpact,“stareffect”’tbragabouttheiractingskills,buttheystillcantakeawayarelativelyhighproportionofthewholefilm’,generalcontentproducers,anddirectors,producers,,,commercialismdrivesdirectors,stars,andinvestorstopursuemonetarygains,,toencouragescriptstorytellingandartisticprocesses,IPvalueandcontentmustlead,andthespiritofinn’sstorytheory,weshouldfocusonscriptcreation,culturalinnovation,,thecreationofaninnovationenvironmentandincentivesarealsocrucialtoimprovingdomesticfilms’,weneedtocarryoutathoroughex,acomprehensiveanalysisofthee,thecorrespondingstrategiestoimprovethescriptwriter’,wemustraisetheentrythresholdandthevoiceofscriptwriters,enhancetheeffectofIPprotection,perfecteducationandtrainingsystems,,representedbyinternetanddigitaltechnologies,hasbroughtaboutchangestocontentproduction,andonlineliterature’’alandartisticaccomplishmentsandcreativeabilitiesintheaspectsoffilmtypeexploration,themedstories,contentcreationtechniques,narrativeperspectives,expressions,,targetedmeasuresareneededtooptimizecontentapproval,procedures,,theFilmIndustryPromotionLawofthePeople’sRepublicofChinawasadoptedatthe24thSessionoftheStandingCommitteeofthe12thNationalPeople’,filmcreation,shooting,distribution,andprojectionatthenationallevel,,itstipulatedthatafilmshouldbeassessedbynolessthanfiveexperts,,thegovernmentalsointroducedthecorrespondingmeasure:settingupexpertevaluationteamstoassessimitation,reproduction,piracy,,abalancebetweenscriptwriters,contentproduction,distribution,’beliefs,values,andemotionstoguidingaudiences’,,heaudiencewillbreakthe“protectivebalance”ofdomesticfilms,’sopeninguptotheoutsideworld,moreandmoreforeignfilmproducts,especiallyHollywoodfilms,haveenteredChina’ntechnology,China’,wemu,itisnecessarytoobjectivelyandrationallyevaluatemoviecontent,writereviewsandcommentsaboutamoviesincerely,,andavoidusingacid,caustic,abusive,,tongUniversity;YuanHuayuanisfromtheSchoolofMediaandCommunicationatShanghaiJiaotongUniversity.

FILEPHOTO:CaiMeibiaoandAGeneralHistoryofChinaTheChinesehistorianCaiMeibiao(1928–2021),orAGeneralHistoryofChina,ce,aswellasamicrocosmofCai’,FanWenlan(1893–1969),aleadingChinesehistorianandthedirectoroftheinstitute,wasrevisingZhongguoTongshiJianbian,orAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition).,FanwasreceivedbyMaoZedonginYan’an,andwasappointedasthedirectoroftheOffic,MaoZedongcalledonthewholepartytolearnChinesehistoryandtounderstandChina’ofChina’,whichwasnamedAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition),,Fanbegantorewritethebookhehadn’,knownastheRevisedVersionofAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition),wasnotasimplerevisionofthepreviousthree-volumework,,eachpersonwhoassistedFanwasresponsibleforresearchingafieldinhistory,,fourvolumesofAGeneralHistoryofChina(RevisedandConciseEdition)weresuccessivelypublished,coveringChina’shistoryfromantiquitytotheSui(581–618),Tang(618–907),andFiveDynasties(907–960),Fansufferedfromheartdisease,,Fansaidthathecouldnolongerwritebyhimself,andhop,’sdeathbroughtthecompilationofthebooktoastandstill,dtotheunfinishedundertakingleftbehindbyFan.‘AGeneralHistoryofChina’ContinuingwiththecompilationofAGeneralHistoryofChina(RevisedandConciseEdition),,heplanne,thebookwasnolongerarevisedversionofAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition)asitscontentincreased,anditwasmorethana“conciseedition”ofChina’“AGeneralHistoryofChina”,theInstituteofModernHistorycouldnotcompletealltheworkoftheprojectalone,soCaiinvitedscholarsfromNankaiUniversity,FudanUniversity,,’tsimplyeditthesedraftsormaterials,,000characters,only30,(1925–2006),aprofessorattheUniversityofLondon,andoneoftheco-editorsofTheCambridgeHistoryofChina,oncetoldCaithattheyhadneverfinishedthefirstvolumeofTheCambridgeHistoryofChina,becausetheycouldn’tkeeppacewithChina’,theyhadtogiveupthepre-Qin(before221BCE)historyofthefirstvolumeandstartfromtheQin(221–207BCE)andHan(206BCE–220CE)alfindingsatalltimescertainlywouldleadtotheproblemof“failingtokeeppace.”Therefore,Caip,CaiinheritedFan’sideasandmethodsofwritingAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition).Meanwhile,hehadhisownunderstandingandmadeinnovationsduringtheprocess,whichcanbeseenfromthefollowingexample:Cai’sAGeneralHistoryofChinabeganwiththeSong(960–1279),Liao(907–1125),Jin(1115–1234),andYuan(1279–1368),,000yearsfromtheHantothefalloftheQingDynasty(1644–1911),theHanpeoplehadruledovernon-Hanethnicgroupsmanytimes,,therewereconflictsandwarsbetweentheHanandnon-Hanethnicgroups,,theseconflictsandwarsdidn’tcreatedistancesbutstr,thenon-Hanethnicgoups,andgainedn,inAGeneralHistoryofChina,CaiaddedachapterfortheWesternXia[alsoknownastheTangutEmpire,existingfrom1038to1227inpresent-daynorthwesternChina],whichwasnotfoundinpreviousgeneralhistorybooks,inthesectiononSong,Liao,Jin,“thevariousethnicgroupsundertheruleoftheYuanDynasty”k,,hecouldbefoundinhisofficeeveryday,,sixvolumesofAGeneralHistoryofChinaweresuccessivelycompleted,’,thetenthvolumeendedwiththereignoftheJiaqingEmperor(–1820)—fromthereignoftheDaoguangEmperor(–1850)tothatoftheXuantongEmperor[thefinalQingDynastyruler,whowasforcedtoabdicatein1912]—,Caiwasalreadyinhisseventies,’scallsliponhandforthelibraryoftheInstituteofModernHistory,andthedatewrittenonitisJanuary7,,twovolumesofmanuscriptswerefinallycompleted,,thesetwonewvolumeswerecombinedwiththefirsttenvolumesandwerepublishedtogether,’,(1019–1086),ahigh-rankingSongDynastyscholar-official,spentover20yearscompilingtheZizhiTongjian[ComprehensiveMirrorforAidinGovernment,apioneeringreferenceworkinChinesehistoriographycovering16dynastiesandspanningalmost1,400years].,Simasaidthathesufferedfromblurryvisionandtoothloss,,the12volumeswerepublishedasaboxset,,,Caisaid:“LookingbackatthetimewhenIparticipatedineditingthefirstvolumeofthisbookin1953,55yearshavepassedbeforeIknewit.”XiuXiaoboisaprofessorfromtheSchoolofHistoryatQingdaoUniversity.

IntheResolutionoftheCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistPartyofChina(CPC)ontheMajorAchievementsandHistoricalExperienceofthePartyoverthePastCentury,adoptedattheSixthPlenarySessionofthe19thCPCCentralCommittee,itdeclared“Puttingsocialbenefitsfirstwhilealsostressingeconomicreturns,theParty,andpublicculturalserviceshaveimproved,providingpeoplewithricherculturalnourishment.”ThefilmindustryisacrucialpartofChina’sculturalindustry,andanimportantmeansofprovidingpeople’saestheticentertainmentneeds,,thedomesticfilmboxofficehascontinuedtorise,“OperationRedSea,”“DyingtoSurvive,”and“TheBattleatLakeChangjin”havewonwidespreadpraisefromdomesticaudiences,showcasingChinesecinema’owingaestheticentertainmentneedsofChineseaudiences,domesticfilmswi’culturalpursuits,andothercontentproducers’goalsshouldprioritizequalitycontent,honorthespiritofcraftsmanship,finelycarveeverydetail,,China’sfilmindustryhasbeenbooming,withtheboxoff,thenumberofscreensexceeded80,000,,,,theboxofficedeclinedduetotheCOVID-19pandemic,butin2021,,rankingfirstintheworld,,Chinaproducedmorethan4,000films,hattheboxoffice,andthequalityoffilmtexthasimprovedsignificantly,butcomparedwithEuropeanandAmericanfilms,,Chinesefilmssuchas“OperationRedSea,”“DetectiveChintang2,”“DyingtoSurvive,”“,”and“DetectiveChintang3”haveperformedwellattheboxoffice,butoverall,,audienceratingsforthequ,filmtextis“theinternalstructureandorganizationofanyonefilm;orsimplyafilmwhereveritisconceptualizedasasystemofmeanings.”Itmustbepointedoutthatwecannotuseboxofficetotalsandthisgrowth,theshareofdomesticfilms’boxofficeintotalboxofficerevenues,andthenumberofdomesticfilmswithinthetop10boxofficeranking,toevaluatethetextqualityofChinesefilms,becausethisdataonlyshowsthegrowthofdomesticfilmquantities,andthehugepopulationofmainla’ssustainedboxofficegrowth,butthereisnosigni,China’ssustainedboxofficenumbersarehighlyaffectedbywordofmouth,,thequa,,,Chinesescriptwritersshouldnottaketheblamealone,variou,themainr,thelackofinnovativethinkingandbroadhorizonsleadstomonotonouscontent,stereotypicalplots,homogenizedstoriesingenrefilms,plotimitation,plagiarism,,the“DyingtoSurvive”andafewotherfilms,,,artistic,andaestheticvalueleadstofewfilmmak,thedevelopmentofhigh-qualityIPisinsufficient,includingsubparinnovationofoldandnewclassictexts,,afterthesuccessof“DrawingSword,”quiteafewcopycatsappeared,,andasamatteroffact,,IPintheChinesecontextreferstocreativeintellectualpropertythatattractswideattention,hasahugeimpact,“stareffect”’tbragabouttheiractingskills,buttheystillcantakeawayarelativelyhighproportionofthewholefilm’,generalcontentproducers,anddirectors,producers,,,commercialismdrivesdirectors,stars,andinvestorstopursuemonetarygains,,toencouragescriptstorytellingandartisticprocesses,IPvalueandcontentmustlead,andthespiritofinn’sstorytheory,weshouldfocusonscriptcreation,culturalinnovation,,thecreationofaninnovationenvironmentandincentivesarealsocrucialtoimprovingdomesticfilms’,weneedtocarryoutathoroughex,acomprehensiveanalysisofthee,thecorrespondingstrategiestoimprovethescriptwriter’,wemustraisetheentrythresholdandthevoiceofscriptwriters,enhancetheeffectofIPprotection,perfecteducationandtrainingsystems,,representedbyinternetanddigitaltechnologies,hasbroughtaboutchangestocontentproduction,andonlineliterature’’alandartisticaccomplishmentsandcreativeabilitiesintheaspectsoffilmtypeexploration,themedstories,contentcreationtechniques,narrativeperspectives,expressions,,targetedmeasuresareneededtooptimizecontentapproval,procedures,,theFilmIndustryPromotionLawofthePeople’sRepublicofChinawasadoptedatthe24thSessionoftheStandingCommitteeofthe12thNationalPeople’,filmcreation,shooting,distribution,andprojectionatthenationallevel,,itstipulatedthatafilmshouldbeassessedbynolessthanfiveexperts,,thegovernmentalsointroducedthecorrespondingmeasure:settingupexpertevaluationteamstoassessimitation,reproduction,piracy,,abalancebetweenscriptwriters,contentproduction,distribution,’beliefs,values,andemotionstoguidingaudiences’,,heaudiencewillbreakthe“protectivebalance”ofdomesticfilms,’sopeninguptotheoutsideworld,moreandmoreforeignfilmproducts,especiallyHollywoodfilms,haveenteredChina’ntechnology,China’,wemu,itisnecessarytoobjectivelyandrationallyevaluatemoviecontent,writereviewsandcommentsaboutamoviesincerely,,andavoidusingacid,caustic,abusive,,tongUniversity;YuanHuayuanisfromtheSchoolofMediaandCommunicationatShanghaiJiaotongUniversity.

TwosidesagreeonpromotingpracticalcooperationandcopingwithchallengesThehigh-leveldialoguebetweenChinaandtheEuropeanUniondemonstratedthetwosideswillingnesstostrengthenbilateralcooperationandfendoffexternalrisksagainstthebackdropofapossibleglobalrecession,increasingfinancialmarketvolatilityandgeopoliticaltensions,9thHigh-LevelEconomicandTradeDialogueonTuesdaytodiscusstopicssuchasthemacroeconomy,industrialandsupplychains,bilateraltradeandinvestment,,ldoftheeconomyandtrade,andtojointlycopewiththechallengesfacingtheglobaleconomy,esincludingindustrialandsupplychainsandfinancialservices,whilestablerelationsbetweenthetwowillhelppromotesteadygrowthforboth,contributetothestabilityoftheinternationalsituation,,aresearcherwiththeBankofChinaResearchInstitute,saidtheeconomiesofChinaandtheEUarehighlycomplementaryandthetwosid,greenenergy,thecarbonmarket,greenfinance,climatechange,tradeondigitalinformationandcommunicationtechnology,tradeindigitalproductsandthedigitalservicetrade."Againstthebackdropofsoaringinflationandtheincreasingriskofeconomicrecessionaroundtheglobe,EuropeneedstoimportChinesegoodstohelpensurestability,anditalsoneedstostrengthentradeandinvestmentcooperationinfieldssuchasindustriesandinfrastructuretogathernewgrowthmomentum,"Yesaid."Meanwhile,Europesadvancedtechnologies,talentsandmanagementexperiencewillhelpChinapromoteindustrialupgradingandgreentransformationoftheeconomy."Asstagflationpressuresanddebtriskscloudgrowthprospects,theattractivenessoftheeurozonetoglobalinvestorshasdimmed,withtheeurosinkingbelowparityagainsttheUSdollarforthefirsttimein20years,,YesaidChina-EUcooperationwillboostEuropeanmarketconfidenceandimprovemarketexpectationsforfuturerecoveryintheregion,clineinexports,thushelpingsupportChinassecond-largesttradingpartner,($401billion)inbilateraltradeduringthefirstsixmonthsofthisyear,,aresearcherattheInternationalMonetaryInstituteoftheRenminUniversityofChina,saidthegrowthinChina-EUtradehaslaidasspositivegrowthinthefirsthalfof2022despitepressuresandchallengesbothathomeandabroad,Chensaidthenationseconomyenjoysstrongresilienceandvitality,servinga,deanoftheHainanUniversityBeltandRoadResearchInstitute,saidChinaandEuropeshouldstrengthentheircooperationinthefinancialsector,anditisadvisableforthetwosidestoexpandthescaleofbilateralcurrencyswapsandsettlement,,PresidentXiJinpingsaidduringameetingviavideolinkthatChinawillstaycommittedtodeepeningreformandfurtheropeningup,anditwelcomesEuropeanbusinessinvestmentandexpectstheEUtoprovideafair,transparentandnondiscriminato,globalexecutivevice-presidentofGermanysSiemensGroupandchairman,presidentandCEOofSiemensChina,saidthatdespitethechallengesposedbyCOVID-19,Chinaiscapableofmaintaininghigh-qualitygrowth,givenitscompleteindustrialchainsystem."Amidallofthechangesanduncertaintiesinglobalmarkets,Chinasdeterminationtocontinuouslyopenuphasremainedunchangedoverthepastfewyears,"hesaid,addingthatgreatermarketopennessbenefitssustainablesocioeconomicdevelopmentinChina,andalsohelpsrevitalizetheglobaleconomy.

ShenJiaxuanPhoto:InstituteofLinguistics,CASSOnNovember15,2020,thebookNounsandVerbswrittenbytheChineselinguistShenJiaxuanwont,ShenputforwardatheorythatinChinesealltheverbsareverbalnouns,orthen,ShenhasthoroughlydemonstratedthetheorythatChineseverbsarepartofnounswithover60essaysandsixbooks,settingoffarevolutionarywaveinthefieldofChineselinguistics,andshakingthedeep-rootedtraditionofapplyingthe’’sharvestwasdeeplyrootedinthe“SpringofScience”jingin1978,GuoMoruo,thenthepresidentoftheChineseAcademyofSciences(CAS),deliveredaspeechunderthetitleof“SpringofScience,”whichpoeticallypronouncedthatthe“SpringofScience”[aneweraofrevitalizedscientificresearchinChina]rs,includingShenJiaxuan,’sreturnbanquetwhenheworkedasliaisonforChinesetelecommunicationsduringtheUSPresidentRichardNixon’,beingintrovertedbynature,“SpringofScience,”ShendecidedtoapplytotheInstituteofLinguisticsattheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences(CASS),andwasadmittedtothein,histeacherZhaoShikaigavehimalonglistofbooks,,’nmathematicallinguisticsclassesinotheruniversities,andattendpsychologyseminarsattheInstituteofPsychology,(1904–1998),founderofmodernChineselinguisticstudies,wasalsooneofShen’’sthesis,[linguistic]studyprogramsoverseaswerebetterthanathome,andgaveShenadvicethatseemedincredible,butwasofgreatsignificance:toextensivelycollectarticlesonoverseasstudiesoftheChineselanguage,whichwerepublishedinEnglish,andma,becausein1980,,,itwasajourneytoanunknownworld,,,Shenreadtheabstract,madenotes,’sthesisconsistsoftwoparts:asummaryofoverseasstudiesofChineselanguagesasapreface,,Shen’sEnglishindexwaspublished,’,andstillfeelsthatwritingsuchapaperwasgoodacademictraining,whichhelpedhimhaveacomprehensiveunderstan,’sclassics,introducingpragmatics,cognitivelinguistics,andtheoriesoflinguistictypology,grammaticalization,uistics,,withlessthan100pages,wasthecrystallizationofLyu’slife-longwork,,“Everytimethebook[AnalysisofChineseGrammar]becameworn,,Iwouldlearnsomethingnew.”ShenhasownedfourcopiesofAnalysisofChineseGrammar,eachwornwithuse,:“Aperson’slifeisfinite,,mated,”“Thinkoutofthebox”Lyuoncesaid:“Itiscrucialtothinkoutofthebox……Wemusttemporarilythrowasidetheconceptssuchas‘word,’‘verb,’‘adjective,’‘subject,’and‘object.’Theseconceptsmaybe‘pickedup’‘thrownaside’and‘pickedup’again,becausethemeaningandvaluegiventothesetermshavechanged,andwearenolongerhedgedinwithrulesandregulations.”Inthepastdecadeorso,Shen’sworkhasbeencenteredon“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain.”In2007,Shen’spapertitled“NounsandVerbsinChinese”waspublished,layingthefoundationforhistheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”HeholdstheviewthatinChinese,verbsareaspecialtypeofnounthatexpressanaction,anevent,orastate,becauseChineseverbs,likenouns,“NounsandVerbsinChinese,”Shenhaspublisheddozensofpapers,focusingonthemostimportanttwopairsofgrammaticalcategories—“nounsandverbs,”and“subjectandpredicate,”“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain”thatbroughtarevolutionarywavetoChineselinguistics,overthrowingtheframeworkoftheoldtheoreticalsystem,andbrewingthestartofthetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”,Shensaid:“Itwouldbeha,however,wecanfindsomethingdifferent.”However,mechanicallyadoptingthestructuralfoundationandtheoreticalsystemofIndo-EuropeanlanguagesforChineselanguagesandframingChineselanguageaccordingtothepatternofIndo-Europeanlanguages,“thinkingoutofthebox”andgettingridofthe“shacklesoftheIndo-Europeanpattern.”Thetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs”explodedthefoundationofthethen-currenttheoreticalframeworkofChinesegrammar,,Shenmadef’stheoryisnowbeingrecognizedbymoreandmoreofhispeers,’seyes,,whenheseespostersbytheroadside,withChineseaboveandEnglishbelow,hewillnoticethedifferentwaysthetwolanguagesareexpressed,,healwayscarriedasmallnotebookandre,heestablishedawordbookofChineseverbalslipsandwroteseveralimportantarticles,suchas“TypesofTongueSlips.”ShenonceborrowedtheWoxianCaotangeditionofRulinWaishi[TheScholars,aChinesenovelcompletedin1750;itsearliestextanteditionisthe1803WoxianCaotangedition]“SentencesWheretheSubjectisaVerbandthePredicateisaNoun,”anarticlehewro,Shendidn’tmissoutonthenovelBlossoms,:“WhenreadingBlossoms,Ihavethedelightoffollowingtherhythm.”Afterreadingthenovel,Shenwroteamonographonlinguistics—,WeiGangqiang,deputyeditor-in-chiefof21stCenturyPublishingGroup,commented:“Itisrareandsignificantforlinguiststopayattentiontoandinterpretthelanguageofcurrentliteraryworks……ShenJiaxuan’sinsightsarenotonlytheachievementsofhislinguisticresearch,butalsovaluablereferenceforotherpeopleintermsofliterarycreation,translation,criticism,andgeneralacademicwork.”Shenmentionedthemovie“ZeroDarkThirty”lybasedondata,,becauseasmallfragmentofdatai,heoftentellshisstudentsthatthekeytosearchingforlinguisticinstancesdoesn’tlieinhowmanyinstancesyouhavecollected,hcontrast,

>>Leforumexploreladémocratiecommevaleurcommune2021-12-2915:04:00  LeForuminternationalsurladémocratie:lesvaleurshumainespartagées,sestouvertàPékinle4décembre.      HuangKunming,membreduBureaupolitiqueduComitécentralduParticommunistechinois(CCduPCC)etchefduDépartementdelaCommunicationduCCduPCC,aprononcéundiscoursinaugurallorsduforum.    équeladémocratieestunevaleurcommunepartagéepartoutelhumanité,etunsymboleimportantduprogrèsdescivilisationshumaines.      Dustatutdupeuple,matredupays,provientlessencedeladémocratiechinoise,adéclaré,ajoutantquelapratiquehistoriquedelaChineadémontréqueladémocratiepopulaireestunmodèlededémocratiesocialistecouvranttouslesaspectsduprocessusdémocratiqueettouslessecteursdelasociété.Cestunevéritabledémocratieenmarche.    Réaffirmantquilnexistepasdemodèleuniquededémocratie,équelePCCetlepeuplechinoissontprêtsàtravaillerconjointementaveclespeuplesdetouslesautrespayspourfaireavancerlesvaleurscommunesinhérentesàlhumanitéetprogresserversunecommunautémondialedavenirpartagé.    "Lexplorationarduedeladémocratieparl’humanitémontrequelapratiquedeladémocratieestenconstanteévolution,etquelapratiquedeladémocratieestplusfiableetefficacelorsquelleestenracinéedanssonproprepays",aindiquéXieFuzhan,présidentdelAcadééoriquesurladémocratienepeutavoirderéelpouvoirdinterprétation,depersuasionetdattractionquelorsquellesefondesurlesconditionspropresàsonpays.    LePCCaapprofondisesconnaissancessurl’évolutiondelapolitiquedémocratiqueetamisenavantleconceptdeladémocratiepopulairesurlensembleduprocessus,émocratiepopulairesurlensembleduprocessusintègreladémocratieaxéesurleprocessusetladémocratiecentréesurlesrésultats,ladémocratieprocéduraleetladémocratiesubstantielle,ladémocratiedirecteetladémocratieindirecte,ainsiqueladémocratiepopulaireetlavolontédelétat,enrichitetélargitainsilesconnotationspolitiques,théoriquesetpratiquesdeladémocratiechinoise.    OrganiséparleDépartementdelaCommunicationduCCduPCCetleBureaudelInformationduConseildesAffairesdEtat,leforumaréuniplusde500invitésdeplusde120paysetréémocratie,savaleurultime,sesprincipes,sesformesderéalisationetsarelationaveclépanouissementdelhommedanstoutessesdimensions.    Lesparticipantssontd’accordquelacivilisationhumaineaconnudenombreuxberceauxetunegrandevariétédesystè’appeleretdeparveniràladéêtepourladémocratievarieselonlespays,lesformessocialesetlesphasesdedéveloppement,maiselleestinséparabledesconnaissancessurlesconditionssocialesdontilsdéémocratielarge,véritableetefficacequipoursuitledéveloppementcompletetlibredelHommepeutrépondreauxexigencesetauxtendancesdudéveloppementdéestlecontenuessentieletlefondementdelavaleurultimedeladémocratie.    LesparticipantsestimentqueladémocratiepopulairesurlensembleduprocessusestunenouvellecréationbaséesurlapratiquedudéveloppementpolitiquedelaChineetlaconstructiondesonsystèetaugouvernementchinoisdemaintenirdesinteractionsétroitesavecsonpeuple,desortequilspuissentinitieretmettreenpratiquedespolitiquesdemanièreré,maispermetégalementdajusteretdaméliorercontinuellementlespolitiquesaucoursduprocessusdeconsultationdéémocratiepopulairesurlensembleduprocessuspropreàlaChineaétécomprise,favorablementaccueillieetsoutenueparsonpeuple,contribuantdoncàêtrecouronnéedesuccès.

ShenJiaxuanPhoto:InstituteofLinguistics,CASSOnNovember15,2020,thebookNounsandVerbswrittenbytheChineselinguistShenJiaxuanwont,ShenputforwardatheorythatinChinesealltheverbsareverbalnouns,orthen,ShenhasthoroughlydemonstratedthetheorythatChineseverbsarepartofnounswithover60essaysandsixbooks,settingoffarevolutionarywaveinthefieldofChineselinguistics,andshakingthedeep-rootedtraditionofapplyingthe’’sharvestwasdeeplyrootedinthe“SpringofScience”jingin1978,GuoMoruo,thenthepresidentoftheChineseAcademyofSciences(CAS),deliveredaspeechunderthetitleof“SpringofScience,”whichpoeticallypronouncedthatthe“SpringofScience”[aneweraofrevitalizedscientificresearchinChina]rs,includingShenJiaxuan,’sreturnbanquetwhenheworkedasliaisonforChinesetelecommunicationsduringtheUSPresidentRichardNixon’,beingintrovertedbynature,“SpringofScience,”ShendecidedtoapplytotheInstituteofLinguisticsattheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences(CASS),andwasadmittedtothein,histeacherZhaoShikaigavehimalonglistofbooks,,’nmathematicallinguisticsclassesinotheruniversities,andattendpsychologyseminarsattheInstituteofPsychology,(1904–1998),founderofmodernChineselinguisticstudies,wasalsooneofShen’’sthesis,[linguistic]studyprogramsoverseaswerebetterthanathome,andgaveShenadvicethatseemedincredible,butwasofgreatsignificance:toextensivelycollectarticlesonoverseasstudiesoftheChineselanguage,whichwerepublishedinEnglish,andma,becausein1980,,,itwasajourneytoanunknownworld,,,Shenreadtheabstract,madenotes,’sthesisconsistsoftwoparts:asummaryofoverseasstudiesofChineselanguagesasapreface,,Shen’sEnglishindexwaspublished,’,andstillfeelsthatwritingsuchapaperwasgoodacademictraining,whichhelpedhimhaveacomprehensiveunderstan,’sclassics,introducingpragmatics,cognitivelinguistics,andtheoriesoflinguistictypology,grammaticalization,uistics,,withlessthan100pages,wasthecrystallizationofLyu’slife-longwork,,“Everytimethebook[AnalysisofChineseGrammar]becameworn,,Iwouldlearnsomethingnew.”ShenhasownedfourcopiesofAnalysisofChineseGrammar,eachwornwithuse,:“Aperson’slifeisfinite,,mated,”“Thinkoutofthebox”Lyuoncesaid:“Itiscrucialtothinkoutofthebox……Wemusttemporarilythrowasidetheconceptssuchas‘word,’‘verb,’‘adjective,’‘subject,’and‘object.’Theseconceptsmaybe‘pickedup’‘thrownaside’and‘pickedup’again,becausethemeaningandvaluegiventothesetermshavechanged,andwearenolongerhedgedinwithrulesandregulations.”Inthepastdecadeorso,Shen’sworkhasbeencenteredon“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain.”In2007,Shen’spapertitled“NounsandVerbsinChinese”waspublished,layingthefoundationforhistheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”HeholdstheviewthatinChinese,verbsareaspecialtypeofnounthatexpressanaction,anevent,orastate,becauseChineseverbs,likenouns,“NounsandVerbsinChinese,”Shenhaspublisheddozensofpapers,focusingonthemostimportanttwopairsofgrammaticalcategories—“nounsandverbs,”and“subjectandpredicate,”“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain”thatbroughtarevolutionarywavetoChineselinguistics,overthrowingtheframeworkoftheoldtheoreticalsystem,andbrewingthestartofthetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”,Shensaid:“Itwouldbeha,however,wecanfindsomethingdifferent.”However,mechanicallyadoptingthestructuralfoundationandtheoreticalsystemofIndo-EuropeanlanguagesforChineselanguagesandframingChineselanguageaccordingtothepatternofIndo-Europeanlanguages,“thinkingoutofthebox”andgettingridofthe“shacklesoftheIndo-Europeanpattern.”Thetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs”explodedthefoundationofthethen-currenttheoreticalframeworkofChinesegrammar,,Shenmadef’stheoryisnowbeingrecognizedbymoreandmoreofhispeers,’seyes,,whenheseespostersbytheroadside,withChineseaboveandEnglishbelow,hewillnoticethedifferentwaysthetwolanguagesareexpressed,,healwayscarriedasmallnotebookandre,heestablishedawordbookofChineseverbalslipsandwroteseveralimportantarticles,suchas“TypesofTongueSlips.”ShenonceborrowedtheWoxianCaotangeditionofRulinWaishi[TheScholars,aChinesenovelcompletedin1750;itsearliestextanteditionisthe1803WoxianCaotangedition]“SentencesWheretheSubjectisaVerbandthePredicateisaNoun,”anarticlehewro,Shendidn’tmissoutonthenovelBlossoms,:“WhenreadingBlossoms,Ihavethedelightoffollowingtherhythm.”Afterreadingthenovel,Shenwroteamonographonlinguistics—,WeiGangqiang,deputyeditor-in-chiefof21stCenturyPublishingGroup,commented:“Itisrareandsignificantforlinguiststopayattentiontoandinterpretthelanguageofcurrentliteraryworks……ShenJiaxuan’sinsightsarenotonlytheachievementsofhislinguisticresearch,butalsovaluablereferenceforotherpeopleintermsofliterarycreation,translation,criticism,andgeneralacademicwork.”Shenmentionedthemovie“ZeroDarkThirty”lybasedondata,,becauseasmallfragmentofdatai,heoftentellshisstudentsthatthekeytosearchingforlinguisticinstancesdoesn’tlieinhowmanyinstancesyouhavecollected,hcontrast,

TheMethodologyofRuralVitalizationTheMethodologyofRuralVitalization,writtenbyWangLisheng,aresearchfellowfromtheInstituteofPhilosophyattheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences,,itemphasizestheoverallpromotionofruralvitalizationbytakingthecountyastheunit,andregardsitasthebestpromotionunit,raisingthecountytothcityinShandongProvince,,asanadministrativeunit,isabletoconducttop-leveldesignandplanningasawhole,and,meanwhile,carryoutspecificpoliciesfordifferentvillageswithinthecountyarea,sothattheimplementationoftheruralvitalizationstrategycannotonlymeettheuniversalrequirementsofthecentralandprovincialgovernments,nstrategyisdeterminedbythestatusandfunctionsofcounty-l,butessentiallyreshapesurban-ruralrelationsinthenewera,namely,ncitiesandruralareas,’administrativefunction,politicalsystemfunction,functionofgeographicalandculturalunits,economyandmarketfunction,andfunctionofpoliticalsubjects,tosupportthepropositionof“takingthecountyasthemethod.”sanimportantentrypointofintegratedurban-ruraldevelopment,coordinatingspatiallayoutincludingcounty-levelindustries,infrastructure,publicservices,basicfarmland,ecologicalprotection,towndevelopment,andvillagedistribution,andachie,advancingurbanizationwiththecountyasacarrier,andp’sbasicnationalcondition,anditsurbanizationandmodernizationisalongprocessthatcan’“outshining”first-tiercities,thereshouldbecountyterritoriesandtownsbloomingtogether,nUniversity.

TheChinesePeoplesLiberationArmy(PLA)AirForceandNavalAviationForcehaverecentlymadenewprogressintheirnewpilotrecruitmentandtrainingprogramsatatimewhenChinaisexpandingitswarplanefleetwithrecord-breakingwarplaneproductioncapability,withanalystssayingonSundaythatthePLAwillmaksbrandnewpersonneltrainingprogram,thefirstgroupofpilotcadetstrainedonJ-10s-atypeofChinasdomesticallydevelopedfourthgenerationfighterjet-recentlygraduatedfromtheShijiazhuangFlightAcademyandweredispatchedtofrontlinecombatforces,ChinaCentralTelevision(CCTV),theShijiazhuangFlightAcademyforthefirsttimereceiveddelivequalifiedtoflyafourthgenerationfighterjetundertheoldtrainingprogram,thenewprogramtakesonlythreeyears,greatlyshorteningthetimeneededtotrainacadettobecomeacombat-readypilot,,thisfirstgroupofpilotcadetsinthenewprogramwasselectedfrompilotcadetswhotrain,theyswitchedtotrainonJ-10sinJulylastyearandcompletedhigh-standard,realistictrainingincludingair-to-airmockcombatagainstinstructorsandmockair-to-groundcombatagainstairdefensetroopsofthePLAArmy,theCCTVreportsaid."Thisgroupofpilotcadetswillbecomeanimportantforceinaircombat,whichhaskeysignificanceinthepromotionoftheAirForcesstrategictransformationanditscarryingoutofdutiesandmissionsinthenewera,"XieHao,abrigadecommanderattheShijiazhuangFlightAcademy,ogramforshipborneaircraft,accordingtoavideoreleasedbythePLANavysofficialWeiboaccountonFriday."Outofthenewlyrecruitedpilotcadets,ighterjets,"ChuHanqiang,headofthePLANavyspilotrecruitmentoffice,aircraftincludingcarrier-basedearlywarningaircraft,transportaircraftorvessel-basedhelicopters,sthirdaircraftcarrier,theFujian,whichisalsothecountrysfirstcarrierequippedwithelectromagneticcatapults,thePLANavynotonlyneedsmorepilots,thePLAAirForceandNavalAviationForswarplanes,theShenyangAircraftCorporationthatbuildstheJ-15carrier-basedfighterjetandtheJ-16multirolefighterjetaswellastheChengduAircraftIndustrialGroupCoLtdthatbuildstheJ-20stealthfighterjetandtheJ-10fighterjet,bothbrokerecordsintermsofaircraftdeliverylastyear,,weaponsandequipment,,weaponsandequipmentdevelopmentmusttakeplaceintandem,aChinesemilitaryexpertwhorequestedanonymitytoldtheGlobalTimesonSunday.

ModernCommunicationSystemInnovationResearchSeriesModernCommunicationSystemInnovationResearchSeries,editedbyHuZhengrong,directorandaprofessorfromtheInstituteofJournalismandCommunicationattheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences,consistsoffivebookswrittenbydifferentscholars,includingFromCapabilitytoEffectiveness:AStudyontheConstructionofInternationa“theoverallgoalofnationalrejuvenationandinacontextoftheworld’sprofoundchangesunseeninacentury,”fromtheperspectiintheinternationalpatternandtheworldinformationtransmissionorder,cationecology,thenewpatternofpublicopinion,andtheriseofChina,theseriesiscommittedtotheconstructionofaninternationalcommunicationknowledgeparadigmwithChinesecharacteristicsbeyondWesterncentrismandsimpledualism,exploringthestrategy,approach,andmodeofbuildingChina’,theseriestriestosurpassthesinglelinearviewsofhistoryand“civilizationhierarchytheory,”gobeyondthestate-centricdominantanalysismode,andgraspdynamicinterstates,andofferscriticismofthenation-statelogic,forminghistorical,interconnected,dynamic,,ithighlightsmultipledialogues,interactions,alpoliticalandeconomicsystemsreinforceeachother’’srelationshipswithsocialismandmoderncapitalisminhistory,clarifiesthedevelopmentofinternationalcommunication,andpositionsChina’smoderncommunicationsystemintheprocessofinterrelateddynamichistoricalprocesses,establishinganinterdisciplinaryan,basedontheonlinepracticeinChina,itdelvesintotheexternalconstraints,internaldemands,androlecompositionofthestateasthemaintransmissionsubject,interactionsubject,andactionsubject,renderinganewinterpretationframeworkwithbothuniommunicationStudiesatCommunicationUniversityofChina.

TwosidesagreeonpromotingpracticalcooperationandcopingwithchallengesThehigh-leveldialoguebetweenChinaandtheEuropeanUniondemonstratedthetwosideswillingnesstostrengthenbilateralcooperationandfendoffexternalrisksagainstthebackdropofapossibleglobalrecession,increasingfinancialmarketvolatilityandgeopoliticaltensions,9thHigh-LevelEconomicandTradeDialogueonTuesdaytodiscusstopicssuchasthemacroeconomy,industrialandsupplychains,bilateraltradeandinvestment,,ldoftheeconomyandtrade,andtojointlycopewiththechallengesfacingtheglobaleconomy,esincludingindustrialandsupplychainsandfinancialservices,whilestablerelationsbetweenthetwowillhelppromotesteadygrowthforboth,contributetothestabilityoftheinternationalsituation,,aresearcherwiththeBankofChinaResearchInstitute,saidtheeconomiesofChinaandtheEUarehighlycomplementaryandthetwosid,greenenergy,thecarbonmarket,greenfinance,climatechange,tradeondigitalinformationandcommunicationtechnology,tradeindigitalproductsandthedigitalservicetrade."Againstthebackdropofsoaringinflationandtheincreasingriskofeconomicrecessionaroundtheglobe,EuropeneedstoimportChinesegoodstohelpensurestability,anditalsoneedstostrengthentradeandinvestmentcooperationinfieldssuchasindustriesandinfrastructuretogathernewgrowthmomentum,"Yesaid."Meanwhile,Europesadvancedtechnologies,talentsandmanagementexperiencewillhelpChinapromoteindustrialupgradingandgreentransformationoftheeconomy."Asstagflationpressuresanddebtriskscloudgrowthprospects,theattractivenessoftheeurozonetoglobalinvestorshasdimmed,withtheeurosinkingbelowparityagainsttheUSdollarforthefirsttimein20years,,YesaidChina-EUcooperationwillboostEuropeanmarketconfidenceandimprovemarketexpectationsforfuturerecoveryintheregion,clineinexports,thushelpingsupportChinassecond-largesttradingpartner,($401billion)inbilateraltradeduringthefirstsixmonthsofthisyear,,aresearcherattheInternationalMonetaryInstituteoftheRenminUniversityofChina,saidthegrowthinChina-EUtradehaslaidasspositivegrowthinthefirsthalfof2022despitepressuresandchallengesbothathomeandabroad,Chensaidthenationseconomyenjoysstrongresilienceandvitality,servinga,deanoftheHainanUniversityBeltandRoadResearchInstitute,saidChinaandEuropeshouldstrengthentheircooperationinthefinancialsector,anditisadvisableforthetwosidestoexpandthescaleofbilateralcurrencyswapsandsettlement,,PresidentXiJinpingsaidduringameetingviavideolinkthatChinawillstaycommittedtodeepeningreformandfurtheropeningup,anditwelcomesEuropeanbusinessinvestmentandexpectstheEUtoprovideafair,transparentandnondiscriminato,globalexecutivevice-presidentofGermanysSiemensGroupandchairman,presidentandCEOofSiemensChina,saidthatdespitethechallengesposedbyCOVID-19,Chinaiscapableofmaintaininghigh-qualitygrowth,givenitscompleteindustrialchainsystem."Amidallofthechangesanduncertaintiesinglobalmarkets,Chinasdeterminationtocontinuouslyopenuphasremainedunchangedoverthepastfewyears,"hesaid,addingthatgreatermarketopennessbenefitssustainablesocioeconomicdevelopmentinChina,andalsohelpsrevitalizetheglobaleconomy.

TheAxisofChangesinModernChina:WarlordDiscourseConstruction,ProvincialSystemReformandStateTheAxisofChangesinModernChina:WarlordDiscourseConstruction,ProvincialSystemReformandState,writtenbyWengYouwei,aprofessorfromtheSchoolofHistoryandCultureatHenanUniversity,discussesthreeaxialproblemsintheprocessofmodernChina’ssocialtransformationduringthelateQingDynasty(1644–1911)andtheRepublicanera(1912–49)—theseparatewarlordregimesamidtheinvasionofWesternimperialistpowersandtheintensifieddomesticconflicts;socialchangescausedbythereformoftheprovincialandregionalsystem;andthestategtimeinmodernChina,,WengmakesanewattempttorevealtheaxisofchangesinmodernChinabyconstruc“thediscourseofwarlordphenomenon,”“thediscourseofwarlordcauses,”“thediscourseofwarlordcharacteristics,”“solutions”givenbytheCPCandotherpoliticalforcestothewarlordissue,andtheanti-feudaltheorywiththediscourseof“feudalwarlords”cialandregionalsystemaswellasrelatedproblemsolving,nsificationoftheseparatewarlordregimesrestingonprovincesandregionsintheearlyRepublicera,whichforc,hisinterpretationofmajorhist,wheninterpretingthewarlorddiscoursesystem,thenecessitytoest,theauthorelucidatedthehistoricalunderstandingthatthepeople’sdestitutionat,andlearningthelessonthattheChiangKai-shekgovernmentknewaboutcorruptionyet“couldnotdealwithit,”Wenghighlightspunishingcorruptionandconstru

Sincetheconceptofcomputationaljournalismwasputforwardatthebeginningofthiscentury,itstheoryandmeaninghave,itcoversarangeofinformationtechnologiesappliedtojournalism,fromchatbotsandrecommendationsystemstoartificialintelligence(AI),production,,algorithms,andsoftware—collectivelyreferredtoasmachines—,,rssuchasindividualcognitivedifferences,thenewsproductionprocess,organizationalcharacteristics,andexternalsocialinstitutionalactorssuchasadvertisersandgovernments,,,however,,originatorofthegatekeepingtheory,pointedout,we’,somescholarscontendthatthegatekeepingtheoryisoutdated,somescholarsdefineusersas“secondarygatekeepers,”whileothersbelievethattheroleofjournalismischangingfrom“constructersofsocialreality”to“managersofasecondaryreleaseofonlinecontent,”thus,theirrolehasshiftedfromgatekeepersto“gatewatchers.”Contemporarygatekeepingtheoryseeshumanroles,suchasjournalists,professionalopinionleaders,andonlineinfluencers,aswellastechnologicalrolessuchasalgorithms,andtheirinteractions,,somejournalismandcommunicationscholarshavenoticedthatthealgorithms,aggregators,scoringsystems,andregulatoryplatformsbuiltintosearchengineshavebeenplayingtheroleofgatekeepers,,,digitalgatekeepershavepenetratedeverylinkofnewsgathering,production,,ComputationalNewsDiscovery(CND)isaparticularapplicationarearelatedtotheuseofalgorithmstoorienteditorialattent,pickupsuddenhotspotsorregularactivities,identifyandtrackthem,andtifyitemsthpatternsfromthehistoricaldataofreporting,andthenexpuatethevalueofreporting,todecidewhetherornottocarryoutfurtherinvestigationandfollow-upreports,,CNDworkswithjournalists,ingchannels,potentiallyaggravatingjournalists’,CNDcansavetimebyaccuratelyfilteringoutcontentthatwouldotherwiseattractattention,whereasinotherscenarios,it’,journalistshavedifferentexpectationsoftheeffortputintodifferenttypesofnewsleads,s,theCNDsystemshouldpreliminarilyassesstheimportanceofpushcontentinordertoeffectivelydirectusers’,,themachine’,thehuman-centeredsocio-technicalgatekeepingprocessshouldenhancetheCNDsystem’sconfigurability,,theremightbeacontradiction,astheindustrialnatureofmodernmediawilldrivecapitaltocontinuouslyimprovet,thealgorithm-driventransformationofstructureddataintonewstext,,embedstheinformationincustomizedtemplates,,a,,andthatautomatedjournalismcannotbedivorcedfromspecificsocial,cultural,andpoliticalcontexts,,automatedjournalismentailsmachinesthatproducenews,“machineswritingforpeople,”wehaveseentheemergenceof“peoplewritingformachines”—racteristicsoftheaudience,cateringtodifferentreadingdevices,agegroups,mplexprocessofnewsproduction,allowingthemtofocusona,thetrade-offisthateditorshavetogiveupsomeoftheirgatek,,investigativejournalismstoriesareunique,soitisdifficulttoobtainAItrainingdata,andthetrainingmodelsarenotuniversal,,itdoesn’,AIcanassistinvestigativejournalistswithdatacleansingandcollation,,TheAtlanticreporterBillDedmantrawledthroughmountainsofhome-mortgagedatawiththehelpofcomputerstowri(ANR)adoptsthedistributionmethodofrecommendingpersonalizednews,whichinfluencesusers’sandpreferences,,machinesdominatetheANRgatekeepingprocess,whichleadstoaseriesofproblemssuchasinforma,inthecontextofANR,journalisticvaluesarechangingasjournalistnewsroomandbelievethattradit,whenaskedhowtodesignasuccessfulANR,respondentsfirstemphasizedthecorevaluesoftransparency,diversity,editorialautonomy,breadthofinformation,personalrelevance,andpleasuretouse,whiletheyfeltthattraditionalnewsvaluessuchasobjectivity,neutrality,,includingdatascientists,productmanagers,anduserexperienceengineers,,,audiences,media,socialplatforms,andthegovernmentshould,wewouldbeoverwhelmedbythefloodofinformationwithoutanalgorithm’,whatkindofnewsgatekeepersdowewantmachinestobeMachineshavenoinstincts,buttheyarebuiltuponcertaincultural,political,tivenessofhumangatekeeping,gatekeepingprocess,butalsoleadstoanexcessiverk,thecore,itisnecessarytounderstandthecultural,political,,weshouldclearlyviewthecommunicationmode’,asinnovationssuchasnewscsiaatXi’anJiaotongUniversity.

JiangXiaojuanPhoto:,aprofessorattheUniversityoftheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences(CASS),saidinaninterviewwithCSSTthatChina’:Inyouropinion,whatistherelationshipbetweenthedevelopmentoftheoriesonopeningupandopeningupinpracticeJiangXiaojuan:Classicaltheoriesexplaining“openingup”totheoutsideworldincludethetheoryofabsoluteadvantage,,theproductioncapacityandeconomicconditionsofvariouscountriesweredifferentiated,andtheeco,,,scholarsfocusedontheimportanceofinternationaltrade,exploringtheimportanceofinternationaldivisionoflaborandfreetrade,,th“intra-industrytrade”amongdevelopedcountriesconstitutedamajorpartofinternationaltrade,andtraditionaltradetheoriesbasedoncomparativ,agroupofeconomistsdevelopedanewtheoryofinternationaltradebasedontradepractices,,,thefocusofattention,andresearchcontentof:WhatarethedistinctivefeaturesofChina’sopeningupJiangXiaojuan:TheuniquenessofChina’sopening-uppathraisesanimportantquestion,thatis,areweso“distinctive”thattheexistingtheoriescannotexplainiteffectivelyandanewtheoreticalframeworkneedstobeconstructedtoanalyzeitMyunderstandingisthatChina’sopeningup,intermsofstartingpointsandsteps,andvariouscross-sectionsofthedevelopmentprocess,doess,intermsoflong-termtrendsandessentialfeatures,,Chinashowsthesameconv’snationalc,China’sfactorofproductionstructureisimbalanced,andthereisanurgentneedtoadjustthroughthedthroughcompetition,whichisdirectlyrelatedtothehugesizeofourmarket,:Lookingahead,howdoyouthinkwecanpromoteopeninguptotheoutsideworldfromahigherstartingpointJiangXiaojuan:Shiftingfrompolicy-drivenopeninguptoinstitutionalo,Chinabasicallyhastheconditionsandenvironmentforinstitutionalopeningup,andinthefuture,weshouldkeepiandregulations,adheretotheprincipleofequalstatusofalltypesofeconomicentitiesandequalprotectionofalltypesofpropertyrights,,equalemphasisshouldbegiventoexportsandimports,totheabsorptionofforeigncapitalandforeigninvestment,andtoforeign-fundedenterprises,,2020,ChinesePresidentXiJinpingannouncedatthe27thAsia-PacificEconomicCooperation(APEC)EconomicLeaders’MeetingthatChinawouldfavorablyconsiderjoiningtheComprehensiveandProgressiveAgreementforTrans-PacificPartnership(CPTPP),,iftheyallcomeintoforce,willcovermorethan55%ofinternationaltradeandinternationalinvestment,,wehavejoinedtheRegionalComprehensiveEconomicPartnership(RCEP)andappliedtojointheDigitalEconomyPartnershipAgreement(DEPA).Thiswillcertainlypushforwardthedomesticconstructionoftheinstitutionalsystem,andtheopensystemthatconnectswithit,facilitatingdomesticreformandenergi,itwillalsocontributeChina’swisdomtotheformationanddevelopmentoftheglobalizationgovernancesysteminthefuture.

ACollectionofQinCultureACollectionofQinCulture,writtenandcompiledbytenscholarsofQinhistory,includestenvolumesrespectivelyonhistory,geography,militaryaffairs,importantfigures,systems,thoughts,literature,archaeology,allusions,(770–221BCE)tothecollapseoftheQinDynasty(221–207BCE),thebookselectstenanglestocomprehensivel,theKingofQin,YingZheng,completedthegreatcauseofunifyingChinaandestablishedthefirsthighlycentralized“unified”authoritarianempireinChinesehistory,ialChina,,theQinpeoplebuiltanimalhusbandrybasesinareasbetweentheQianRiverandtheWeiRiver,contactedgrasslandtribes,,theQinpeopledevelopedtowardtheeast,becameawesternvassalstateoftheZhouDynasty(11thcentury–256BCE)in770BCE,relocateditscapitalcitytoYongcheng,an’seconomicprogresscanbepartlyattributedtothematurefarmingexperiencefromthe“peopleleftoverastheKingPingofZhou(750–720BCE)migratedeastward.”DukeMuofQin(683–621BCE)“annexedvastterritory,defeatedthestrongJinStateintheeast,anddominatedtheRongandtheYipeopleinthewest,”whichwasapoliticalsuccessachievedwiththewesternGuanzhong[CentralShaanxi,locatedtothesouthoftheBeishanMountainsandnorthoftheQinlingMountains],transportationconstruction,mechanicalinvention,powerrevolution,andotheraspects,theQinStateenhancedssedthesixeasternstatesintheWarringStatesPeriod(476–221BCE).Relatedtothis,Qin’

IntheResolutionoftheCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistPartyofChina(CPC)ontheMajorAchievementsandHistoricalExperienceofthePartyoverthePastCentury,adoptedattheSixthPlenarySessionofthe19thCPCCentralCommittee,itdeclared“Puttingsocialbenefitsfirstwhilealsostressingeconomicreturns,theParty,andpublicculturalserviceshaveimproved,providingpeoplewithricherculturalnourishment.”ThefilmindustryisacrucialpartofChina’sculturalindustry,andanimportantmeansofprovidingpeople’saestheticentertainmentneeds,,thedomesticfilmboxofficehascontinuedtorise,“OperationRedSea,”“DyingtoSurvive,”and“TheBattleatLakeChangjin”havewonwidespreadpraisefromdomesticaudiences,showcasingChinesecinema’owingaestheticentertainmentneedsofChineseaudiences,domesticfilmswi’culturalpursuits,andothercontentproducers’goalsshouldprioritizequalitycontent,honorthespiritofcraftsmanship,finelycarveeverydetail,,China’sfilmindustryhasbeenbooming,withtheboxoff,thenumberofscreensexceeded80,000,,,,theboxofficedeclinedduetotheCOVID-19pandemic,butin2021,,rankingfirstintheworld,,Chinaproducedmorethan4,000films,hattheboxoffice,andthequalityoffilmtexthasimprovedsignificantly,butcomparedwithEuropeanandAmericanfilms,,Chinesefilmssuchas“OperationRedSea,”“DetectiveChintang2,”“DyingtoSurvive,”“,”and“DetectiveChintang3”haveperformedwellattheboxoffice,butoverall,,audienceratingsforthequ,filmtextis“theinternalstructureandorganizationofanyonefilm;orsimplyafilmwhereveritisconceptualizedasasystemofmeanings.”Itmustbepointedoutthatwecannotuseboxofficetotalsandthisgrowth,theshareofdomesticfilms’boxofficeintotalboxofficerevenues,andthenumberofdomesticfilmswithinthetop10boxofficeranking,toevaluatethetextqualityofChinesefilms,becausethisdataonlyshowsthegrowthofdomesticfilmquantities,andthehugepopulationofmainla’ssustainedboxofficegrowth,butthereisnosigni,China’ssustainedboxofficenumbersarehighlyaffectedbywordofmouth,,thequa,,,Chinesescriptwritersshouldnottaketheblamealone,variou,themainr,thelackofinnovativethinkingandbroadhorizonsleadstomonotonouscontent,stereotypicalplots,homogenizedstoriesingenrefilms,plotimitation,plagiarism,,the“DyingtoSurvive”andafewotherfilms,,,artistic,andaestheticvalueleadstofewfilmmak,thedevelopmentofhigh-qualityIPisinsufficient,includingsubparinnovationofoldandnewclassictexts,,afterthesuccessof“DrawingSword,”quiteafewcopycatsappeared,,andasamatteroffact,,IPintheChinesecontextreferstocreativeintellectualpropertythatattractswideattention,hasahugeimpact,“stareffect”’tbragabouttheiractingskills,buttheystillcantakeawayarelativelyhighproportionofthewholefilm’,generalcontentproducers,anddirectors,producers,,,commercialismdrivesdirectors,stars,andinvestorstopursuemonetarygains,,toencouragescriptstorytellingandartisticprocesses,IPvalueandcontentmustlead,andthespiritofinn’sstorytheory,weshouldfocusonscriptcreation,culturalinnovation,,thecreationofaninnovationenvironmentandincentivesarealsocrucialtoimprovingdomesticfilms’,weneedtocarryoutathoroughex,acomprehensiveanalysisofthee,thecorrespondingstrategiestoimprovethescriptwriter’,wemustraisetheentrythresholdandthevoiceofscriptwriters,enhancetheeffectofIPprotection,perfecteducationandtrainingsystems,,representedbyinternetanddigitaltechnologies,hasbroughtaboutchangestocontentproduction,andonlineliterature’’alandartisticaccomplishmentsandcreativeabilitiesintheaspectsoffilmtypeexploration,themedstories,contentcreationtechniques,narrativeperspectives,expressions,,targetedmeasuresareneededtooptimizecontentapproval,procedures,,theFilmIndustryPromotionLawofthePeople’sRepublicofChinawasadoptedatthe24thSessionoftheStandingCommitteeofthe12thNationalPeople’,filmcreation,shooting,distribution,andprojectionatthenationallevel,,itstipulatedthatafilmshouldbeassessedbynolessthanfiveexperts,,thegovernmentalsointroducedthecorrespondingmeasure:settingupexpertevaluationteamstoassessimitation,reproduction,piracy,,abalancebetweenscriptwriters,contentproduction,distribution,’beliefs,values,andemotionstoguidingaudiences’,,heaudiencewillbreakthe“protectivebalance”ofdomesticfilms,’sopeninguptotheoutsideworld,moreandmoreforeignfilmproducts,especiallyHollywoodfilms,haveenteredChina’ntechnology,China’,wemu,itisnecessarytoobjectivelyandrationallyevaluatemoviecontent,writereviewsandcommentsaboutamoviesincerely,,andavoidusingacid,caustic,abusive,,tongUniversity;YuanHuayuanisfromtheSchoolofMediaandCommunicationatShanghaiJiaotongUniversity.

TheMethodologyofRuralVitalizationTheMethodologyofRuralVitalization,writtenbyWangLisheng,aresearchfellowfromtheInstituteofPhilosophyattheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences,,itemphasizestheoverallpromotionofruralvitalizationbytakingthecountyastheunit,andregardsitasthebestpromotionunit,raisingthecountytothcityinShandongProvince,,asanadministrativeunit,isabletoconducttop-leveldesignandplanningasawhole,and,meanwhile,carryoutspecificpoliciesfordifferentvillageswithinthecountyarea,sothattheimplementationoftheruralvitalizationstrategycannotonlymeettheuniversalrequirementsofthecentralandprovincialgovernments,nstrategyisdeterminedbythestatusandfunctionsofcounty-l,butessentiallyreshapesurban-ruralrelationsinthenewera,namely,ncitiesandruralareas,’administrativefunction,politicalsystemfunction,functionofgeographicalandculturalunits,economyandmarketfunction,andfunctionofpoliticalsubjects,tosupportthepropositionof“takingthecountyasthemethod.”sanimportantentrypointofintegratedurban-ruraldevelopment,coordinatingspatiallayoutincludingcounty-levelindustries,infrastructure,publicservices,basicfarmland,ecologicalprotection,towndevelopment,andvillagedistribution,andachie,advancingurbanizationwiththecountyasacarrier,andp’sbasicnationalcondition,anditsurbanizationandmodernizationisalongprocessthatcan’“outshining”first-tiercities,thereshouldbecountyterritoriesandtownsbloomingtogether,nUniversity.

DesarchéologuesontrécemmentfaitdesdécouvertesétonnantessurlecélèbresitedesruinesdeSanxingdui,danslaprovincechinoiseduSichuan(sud-ouest);Untrésordobjetsraffinésenbronze,enoretenjade,dontaumoins10objetsenbronzedécouvertspourlapremièrefoisdanslhistoiredelacivilisationhumaine,aétééquipeconjointedarchéologuesdelInstitutprovincialderecherchesurlesreliquesculturellesetlarchéologieduSichuan,delUniversitédeBeijing,delUniversitéduSichuanetdautresinstitutionsderechercheetuniversitésaeffectuéécouvertesproviennentprincipalementdesfossessacrificiellesnuméro7etnuméro8,portantlenombretotaldobjetsdécouvertsdanslessixfossesdeSanxingduiàprè,selonlInstitutprovincialderecherchesurlesreliquesculturellesetlarché,découvertedanslafossenuméro7,estléticulésenformedetortue,etlesctésdelabotesontornésdunecharnièreenbronze,depoignéesenformedetêanalysedesmicrotracesarévéléquelaboteétaitenveloppéedesoie,selonlesarchéologues."Ilneseraitpasexagérédedirequececontenantestuniqueensongenre,comptetenudesaformedistinctive,desafinesseartisanaleetdesaconceptioningéàquoiilservait,nouspouvonssupposerquelesanciensleconservaientprécieusement",aexpliquéLiHaichao,professeurdelUniversitéduSichuanetresponsabledesfouillesdanslafossenuméécorationsenbronze,desfigurinesetdesclochesontégalementétédééro8voisine,lesarchéologuesontmisaujourdiversobjets,notammentdestêtesenbronzeavecdesmasquesenor,unesculptureenbronzeavecunetêtehumaineetuncorpsdeserpent,unautelenbronze,unecréaturemythiquegéanteenbronzeetunobjetenbronzeenformededragonavecunnezdecochon."Lessculpturessonttrèscomplexesetimaginatives,reflétantlemondeféeriqueimaginéparlesgensàcetteépoque-là,etellesillustrentladiversitéetlarichessedelacivilisationchinoise",aindiquéZhaoHao,professeurassociéàlUniversitédeBeijing,quidirigelesfouillesdelafossenumé,lesarchéologuesontégalementtrouvédesfossésàcendres,desfondationsarchitecturalesetdepetitesfossesàsacrificielles,desreliquesculturelles,ainsiquedesbambous,desroseaux,desgrainesdesoja,etdesbovinsetdessangliersquiontpuêtresacrifiéécouvertesàlafindesannées1920,lesruinesdeSanxingduisontconsidéréescommelunedesplusgrandesdécouvertesarchéologiquesduXXesièéesdanslavilledeGuanghan,àenviron60kmdeChengdu,capitaleprovinciale,lesruines,couvrantunesuperficiede12km2,seraientlesvestigesduroyaumeShu,datantdà

,,ionsystem,,well-roundedstudentdevelopmentshoul,itisnecessarytopointoutthateachtypeoflaborhasitsownsignificanceandvalue,,inpractice,the,itwasnarrowlyunderstoodas“productivelaboreducation”andnowitissometimesknownas“physicallaboreducation”or“work-technicaleducation.”Therefore,inordertocarryoutcomprehensivelaboreducation,udentstomasterspe,,laboreducationshouldnots,,manyschoolsattachgreatimportancetolaborandactivelyenrichstudents’experienceinvarioustypesofworkthroughworkshops,campusfarms,,ifweonlyaimforstudentstogetatasteofcertaintypesofwork,notthecompleteexperienceofharvestingandcollectingproducts,theywillnottakeitseriouslyandtrulyvaluethejoyofwork,no,bothproc,laboreducation’sto-dolist,launchedbytheTeachingandResearchOfficeoftheEducationDepartmentofZhejiangProvince,mpleteineachgrade,’laborliteracy,’respectforlabor,resultingintheformationofalaborconsciousnessthatviewslaborashonorable,respectful,,laboreducation’sfunctionis,withoutdoubt,’personalities,encouragingthedesireandwillpowertodohardwork,overcomedifficulties,andbravelystruggle,,laboriswhatmakesushuman,becauseitformsandperfectsourphysicalbodies,anditopensourmindstothesignificanceofcooperation,sharing,,teachingstude’spersonalityandspiritareformedintheprocessof“gettingthingsdone,”becausetheloveforwork,theabilitytoreachgoals,,comprehen“combiningeducationwithproductivelabor”hasbeenafundamentalprincipleofChina’,theconnotationsof“combiningeducationwithproductivelabor”on,tivelaboristhatonlywheneducationiscombinedwithproductivelaborcanworkers,especiallychildren,intheageofmechanizedlarge-scaleproduction,changetheirjobsandbecomecompetentindifferenttypesofwork,,onlythroughthecombinationofeducationandproductivelabor,canweunleashthepr,thisdoesnotmeanthateducationshouldn’,suchasdailyhousework,servicelabor,andcreativelabor,whichareofgre,wesh,productivelabor,servicelabor,anddailyhouseworkweremostlyphysicallabor,butwithsociety’sdevelopmentandtheadvancementofinformationtechnology,alltypesoflaborinvolvemultipleelementsfromscienceandtechnology,someofwhicharehigh,,thecombinationofphysicala,theapplicationofscienceandtechnologyinproductionlaborhasbecomemorecommon,solaborhasbecomemorecomplexandtechnologymoreintensive.“Labortechnologyeducation”or“work-technicaleducation”,itmustbepointedoutthatlabor,apassionforlabor,andprovidesnecessaryskills,itshouldalsohelpdevelopstudents’on,tempertheirwills,andimprovetheirabilitiestopursuetruthandcreativity,heiraestheticabilities,thusenabl,moral,intellectual,athletic,guaranteestheimplementationoflaboreducation,butalsoguaranteesintegratededucationinfivedomains,namelymorality,intellect,athletics,aesthetics,,courses,inrealitytheclasstimeislimited,,fewschoolsdelveintoitan,wearguethatthroughfixedpracticalactivitytimeandaseriesofthematicpractices,labo,practicalactivitiesarenotacourse,’scompulsory,,theimplementationoflaboreducationinschoolswillinevitablyfacelimitationsintermsoftheavailabletechnology,equipment,environment,,schoolsneedtorelyonexternalresourcesandencouragest,theultimategoalofthecombinationof,ontheonehand,labormustbeconduc,ontheotherhand,mustpromotethespiritoffreedomandliberationandstrhouNormalUniversityandShuQingisfromtheZhejiangEducationPublishingHouse.

Karl-HeinzPohlisaGermansi:COURTESYOFPOHLAsaGermansinologistandaprofessorofChinesestudiesatTrierUniversityinGermany,ProfessorKarl-HeinzPohlhaslongbeendevotedtotheresearchofChineseintellectualhistory,ethics,andaesthetics,aswe’iao:Poet,PainterandCalligrapher(1990),AestheticsandLiteraryTheoryinChina:FromTraditiontoModernity(inGermanandtranslatedintoChinese,2006),’,,:WhatdoyouthinkarethefundamentaldifferencesbetweenChineseandWesternintellectualandvaluesystemsPohl:Afundamentaldifferenceisthe“conceptofman.”TheconceptofmanintheEuropean/,thewordmeans:theultimate“indivisible”—“indivisible”“atomistic”viewofhumanbeings:weareallatoms,,especiallythatofConfucianism,isthatofmanasa“relationalbeing.”Wecanonlyliveourhumanitybyhavingandcultivatingrelationships:firstaschildrenofparents,thenasparentsofchildren,brothersandsisters,relatives,friends,compatriots,:HowdoyouunderstandConfucianismAretheremisunderstandingsoforprejudicesagainstConfucianisminWesternacademiaPohl:,thefamilyhasanimportantpositioninConfucianism,asdoesdecentorrituallycorrectbehavior(礼)towardsoneanother—whichisnotsupposedtobeamereexternality,butanexpressionofgenuine“benevolence”(仁).AlthoughitwashighlyreveredinEuropeduringtheEnlightenment(17th–18thcenturies),ConfucianismfellintooblivionaftertheFrenchRevolutionorwasonlyreceivednegatively(asitwasbytheChineseintellectualsoftheMayFourthMovement,namelyasthehallmarkofanossifiedsocialsystem).Today,,itisimportantthatpeo,hehasdonealottoconveyanewunderstandingofConfucianism,atleastamongthosewhoareinterestedinChina,namelythatConfucianismalsohasaspiritualdimensionandcouldwellhavesignificancefortoday’,TuWeiminghasbroughtbacktolightthesideofConfucianismthathadcompletelyfadedawayforalongtime,namelythatConfucianismisatraditionnotonlyofwisdom,butalsoofahighethicalstandard,andthatitalsohasanalmostspiritualtradition,namelyintheemphasisonxiuyang(修养),orself-cultivation,thatthisisbasicallythecoreofConfucianism—andnotasocialhierarchyandall,,:,andonecancertainlyaskwhatofthisresourceisstillinterestingandimportanttoday,:Itisgenerallyknown:,ifoneunderstandsaestheticsasphilosophyofart,thentheChineseintellectualsunderstoodearlyont,ChineseintellectualsfoundthattheWestwasshapedbyreligion(Christianity),“Aestheticeducationinsteadofreligion!”LinYutangsaid(inMyCountryandMyPeople):“PoetrymaywellbecalledtheChinaman’sreligion.”TheChineselanguageorscripthasanaestheticdimensionthroughthecharactersalone—andthroughcalligraphy—,,namelytheformalcharacteristics,[intheWest].Despitethislimitationduetothelossofaestheticfeatures,Chinesepoetry,whenitwasdiscoveredherearound1900,,,GustavMahlerwroteagreatsymphoniccantatainhis“TheSongoftheEarth,”basedonthetextsofpoemsbyLiBai,MengHaoran,WangWei,ntfromtheactualoriginals,thisworkrepr,Yin-Yangthinkingplaysaveryimportantrole:ureinChineseculture:parallelism(对仗)inpoetryortheparallelsayings(对联),Daoist,—andperhapsalsothroughthetranslationoftheterm“aesthetics”intoChineseas美学,“doctrineofthebeautiful”—Chinesescholarshavebeenluredontothetrackofsearchingfor“beauty”,“beauty”playedvirtuallynoroleintraditionalChineseart—(Confucian)orthenatural(Daoist).Inanycase,,;andbooksonaestheticsdon’,ontheotherhand,aestheticshasanessentialconnectiontoChina’“aestheticsfever”(asinthe1980s,triggeredbythepublicationofLiZehou’sThePathofBeauty),thatfortraditionalChina,anaestheticsconsciousness(审美境界),suchaspainting,butalsoinliterature,,,itwasratherthedrama,thetragedy,andtheepic,beginningwiththeGreeks,,but,asIsaid,,ifyouknowChinese,:WhatarethemainproblemsintheinterculturaldialoguebetweenChinaandtheWestHowdowefacilitateeffectiveinterculturaldialoguePohl:Thereisalotofcontroversyaroundthetopicof“interculturaldialogue.”,themainquestioniswhereandbetweenwhomsuc,“dialogue”shouldnotbeunderstoodhereinanarrowsense,butinabroaderone,,ourhumanrelationshipstooneanotheraredialogical,,weneedthe“other”inordertoexperienceourselvesas“ourselves.”Thisalsoappliestoculturesinsofarasonecanactuallyonlyexperienceone’,weonlystar,interculturaldialogueshouldbeseenasaneffortforunderstandingthatcantakeplaceatalllevels,betweenindividuals,betweenpoliticians,membersofreligions,,caremustbetakenthatsuch“dialogue”doesnotleadtoa“monologue,”,,,someoneoncesaid,’100years,butonlyexperts(sinologists)knowaboutit,,,itisquitedifferent:Chineseintellectuals,inparticular,havestudiedEuropeanditsculture(philosophy,literature,art,etc.)intensivelysincetheOpiumWar[inthe1840s].—theWest’,’sjustnotmuchusetothem,becausetheWest,throughitsmilitary,economic,financial,andculturalpower,hasmanagedoverthelastcent,,becauseofChina’spoliticalotherness,,forexample,throughdiscussionsbetweenChineseandWesternersontelevisionorinthemedia,’sfriendsintheWest.

TheConstructionCourseofLiteraryClassicofShijiTheConstructionCourseofLiteraryClassicofShiji,writtenbyZhangXinke,aprofessorfromtheSchoolofChineseLanguageandLiteratureatShaanxiNormalUniversity,revealsthedifferentcharacteristicsofliteraryacceptanceofShiji(RecordsoftheGrandHistorian)indifferenttimesagainstthebroadhistoricalandculturalbackgroundofmorethan2,000years,,’sself-prefaceintheending,theoriginalintentionofSimaQianandhisfathertowriteShijiwastofollowChunqiu(SpringandAutumnAnnals),which,afterbeinginterpretedbytheGongyangSchool,wasthemostimportantgovernanceclassicamongtheFiveClassicsrespectedbyEmperorWuoftheHanDynasty(206BCE–220).HowdidShijigofromacommentaryontheFiveClassicstoaliteraryclassicThedeclineofConfucianclassicsattheendoftheEasternHanDynasty(25–220),theestablishmentofliteratureasaconceptintheWei,Jin,Southern,andNorthernDynasties(220–589),andtheinteractionandseparationbetweenliteratureandhistoriography,aressintheHanDynasty,,whenConfucianclassicsdeclinedfromitspeak,thatliteratureandhistoriographybrokefro’sbiographicalstyle,Qilu(SevenRecords)bybibliographerRuanXiaoxuintheLiangperiod(502–557)setup“therecordofbiographies.”ThebibliographicsectionofSuishu(BookofSui)classifiedbooksintojing(classics),shi(history),zi(philosophy),andji(literature),andShijiwasincludedinthe“officialhistory”,Shij,ynasty(618–907).Forexample,HanYuandLiuZongyuan,mastersofancient-styleproseintheTangDynasty,greatlyadmiredSimaQian’’,,therearepoliticians,philosophers,historians,writers,scholars,eras,therearepoems,essays,scriptsforstory-telling,opera,fiction,academicworks,notes,letters,prefaces,postscripts,ureatGuangdongUniversityofForeignStudies.

>LaChinepoursuivrasonrêvederenouveaunationalàl’occasiondelacélébrationducentenaireduPCC2021-07-2008:33:00ZhongZhe    Le1erjuillet,lePCCcélèbresoncentièmeanniversairesurlaplaceTiananmenàPé:XINHUA  Le1erjuillet,leParticommunistechinois(PCC)acélébrééclaréqu’unobjectifdedéveloppementimportantavaitatteintetaannoncéquelanationchinoiseavanceavecunélaninexorableverssonrenouveau.  LorsdecerassemblementgrandiosesurlemblématiqueplaceTiananmen,làoùMaoZedongproclamalanaissancedelaRépubliquepopulaire,XiJinping,secrétairegénéralduComitécentralduPCC,asaluélessuccèsdupartiaucoursdusièclepasséetaappelélensembledupartiàpoursuivreavecvolontéetopiniatretésontravailacharné,ainsiqu’àcontinuerlagrandeluttepourparveniraurenouveaunational.  ,égalementprésidentchinoisetprésidentdelaCommissionmilitairecentrale,adéclaréquelaChineavaitatteintl’objectifdupremiercentenaire,àsavoirconstruireàtousleségardsunesociétédeprospéritémodérée.  CelasignifiequenousavonssuapporterunerésolutionhistoriqueauproblèmedelapauvretéabsoluequisévissaitenChine,etquenousavanonsmaintenantàpasassurésverslobjectifdudeuxièmecentenaire,quiestdefairedelaChineungrandpayssocialistemoderneàtousleségards,adéclaré  100ansderéalisations   FangJun,rédacteurenchefdeléditiondesPériodiquesenSciencessocialesdeChine,adéclaréquelediscourssolenneldeXiJinpingtémoignemagnifiquementdelaluttecentenairequ’alivré’,documenthistoriquedumarxismeau21esiècle,appelleenfinàunemobilisationgénéralepourlegrandrenouveaudelanationchinoise.  LediscoursambitieuxdeXiJinpingadémontréaumondeentierletripleforceàl’uvrederrièrelesréalisationsPCCtoutaulongdusièclepassé,àsavoirlapérennitéduparti,sonpouvoirdunificationetsonpouvoirdorganisationetd’exécution,adéclaréZhangZhongjia,secrétairedugroupedirigeantduPartiàlAcadémiedesSciencessocialesduHubei.  LePCCatoujoursrespectéaveclaplusengagementorigineletlamissionduparticonsistentprécisémentàapporterlebonheuraupeuplechinoisetlerenouveauàlanationchinoise,arelevéQuanHeng,vice-présidentdelaFédérationdesassociationsdeSciencessocialesdeShanghai.  Pourcetteraison,lePartiasuguiderlepeupleverslessuccèsquelepaysaconnus,anotéèsavoiratteintunesériedobjectifs,telsqueléradicationdelapauvretéabsolueetlachèvementdelaconstructionintégraledunesociétédeprospéritémodérée,lePartipréservepar-dessustoutsaphilosophieaucurd’undéveloppementcentrésurlepeuple.  Lepeupleestlemotclé,secrétairedupartidelUniversitéd’agriculturedeNankin,asoulignéquelhistoirecentenaireduPartiaréponduprécisémentàlaquestionfondamentaledesavoirpourquinousconstruisonslePartietexeronslagouvernance.  Versl’objectifdudeuxièmecentenaire  Aujourdhui,lespaysageséconomiques,technologiques,culturels,sécuritairesetpolitiquessubissentàl’éédansunepériodedeturbulence,adéclaréZhongYing,chercheuseàlInstitutdétudessurlaChinecontemporainedelAcadémiedesSciencessocialesdeChine.  Pourunepériodeassezlonguedelavenir,nousdevonsavoirunecompréhensionclairedecescirconstancesextérieuresetrépondreactivementauxdiversrisquesetdéfisengendrésparleschangementsdeconfigurationinternationaleadéclaréMmeZhong.  Danslaperspectivedecettenouvelleétape,ilestessentielderésoudrelesproblèmesmajeursliésaudéveloppementdéséquilibréetlacunairedupays,etdepromouvoirundéveloppementdequalité.Ilseraitdifficiledyparvenirsilnétaitguidéquepardesfacteurstelsqueletravail,lecapital,laterreetlesressourcesnaturelles,aindiquééformesinstitutionnellesstructurellesetlinnovationtechnologiquesontnécessairespourréaliserlatransformationdundéveloppementaxésurlesfacteursdeproductionversundéveloppementaxésurlefficacitéetlinnovation,afindaméliorervéritablementlefficacitéetstimulerlinnovation.  Ilestparticulièrementimportantdepromouvoirlautonomietechnologique,denousconcentrersurlaméliorationduniveaudemodernisationdelachaneindustrielledenotrepaysetdemaintenirsastabilité,ainsistéMmeZhong.  Pouraccélérerlaconstructiondunpaysinnovant,LinZhongqin,présidentdelUniversitéJiao-tongdeShanghai,asuggéréquelesuniversitésassumentleurrledematricesscientifiquesettechnologiquesstratégiquesnationalesetréèredapprofondissementdelarecherchefondamentaleetdintégrationinterdisciplinaire,etréaliserdespercéesmajeuresenmatièredinnovationtoutenmatrisantdenombreusestechnologiescléspourcontribueràsurmonterlesobstaclesquilimitentledéveloppementnational.  Ilestégalementimportantdetransféreretappliquerplusefficacementlesréalisationsscientifiquesettechnologiquesdesuniversité,éréderenforcerlaformationindépendantedestalentsdehautniveau.  Danscettenouvelleétapequinousattend,nousdevonsporterhautlabannièredelapaix,dudéveloppement,delacoopérationetdesavantagesmutuels,etadhéreràlavoied’undéveloppementpacifique,adéclaréFanLiming,présidentedelUniversitéduShandong.  MmeFanaégalementsuggérédepromouvoirlaconstructiondunecommunautédavenirpartagépourlhumanité,etledéveloppementqualitatifdelaCeintureetlaRoute,afind’offrirdenouvellesopportunitésaumondeparledéveloppementdelaChine.

GaoJianpingisaresearchfellowfromtheCASS,directoroftheInstituteofAestheticsandLiteraryCriticismatShenzhenUniversity,:COURTESYOFGAOAsaseniorscholar,ProfessorGaoJianpinghaslongbeendevotedtotheresearchofaesthetics,literarytheories,aestheticeducation,contemporaryculturalstudies,,GaosharedhisstudiesofC:HowdoweunderstandaestheticsGao:Thedefinitionofaestheticshasbeenrepeatedlydiscussedinacademia,astheobjectofthisdisciplinehasundergonemanychanges,’satte,humanbeingswillhavevariousfeelings,,andhumanbeingsneedabstractiontounderstandconcretethings,,whichmayberelatedtothetranslationoftheword“aesthetics.”AlexanderGottliebBaumgartenderivedtheterm“Aesthetica”,generationsofscholarshavehaddifferentinterpretationsofthisterm,Chōmintranslatedtheterm“Aesthetica”into美学accordingtotheJapaneseunderstandingof“Aesthetica”,ChinesescholarsintroducedthisdisciplinetoChinaanddirectlyadoptedtheterm美学[literallystudyofbeauty].Becauseofthistranslation,,therearemanykindsofbeauty,nlystudybeautyinanarrowsense,’saffectionarenotnecessarilybeautiful,whichmayrelatetoothercategoriesofaestheticsbesides“thebeautiful,”suchas“thesublime.”CSST:Accordingtoyou,inadditiontotheclassicaestheticcategoriessuchasthebeautifulandthesublime,aestheticobjectsshouldalsobeconsideredfortheir“senseofhistory”and“senseofnovelty.”CanyouelaboratefurtheronthisGao:“gu-ya”[guinChinesemeansancientorage-old,andyagraceorelegance]asanewcategoryofbeauty,,especiallyart,embodyasenseoftime,,,,,,thebeautyofanan,,mythsaredominatedbythesenseofnovelty[fromtheperspectiveofaesthetics].Inaddition,:WhataretheuniquefeaturesofChineseaestheticsGao:Asweallknow,ChineseandWesterna,Westernaestheticsresearchhasbeensystematicfromtheverybeginning,notonlyattachingimportancetothedefinitionandinterpretationofconceptsandcategories,-Qinperiod(priorto221BCE).,accordingtoTheAnalects,Confuciusdistinguishesbetweenmusicthatisbeautifulandmorallygood[Shaomusic],andmusicthatisbeautifulbutnotmorallygood[Wumusic],whichexpressestheConfucianaestheticconcept:,,Confucianbeautydependsonmoralgoodness,,,however,theexplorationanddemonstrationofbeautyinancientChinafocusedmoreonsensibility,intuition,andindividualperception,,inancientChina,therewasnotanideologicalsystemofaestheticsasintegratedasthatoftheWest,,undertheinfluenceofthespiritofscience,,theChinesebelievethateverythingintheworldisinmotion,and,representativ,ontheotherhand,stressadynamicvisualtourthroughthewindingpathsandzig-zaggalleries,onofgeometricforms,,whichhasbeeninfluencedbyChinesecalligraphy,breaksthelayoutofgeometricfiguresandemphasizesthemovementandstrengthofthebrush,istsmovetheirhandsonseeingtheircalligraphyorpaintings,andthenassociatetheartists’,wecanunderstandthecoreconceptsofChineseart,suchasqi-yun[verve,spiritresonance]andfeng-shen[vimandvigor].WhatI’,aestheticshasevolvedthroughanextremelylongprocess,:DoyouhaveanyadviceforcontemporaryChineseaestheticsresearchGao:Abigprobleminthecomparativestudyofaestheticsissimplydividingtheworldintotwoparts:“West”,wh,,[oneofthefoundersofthestudyofaestheticsin20th-centuryChina]fromtheWest,andfoundthatwhenhecitedChineseexamplesfortheoreticalexplanation,,China’smodernaestheticstudyisnotasimplecombinationofChineseandWesternideas,buttheabsorptionoftheessenceofWeste’:“Goingglobal”ticsGao:Inmyopinion,whatscholarsshouldpayattentiontotodayishowtopromoteChina’smodernandcontemporaryculturalachievementsto“goglobal.”Inasense,ancientChineseculturehasalready“goneglobal.”Manyancienttexts,suchastheConfucianclassics,’,,,researchersaremostlyengagedinthestudyofWesternaestheticsandtraditionalaesthetics,,justlikeChina,thesecountrieshavemadeachievementsinlocalizingWesternaestheticsandmodernizingtheirownancientaesthetics,,theChineseculturalsymbolscontainedinthisopeningceremonywerestilltheachievementsofancientChinesecivilization,suchasthe“FourGreatInventions.”Thisrevealsanoldwayofthinkingininternationalcommunication:lookingforChinesesymbolsinthemindsofWesterners,’,’sanswerreflectsasenseofhelplessness,,itisnecessarytosummar’mwritingahistoryofChineseaestheticsinthe20thcentury,andI’mgoingtotranslateitintoEnglishafterfinishingthebook,withahopetohelpChineseaesthetics“goglobal.”WhenitcomestotheinternationalcommunicationofChineseculture,itisalsoceisnotreally“goingglobal.”IncreasingtheexposureofChineseacademicachwithoutbringingthemtheoreticalinspiration,isnomorethanapracticeofsatisfyingtheircuriosity,whichdoesn’heworld,otherwiseitcanonlybea“transporter”“goglobal”dependsonwhetherouracademicresearchershavetheabilityto“goglobal.”Itrequiresscholarstoestablishagoodgroundingintheiracademicfieldsandproducerealstuff.“Goingglobal”isnotour“terminal,”andgoodscholarswon’tspendalldaythinkingabouthowtogetWesternerstorecognizetheirresearch,,themostimportantdrivefortheinternationalcommunicationofChineseacademicstudiesisthatourresearchmustbevaluable,cutting-edge,andhigh-quality.

Le25eForuméconomiqueinternationaldeSaint-Pétersbourgsestouvertmercredidansladeuxièésentantsdeplusde90paysetrégionsprendrontpartàcetteéditionsouslethème"Nouvellesopportunitésdansunnouveaumonde",selonléconomiesmondialeetrusse,lanumérisationetlasécuritédelénièreduforumvendredi,leprésidentrusseVladimirPoutineévalueralasituationmondialeactuelleetdécriralorientationfuturedudéveloppementéconomiquedelaRussie,adéclarémercrediYouriOuchakov,,leforumestdevenuuneplate-formemondialedepremierplanquipermetàlacommunautédesaffairesdediscuterdesproblèmeséconomiquescritiquesauxquelssontconfrontéslaRussie,lesmarchésé

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DesarchéologuesontrécemmentfaitdesdécouvertesétonnantessurlecélèbresitedesruinesdeSanxingdui,danslaprovincechinoiseduSichuan(sud-ouest);Untrésordobjetsraffinésenbronze,enoretenjade,dontaumoins10objetsenbronzedécouvertspourlapremièrefoisdanslhistoiredelacivilisationhumaine,aétééquipeconjointedarchéologuesdelInstitutprovincialderecherchesurlesreliquesculturellesetlarchéologieduSichuan,delUniversitédeBeijing,delUniversitéduSichuanetdautresinstitutionsderechercheetuniversitésaeffectuéécouvertesproviennentprincipalementdesfossessacrificiellesnuméro7etnuméro8,portantlenombretotaldobjetsdécouvertsdanslessixfossesdeSanxingduiàprè,selonlInstitutprovincialderecherchesurlesreliquesculturellesetlarché,découvertedanslafossenuméro7,estléticulésenformedetortue,etlesctésdelabotesontornésdunecharnièreenbronze,depoignéesenformedetêanalysedesmicrotracesarévéléquelaboteétaitenveloppéedesoie,selonlesarchéologues."Ilneseraitpasexagérédedirequececontenantestuniqueensongenre,comptetenudesaformedistinctive,desafinesseartisanaleetdesaconceptioningéàquoiilservait,nouspouvonssupposerquelesanciensleconservaientprécieusement",aexpliquéLiHaichao,professeurdelUniversitéduSichuanetresponsabledesfouillesdanslafossenuméécorationsenbronze,desfigurinesetdesclochesontégalementétédééro8voisine,lesarchéologuesontmisaujourdiversobjets,notammentdestêtesenbronzeavecdesmasquesenor,unesculptureenbronzeavecunetêtehumaineetuncorpsdeserpent,unautelenbronze,unecréaturemythiquegéanteenbronzeetunobjetenbronzeenformededragonavecunnezdecochon."Lessculpturessonttrèscomplexesetimaginatives,reflétantlemondeféeriqueimaginéparlesgensàcetteépoque-là,etellesillustrentladiversitéetlarichessedelacivilisationchinoise",aindiquéZhaoHao,professeurassociéàlUniversitédeBeijing,quidirigelesfouillesdelafossenumé,lesarchéologuesontégalementtrouvédesfossésàcendres,desfondationsarchitecturalesetdepetitesfossesàsacrificielles,desreliquesculturelles,ainsiquedesbambous,desroseaux,desgrainesdesoja,etdesbovinsetdessangliersquiontpuêtresacrifiéécouvertesàlafindesannées1920,lesruinesdeSanxingduisontconsidéréescommelunedesplusgrandesdécouvertesarchéologiquesduXXesièéesdanslavilledeGuanghan,àenviron60kmdeChengdu,capitaleprovinciale,lesruines,couvrantunesuperficiede12km2,seraientlesvestigesduroyaumeShu,datantdà

Sincetheconceptofcomputationaljournalismwasputforwardatthebeginningofthiscentury,itstheoryandmeaninghave,itcoversarangeofinformationtechnologiesappliedtojournalism,fromchatbotsandrecommendationsystemstoartificialintelligence(AI),production,,algorithms,andsoftware—collectivelyreferredtoasmachines—,,rssuchasindividualcognitivedifferences,thenewsproductionprocess,organizationalcharacteristics,andexternalsocialinstitutionalactorssuchasadvertisersandgovernments,,,however,,originatorofthegatekeepingtheory,pointedout,we’,somescholarscontendthatthegatekeepingtheoryisoutdated,somescholarsdefineusersas“secondarygatekeepers,”whileothersbelievethattheroleofjournalismischangingfrom“constructersofsocialreality”to“managersofasecondaryreleaseofonlinecontent,”thus,theirrolehasshiftedfromgatekeepersto“gatewatchers.”Contemporarygatekeepingtheoryseeshumanroles,suchasjournalists,professionalopinionleaders,andonlineinfluencers,aswellastechnologicalrolessuchasalgorithms,andtheirinteractions,,somejournalismandcommunicationscholarshavenoticedthatthealgorithms,aggregators,scoringsystems,andregulatoryplatformsbuiltintosearchengineshavebeenplayingtheroleofgatekeepers,,,digitalgatekeepershavepenetratedeverylinkofnewsgathering,production,,ComputationalNewsDiscovery(CND)isaparticularapplicationarearelatedtotheuseofalgorithmstoorienteditorialattent,pickupsuddenhotspotsorregularactivities,identifyandtrackthem,andtifyitemsthpatternsfromthehistoricaldataofreporting,andthenexpuatethevalueofreporting,todecidewhetherornottocarryoutfurtherinvestigationandfollow-upreports,,CNDworkswithjournalists,ingchannels,potentiallyaggravatingjournalists’,CNDcansavetimebyaccuratelyfilteringoutcontentthatwouldotherwiseattractattention,whereasinotherscenarios,it’,journalistshavedifferentexpectationsoftheeffortputintodifferenttypesofnewsleads,s,theCNDsystemshouldpreliminarilyassesstheimportanceofpushcontentinordertoeffectivelydirectusers’,,themachine’,thehuman-centeredsocio-technicalgatekeepingprocessshouldenhancetheCNDsystem’sconfigurability,,theremightbeacontradiction,astheindustrialnatureofmodernmediawilldrivecapitaltocontinuouslyimprovet,thealgorithm-driventransformationofstructureddataintonewstext,,embedstheinformationincustomizedtemplates,,a,,andthatautomatedjournalismcannotbedivorcedfromspecificsocial,cultural,andpoliticalcontexts,,automatedjournalismentailsmachinesthatproducenews,“machineswritingforpeople,”wehaveseentheemergenceof“peoplewritingformachines”—racteristicsoftheaudience,cateringtodifferentreadingdevices,agegroups,mplexprocessofnewsproduction,allowingthemtofocusona,thetrade-offisthateditorshavetogiveupsomeoftheirgatek,,investigativejournalismstoriesareunique,soitisdifficulttoobtainAItrainingdata,andthetrainingmodelsarenotuniversal,,itdoesn’,AIcanassistinvestigativejournalistswithdatacleansingandcollation,,TheAtlanticreporterBillDedmantrawledthroughmountainsofhome-mortgagedatawiththehelpofcomputerstowri(ANR)adoptsthedistributionmethodofrecommendingpersonalizednews,whichinfluencesusers’sandpreferences,,machinesdominatetheANRgatekeepingprocess,whichleadstoaseriesofproblemssuchasinforma,inthecontextofANR,journalisticvaluesarechangingasjournalistnewsroomandbelievethattradit,whenaskedhowtodesignasuccessfulANR,respondentsfirstemphasizedthecorevaluesoftransparency,diversity,editorialautonomy,breadthofinformation,personalrelevance,andpleasuretouse,whiletheyfeltthattraditionalnewsvaluessuchasobjectivity,neutrality,,includingdatascientists,productmanagers,anduserexperienceengineers,,,audiences,media,socialplatforms,andthegovernmentshould,wewouldbeoverwhelmedbythefloodofinformationwithoutanalgorithm’,whatkindofnewsgatekeepersdowewantmachinestobeMachineshavenoinstincts,buttheyarebuiltuponcertaincultural,political,tivenessofhumangatekeeping,gatekeepingprocess,butalsoleadstoanexcessiverk,thecore,itisnecessarytounderstandthecultural,political,,weshouldclearlyviewthecommunicationmode’,asinnovationssuchasnewscsiaatXi’anJiaotongUniversity.

AStudyofNaturalDisasterandCountrySocietyAlongtheLowerReachesoftheYangtzeRiverDuringtheMingandQingDynastiesAStudyofNaturalDisasterandCountrySocietyAlongtheLowerReachesoftheYangtzeRiverDuringtheMingandQingDynasties,authoredbyZhuangHuafeng,aprofessorfromtheSchoolofHistoryatAnhuiNormalUniversity,’diffusionprocess,evolutionlaw,andcharacteristicsatvariouslevelsofruralsocietyinJiangnan[regionssouthoftheYangtzeRiver],themechanism,characteristics,andeffectivenessofgovernmentalandnongovernmentalresponsetodisasters,aswellaeRiverduringtheMing(1368–1644)andQing(1644–1911)dynasties,includingfloods,droughts,plaguesoflocustsandotherpests,stormtides,hail,snowdisasters,earthquakes,andepidemics,were5,964,with2,822inMingand3,142inQingrespectively,,floodsanddroughtswerethemostfrequent,andtheyhadthelongestdurationandthehighestdegreestricken,,socialinstabilityfactorscontinuedtoferment,causingsuchproblemsastheprevalenceofpanicscrambleforrice,refusaltopaygraintaxesandothertaxes,rampantlocalbanditry,frequentunrestofdisastervictims,,political,andeconomicchangesshowsthatnaturaldisasterswerenotsimplycausedbynaturalfactors,butalsocloselyrelatedtosocialfactorssuchaspopulationaggregation,economicdevelopment,,thepopulationofJiangnanincreasedsharply,,theregionwaslocatedinamonsoonclimatezone,ddlereaches,theregionwasverysusceptibleto“enteringadisorderedstate,”whichdirectlytriggeredpopulationchanges,socialconflicts,thecollapseofruralorder,,varioustypesofdisasterreliefmechanismscoexisted,disasterstofollownaturaldisasters,,unreasonableexploitation,especiallyofreclaiminglandaroundlakesandindiscriminatedeforestation,resultedinirreversibledamagetotheecology,whilesoilandwatererosiondirectlyledtofrequentfloodsanddroughts,ty.

Duringthesummerof2021,anarticletitled“Non-LocalMothersJoinHandstoRaiseChildreninBigCities”wentviralonChinesesocialmediawithmorethan100,000readers—,thisarticleintendstodelveintothephenomenonofchild-rearing,andhowitmovesbeyondfamilyboundariesinmetropolises,:Whyisthepracticeofparentingre-crossingfamilyboundariesagainstthebackdropofdissolvingsocialfoundationsforcollectivechild-rearingandgrowingresponsibilityforfamily-orientedparentingIsitpossibletoreshapetherolesoffamily,society,state,andthemarketinchildcare“W”StreetisoneofShanghai’sfoursuburbancenters,“S”pioneeredthe,representedbyS,’s“process-event”analysismethod,thisarticleattemptstocapturethesemothers’continuouseffortstohelpparentingtranscendfamilyboundariesandintegratewithregionalresources,includingtheformationofacommunalchild-rearingsupportnetwork,communalchildfriendlyspaces,innovativeparent-childactivities,“slashcareermom,”meaningsheis“raisingchildrenontheonehandandpursuingacareerontheother.”Thiswast,Sstartedherbusinessin2013,,setupapersonalpublicaccountonWeChat,ing,andt,,,,therewasaspaceconvertedfromanoldcontainer,called“LittleBlueRoom,”,SYCsocialorganization,whichoperatesthecommunitygarden,heldvari,uponnegotiation,,Sbecameagrassrootsentrepreneurandbuilthercommunalchild-rearingsupportnetworkaroundtheconceptof“raisingchildrentogether.”Withthehelpofthephysicalspaceandplatformprovidedbythecommunitygarden,theonlinegroupsofmothers,managedbyS,,Splannedplantingclasses,gardendesignclasses,lessonsontraditionaluseofherbs(suchasmugwort)duringtheDragonBoatFestival,,Swasabletoincorporatecommunityactivitieswithherparentinggroups,whichbuiltexter,,Bassociationwasofficiallyapproved,withthepurposeofpromotingresidents’senseofparticipation,volunteering,andpromotingfamilies’’lives,uncovercommunitytalent,advocateforco-creationinthecommunity,enhancepublicwelfareawareness,andimproveresidents’“mothergroups”wonsocialrecognitiona,Sandhermothergroupswentthroughaprocessofseekingexternalsupportandestablishingconnectionsbasedontheirownandtheirfamily’,womenwhoexploredcollectivechild-rearinginthecommunitygraduallysteppedoutofprivatelifeandengagedinthelargersocialstructure,interwovenwithdifferentactorsinthegovernment,market,eireffortstointegratechild-rearingwiththespace,activities,,therearemanyplacesforchildren’sactivities,whichseemabundant,,geographicallyadjacentspacesareoftenadministrativelyrunbydifferentcommunities,,inpractice,,anint,childrenhadphysicaltraininginthegymsandsportcenters,usedrestaurantsforpaintingclasses,warmedupatthebasketballcourtinthepark,visitedsmalllocalexhibitionhalls,plantedvegetablesinthecommunitygarden,andcarriedouttraditionalculturalactivitiessuchas“wearingHanfucostumesandlearningSinology”,theseactivitiesdyn,practicalchild-rearingspacenotonlytransformednormalurbansettingsbutalsobroughtmoreattentiontopeopleintheseactivities,truly,in2020,WstreetwaslistedasShanghai’sfirstchildfriendlydemonstrationcommunity,forminga“onecenter,multiplesites”“bigcommunity,”,therewerefiveeffectivethemeclubsthatSandhermothergroupsran,hosting120formalthemedactivitiesandmorethan100informaladditionalactivitiesamidthepandemic,directlyserving1,965households,whilebenefitingover5,,designed,:Someareindependent,basedonindividualmembers’expertiseandobservationofreallifeneedsinthecommunity;Thesecondtypeofactivityisincollaborationwithlocal,community,andsocialorganizations,,,themothergroupssetupeveningandsummercare,borrowingcom,realizingthegoalof“raisingchildreninacollectiveeffortandlettingthemgrowupinamixed-agecommunityenvironment.”Theseservicesareofferedunderthesloganof“motherknowsmotherbetter,motherknowschildrenbetter,”conveyingnotonlythetrustworthinessofmothers’care,butalsomutualhelpbe,“raisingchildreninadown-to-earthway,”theywouldblendreallifefamilysituationsandcommunityplanningintosmalltasksforchildren,organization,space,andcontent,theconceptofcommunalchild-rearinghasgraduallytakenshape,,parentsvaluepersonalinvolvementintheirchildren’sdevelopment,ratherthanrely,theseparentshavea,smallfamilieswhostayinShanghaid,theirreplaceablevalueofcommunityenvironmentsforchildren’sgrowthhasbeenrecognized,soparticipationincommunitylifeandmakingneighborhoodfriendsarerefinedasakindof“down-to-earthcultivation,”,behindcommun,youngmothersinthisorganizationfurtherexpandedchild-rearingfromfamiliestocommunities,andgrad,SwaselectedbythecommunitytoparticipateinShanghai’,thecoreideasandhermothergroupsreachedalargeraudience,,communalchild-rearingextendsfromcommunities,exploringresourceintegrationbeyondfamilyboundaries,tobalancewomen’sroleasmotherscmulti-bodycooperativeparentingsystem,ttheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences.

ShenJiaxuanPhoto:InstituteofLinguistics,CASSOnNovember15,2020,thebookNounsandVerbswrittenbytheChineselinguistShenJiaxuanwont,ShenputforwardatheorythatinChinesealltheverbsareverbalnouns,orthen,ShenhasthoroughlydemonstratedthetheorythatChineseverbsarepartofnounswithover60essaysandsixbooks,settingoffarevolutionarywaveinthefieldofChineselinguistics,andshakingthedeep-rootedtraditionofapplyingthe’’sharvestwasdeeplyrootedinthe“SpringofScience”jingin1978,GuoMoruo,thenthepresidentoftheChineseAcademyofSciences(CAS),deliveredaspeechunderthetitleof“SpringofScience,”whichpoeticallypronouncedthatthe“SpringofScience”[aneweraofrevitalizedscientificresearchinChina]rs,includingShenJiaxuan,’sreturnbanquetwhenheworkedasliaisonforChinesetelecommunicationsduringtheUSPresidentRichardNixon’,beingintrovertedbynature,“SpringofScience,”ShendecidedtoapplytotheInstituteofLinguisticsattheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences(CASS),andwasadmittedtothein,histeacherZhaoShikaigavehimalonglistofbooks,,’nmathematicallinguisticsclassesinotheruniversities,andattendpsychologyseminarsattheInstituteofPsychology,(1904–1998),founderofmodernChineselinguisticstudies,wasalsooneofShen’’sthesis,[linguistic]studyprogramsoverseaswerebetterthanathome,andgaveShenadvicethatseemedincredible,butwasofgreatsignificance:toextensivelycollectarticlesonoverseasstudiesoftheChineselanguage,whichwerepublishedinEnglish,andma,becausein1980,,,itwasajourneytoanunknownworld,,,Shenreadtheabstract,madenotes,’sthesisconsistsoftwoparts:asummaryofoverseasstudiesofChineselanguagesasapreface,,Shen’sEnglishindexwaspublished,’,andstillfeelsthatwritingsuchapaperwasgoodacademictraining,whichhelpedhimhaveacomprehensiveunderstan,’sclassics,introducingpragmatics,cognitivelinguistics,andtheoriesoflinguistictypology,grammaticalization,uistics,,withlessthan100pages,wasthecrystallizationofLyu’slife-longwork,,“Everytimethebook[AnalysisofChineseGrammar]becameworn,,Iwouldlearnsomethingnew.”ShenhasownedfourcopiesofAnalysisofChineseGrammar,eachwornwithuse,:“Aperson’slifeisfinite,,mated,”“Thinkoutofthebox”Lyuoncesaid:“Itiscrucialtothinkoutofthebox……Wemusttemporarilythrowasidetheconceptssuchas‘word,’‘verb,’‘adjective,’‘subject,’and‘object.’Theseconceptsmaybe‘pickedup’‘thrownaside’and‘pickedup’again,becausethemeaningandvaluegiventothesetermshavechanged,andwearenolongerhedgedinwithrulesandregulations.”Inthepastdecadeorso,Shen’sworkhasbeencenteredon“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain.”In2007,Shen’spapertitled“NounsandVerbsinChinese”waspublished,layingthefoundationforhistheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”HeholdstheviewthatinChinese,verbsareaspecialtypeofnounthatexpressanaction,anevent,orastate,becauseChineseverbs,likenouns,“NounsandVerbsinChinese,”Shenhaspublisheddozensofpapers,focusingonthemostimportanttwopairsofgrammaticalcategories—“nounsandverbs,”and“subjectandpredicate,”“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain”thatbroughtarevolutionarywavetoChineselinguistics,overthrowingtheframeworkoftheoldtheoreticalsystem,andbrewingthestartofthetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”,Shensaid:“Itwouldbeha,however,wecanfindsomethingdifferent.”However,mechanicallyadoptingthestructuralfoundationandtheoreticalsystemofIndo-EuropeanlanguagesforChineselanguagesandframingChineselanguageaccordingtothepatternofIndo-Europeanlanguages,“thinkingoutofthebox”andgettingridofthe“shacklesoftheIndo-Europeanpattern.”Thetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs”explodedthefoundationofthethen-currenttheoreticalframeworkofChinesegrammar,,Shenmadef’stheoryisnowbeingrecognizedbymoreandmoreofhispeers,’seyes,,whenheseespostersbytheroadside,withChineseaboveandEnglishbelow,hewillnoticethedifferentwaysthetwolanguagesareexpressed,,healwayscarriedasmallnotebookandre,heestablishedawordbookofChineseverbalslipsandwroteseveralimportantarticles,suchas“TypesofTongueSlips.”ShenonceborrowedtheWoxianCaotangeditionofRulinWaishi[TheScholars,aChinesenovelcompletedin1750;itsearliestextanteditionisthe1803WoxianCaotangedition]“SentencesWheretheSubjectisaVerbandthePredicateisaNoun,”anarticlehewro,Shendidn’tmissoutonthenovelBlossoms,:“WhenreadingBlossoms,Ihavethedelightoffollowingtherhythm.”Afterreadingthenovel,Shenwroteamonographonlinguistics—,WeiGangqiang,deputyeditor-in-chiefof21stCenturyPublishingGroup,commented:“Itisrareandsignificantforlinguiststopayattentiontoandinterpretthelanguageofcurrentliteraryworks……ShenJiaxuan’sinsightsarenotonlytheachievementsofhislinguisticresearch,butalsovaluablereferenceforotherpeopleintermsofliterarycreation,translation,criticism,andgeneralacademicwork.”Shenmentionedthemovie“ZeroDarkThirty”lybasedondata,,becauseasmallfragmentofdatai,heoftentellshisstudentsthatthekeytosearchingforlinguisticinstancesdoesn’tlieinhowmanyinstancesyouhavecollected,hcontrast,

InJuly2021,thegeneralofficesoftheCPCCentralCommitteeandtheStateCouncilissuedtheOpinionsonFurtherReducingtheBurd“doublereduction”policy,theregulationswererolledoutwiththeaimofhelpingtoeasestudents’,,oneofthewidelyacceptedsuggestionsistoabolishthehighschoolentranceexamination,ulsoryeducationfrom9to11or12years,,hattheyhavelearned,,aseducationisplayinganincreasinglyimportantroleinsociety,examinationcanalsoevaluateschools’,theimpactofexaminationoneducation,whetherpositiveornegative,(keju)inancientChina,perialcourt,,becauseemploymentinsocietyandthepromotionofscholarshadbecomeinseparablefromschoolingandlearning,theImperialExaminationhadahugebearingonschoolsystemsandsocialethos,affectingschools’educationalcontent,talentcultivation,teachingatmosphere,andintellectuals’,,first,assesstheoperationalqualityofschoolsdedicatedtonine-yearcompulsoryeducationwithinaprovinceorcity,andsecond,tosplitmiddleschoolstudentsi’growingdemandforhigher-leveleducation,“degraded”andsenttovocationalschools[whichallegedlyforebodesaworsefutureduetounsatisfactoryvocationaleducationsystemsinChina]leadsparentsandstudentstohighlyvaluethezhongkaoandengageinirrationallevelsofcompetition,cahavedeviatedfarfromthesystem’,theexaminationislikeanarrowfootbridge:thosewhosucceedincrossingitwillbeallowedtofurthertakeacademicpathways,,somestudentsareabandonedtotheothersideofsociety,whichtosomeextentinhibitstheircreativityandadaptability,,orgaokao,thechannelstowhichstudentsaredistributedfollowingthezhongkaoarelessdiversified,whereasthegaokaowi,students’parentsaremoreconcernedwithwh,“involution”’academicloadbecomesheavierandheavier,rightfromkindergarten,toprimaryschool,nforoveracentury,eversincerenownedlate-QingDynastyeducatorsandthinkersKang,compulsoryeducationwasextendedfromjuniorprimaryschooltoseniorprimaryschool,andfurthertojuniorhighschool,,,lawsandregulationswerethereafterenactedtograduallydefineitscompulsory,free,mandatory,avebroughtabouttremendousachievementsincompulsoryeducation,withthefoundingofthePeople’,Chinesepeoplesufferedfrompoverty,sotheimplementationofcompulsoryeducationwaslargelyemptytalk,,undertheCPCleadership,Chinahasmaintainedprolongedstabilityinsociety,politics,economy,andeducation,pro,thestrategicgoalofuni,imbalancesstillloomlargebetweencounty-levelareasacrossthenation,andbetweenurbanandruralareas,posingchallengestoimprovingthequalityo,theEducationInspectionCommitteeoftheStateCouncilinitiatedacounty-leveleva,a,theMinistryofEducationstartedtheevaluati,thestartofthe14thFive-YearPlanningPeriod(2021–25)whenChinaembarkeduponthenewjourneytobuildamodernsocialistcountryinallrespects,allcountiesandcounty-levelcitieswithineachprovinceandmunicipalityprogressivelyrealizedhigh-quality,well-balanceddevelopmentofcompulsoryeducationonthecountylevel,tobolstertheconstructionofastrongnationwithabundanthumanre(2016–20),provincesandmunicipalitiesacrossChinasnevenearlier,providingnecessarycon,%in2020,whichlaysa,however,allcitiesandcountiesareobligedbyeducationpoliciestorunbothgeneralacademichighschoolsandvocationalinstitutionsforseniorsecondaryeducation,,somestudentswhoprefertoreceiveacademichighschooleducationareforcedtoattendvocationalschools[duetotheirsubparacademicperformances].Thishasinviteddiscussionsontwoissues:ShouldChinaacceleratetheextensionofcompulsoryeducationfromnineyearsto12yearsIsitnecessarytotransformsecondaryvocationaleducationcompletelyintohighervocationaleducationTheanswertothefirstquestionis,objectiveandfoundationalcondi,universalizingcompulsoryeducationtotheseniorhighstageisaninevitabletrendforbasiceducationindevelopedcountriesaroundtheworld,andalsotheobjectiverequirementforbuildingChinaintoaprosperous,democratic,civilized,harmonious,,citiesandcountiescangraduallyandbystagesprolongcompulsoryeducationto12or11years,andelevatesec,whonotedthatschoolbuildingsandteachershavebeenequippedtopopularize12-yearcompulsoryeducation,anditsavesmorehumanandfinanci,theparalleldevelopmentofgeneralacademichighschoolsandvocationalschoolslagsbehindrealsocialneeds,,theStateCouncilpromulgatedtheDecisiononVigorouslyPromotingtheReformandDevelopmentofVocationalEducation,urgingeffortstofocusonsecondaryvocationaleducationandmaintainroug,asChina’sindustriallevelsriseandintelligentmanufacturingtechnologyadvances,thepreviousmodelhasbeenu,laborerswhohavereachedtheageof16,butnot18,,theirphysicalandmentalhealth,aswellaspersonalgrowth,,thisagerangeisthekeystageforstudentstogrowintomatureyouth,theprimetimeforthemtolearnbasicknowledgeandshapegoodmoralqualities,,mostparentshopetheirchildrencanattendgeneralacademichighschoo,afterrealizingbalanceddevelopmentofthecompulsoryeducationsystemincounty-levelareasinanall-roundmanner,Chinashouldpromote12-yearcompulsoryeducationforprimaryandsecondaryeducationstagesstep-by-stepandterminatethedivisionofjuniorandseniorinhighschool,enforcinggeneralseniorhighschooleducationandelevatingsecondacteristicsandtheinstitutional

DenouveauxmotifsdebroderieontétéidentifiéslorsderecherchesrécentessurlestissusdesoiedécouvertssurlesitearchéologiquedeMawangdui,,etremarquablepourêtreladernièredemeureduncadavredunefemmeparfaitementconservé,adéclarélemuséeprovincialduHunan,occasionducinquantièmeanniversairedeladécouvertedestombesdeMawangduideladynastiedesHan,lemuséeprovincialduHunanafaituninventairesystématiquedesobjetsarchéologiques,èétéprécédemmentstockéscommeobjetsdedonnées."Descaractèreschinoisontétéidentifiéspourlapremièrefoissurdesfragmentsdesoieqiàmotifsenformedelosanges,témoignantdesgrandescompétencesenmatièredetissagedudébutdeladynastiedesHan",adéclaréYuYanjiao,unechercheusedumuséégalementétéidentifiésdurantcetinventaire,notammentceuxdephénixsurdestissusdesoie,oiseausymboledelongévité,alorsquécouverteaenrichilesconnaissancessurlesobjetsfuné,situédanslabanlieueestdeChangsha,capitaledelaprovinceduHunan,abritelimposanttombeaudumarquisdeDai,deladynastiedesHan,élattentioninternationalelorsquedeschercheursontdécouvertuncadavredefemmequineprésentaitaucunsignededécompositionlorsdesonexhumationdanslesannées1970.

全国楼宇对讲招标采购热门行业

>>>LaTunisiepourraitpariersurlaChinecommeunmodérateuréconomiquemondial2022-05-0111:08:00Misàpartlalternativedopterpourlaconquêtedenouveauxpartenariats"gagnant-gagnant"(àlalumièredesmutationssurlascèneinternationale)avecdespuissancesémergentes,commeenestlecasdelInde,duBrésilouencorelAfriqueduSud,"laChineesttouteautrechose(...)Ellepeutconstituerunblocensoietpeutjouerlintermédiairepourtrouverlapaixmondialesurplusieursniveauxexceptionnellementéconomique",acommentéMajdiHassen,directeurexécutifdelInstitutarabedeschefsdentreprises(IACE)."LaChineabienanticipéeavecsoninitiativeLaCeintureetlaRoute,dautantplusdesonindispensabilitédansléquilibreéconomiquemondialedansuneconjoncturemarquéeparuneéconomiederareté,aggravéerécemmentparleconflitrusso-ukrainien",anotéécemmentaccordéeàXinhuaEtdepoursuivreque"laTunisieserait,probablement,danslacontraintederevoircertainsdesesaccordssousprétextequenospartenaires(particulièrementlUE,quidétientenviron70%deséchangesdelaTunisieaveclextérieur)serontdansunelogiquepluttprotectionniste,enplusdelamontéedesnationalisteslorsdesrécenteséchéancesélectoralesenEurope".Surleplanfinancier,sousleffetàcourtetmoyentermes,a-t-ilexpliqué,"laTunisiepourraitmiserdavantagesurlesdeuxmonnaiesémergentes,leroublerusseetleyuanchinois,quipourraientêtreplusancréesdanslepanierdedevisesdelaBanquecentraledeTunisie(BCT)"."Ilsagitdelunedessolutionspourtrouverunecertaineimmunitéfinancièredanslavenirvuquelesystèmemonétairemondialfondésurlamonnaieuniversellenecessedeseffritermais,également,lerecoursàcesnouvellesdevisescontribueradanslarelancedautressecteursvitauxpourlaTunisie,notammentletourismeainsiquelapprovisionnementenmatièrespremières(principalementlesproduitscéréaliersetpétroliers",aencoreestiméledirecteurexécutifdelIACE."Ainsi,a-t-ilassuré,chaqueblocaurasespropresrèglesdetransactionsetsespropresaccordsquiserventsesintérêtséconomiquesetfinanciersvitauxet,ainsi,rompreavecladominationdeleuroetdudollar".Evoquantleffetdirectduconflitrusso-ukrainienetlanouvellecarteéconomiquemondialesurlesentreprisestunisiennes,étectéauxniveauxdelaproduction,deladisponibilitéetducotdelamatièrepremière(...)celamèneraégalementdesproblèmesauniveaudel,"onpeutsattendreàdesflambéesdesprixdelélectricité,dutransportetdescarburants(...)etplusparticulièrement,desmenacessurleplandedéveloppementàsavoirunetendanceinflationnistequineferaquenourrirunetensionetdespressionssocialesgraves."AnoterqueledéficitdelabalancecommercialedelaTunisiesestaggravépoursesituerà,8millionsdedinars(undinaréquivautà0,33dollaraméricain),aupremiertrimestredelannéeencours,,3millionsdedinarspourlamêmepériodede2021,daprèsleschiffresofficielsdelInstitutnationaldelastatistique(INS)

TwosidesagreeonpromotingpracticalcooperationandcopingwithchallengesThehigh-leveldialoguebetweenChinaandtheEuropeanUniondemonstratedthetwosideswillingnesstostrengthenbilateralcooperationandfendoffexternalrisksagainstthebackdropofapossibleglobalrecession,increasingfinancialmarketvolatilityandgeopoliticaltensions,9thHigh-LevelEconomicandTradeDialogueonTuesdaytodiscusstopicssuchasthemacroeconomy,industrialandsupplychains,bilateraltradeandinvestment,,ldoftheeconomyandtrade,andtojointlycopewiththechallengesfacingtheglobaleconomy,esincludingindustrialandsupplychainsandfinancialservices,whilestablerelationsbetweenthetwowillhelppromotesteadygrowthforboth,contributetothestabilityoftheinternationalsituation,,aresearcherwiththeBankofChinaResearchInstitute,saidtheeconomiesofChinaandtheEUarehighlycomplementaryandthetwosid,greenenergy,thecarbonmarket,greenfinance,climatechange,tradeondigitalinformationandcommunicationtechnology,tradeindigitalproductsandthedigitalservicetrade."Againstthebackdropofsoaringinflationandtheincreasingriskofeconomicrecessionaroundtheglobe,EuropeneedstoimportChinesegoodstohelpensurestability,anditalsoneedstostrengthentradeandinvestmentcooperationinfieldssuchasindustriesandinfrastructuretogathernewgrowthmomentum,"Yesaid."Meanwhile,Europesadvancedtechnologies,talentsandmanagementexperiencewillhelpChinapromoteindustrialupgradingandgreentransformationoftheeconomy."Asstagflationpressuresanddebtriskscloudgrowthprospects,theattractivenessoftheeurozonetoglobalinvestorshasdimmed,withtheeurosinkingbelowparityagainsttheUSdollarforthefirsttimein20years,,YesaidChina-EUcooperationwillboostEuropeanmarketconfidenceandimprovemarketexpectationsforfuturerecoveryintheregion,clineinexports,thushelpingsupportChinassecond-largesttradingpartner,($401billion)inbilateraltradeduringthefirstsixmonthsofthisyear,,aresearcherattheInternationalMonetaryInstituteoftheRenminUniversityofChina,saidthegrowthinChina-EUtradehaslaidasspositivegrowthinthefirsthalfof2022despitepressuresandchallengesbothathomeandabroad,Chensaidthenationseconomyenjoysstrongresilienceandvitality,servinga,deanoftheHainanUniversityBeltandRoadResearchInstitute,saidChinaandEuropeshouldstrengthentheircooperationinthefinancialsector,anditisadvisableforthetwosidestoexpandthescaleofbilateralcurrencyswapsandsettlement,,PresidentXiJinpingsaidduringameetingviavideolinkthatChinawillstaycommittedtodeepeningreformandfurtheropeningup,anditwelcomesEuropeanbusinessinvestmentandexpectstheEUtoprovideafair,transparentandnondiscriminato,globalexecutivevice-presidentofGermanysSiemensGroupandchairman,presidentandCEOofSiemensChina,saidthatdespitethechallengesposedbyCOVID-19,Chinaiscapableofmaintaininghigh-qualitygrowth,givenitscompleteindustrialchainsystem."Amidallofthechangesanduncertaintiesinglobalmarkets,Chinasdeterminationtocontinuouslyopenuphasremainedunchangedoverthepastfewyears,"hesaid,addingthatgreatermarketopennessbenefitssustainablesocioeconomicdevelopmentinChina,andalsohelpsrevitalizetheglobaleconomy.

TimeandtheAncientWorldofEastAsiaTimeandtheAncientWorldofEastAsia,writtenbyLiuXiaofeng,aprofessorfromtheDepartmentofHistoryatTsinghuaUniversity,focusesontheinfluenceoftheancientChinesetimeculturesystemonEastAsia,,theconnotationoftime,asrecognizedbyancientpeople,isfarfromapurelyphilosophicalorphysicalconcept,,theChinesepeople’sobservation,calculation,understanding,andstructuringoftimeoriginatedfromtheircreativeimagination,andwasrootedintheconceptoftimeandspaceandthemodeloftheuniverseconstructedbytheancientChinese,whichembodiedChina’ationofthesunandstarrysky,theyhavebeenseekingthereasonbehindchangesoftime.“Thisworldisaworldwithcenterandorder,”,theymatchedtheorderoftimeandtheorientationofspace,constructedaculturalspacefeaturingtheintegrationoftimeandspace,,timerepresentedorder,cientChinahadaprofoundinfluenceonthedevelopmentofChineseculture,thesystemalsoradiatedthroughoutEastAsiathroughthespreadofcalendars,andhadanimpactonitstimeculture,formingan“EastAsiantimeculturesystemculturalcircle”,dailyproduction,,heinvestigatesthespreadanddevelopmentofshigandangculture,whichusesstonestowardoffevilspiritsandprayforgoodfortune,inRyukyu,Vietnam,andtheDPRK,andexplorestheemergenceandevolutionoftheJapanesebeliefinTateyamahell,revealingtherelationshipbetweenlifeviewsandtimeinEastAsia,,theauthorprobesthespread,influence,andinterplayofChinesecultureandthoughtinEastAsia,including“divinationbycarryingamirrorandoverhearingwords,”andthecultureofa“peach”[withmultiplesymbolicmeanings,suchaswardingoffevilspirits].ZhuGuoliisfromtheInstituteofDunhuangStudiesatLanzhouUniversity.

>LaChinesefixeunobjectifdecroissancepour2022auxalentoursde5,5%2022-04-1115:08:00LaChines’estfixéunobjectifdecroissanceéconomiqueauxalentoursde5,5%pour2022,alorsqueleslégislateursetlesconseillerspolitiquesdupayssesontréunisàPékinpourdéfinirlesprioritésdedéveloppementnationalpourcetteannéérieurbrutviséapparatcommelundesprincipauxobjectifsinscritsdansletrèsattendurapportdactivitédugouvernement,présentéparlePremierministreLiKeqiangàlassembléelégislative,dontlasessionannuelleadébutééalisablesHongXianghua,professeuràlécoleduComitécentralduPCC,adéclaréquelerevenudisponibleparhabitantenChineaaugmentéde8,1%en2021parrapportàl’annéeprécédente,etque12,69millionsdenouveauxemploisontétécréésdansleszonesurbainespourcetteanné,denouvellesréductionsdimptsetdetaxespourunmontantsupérieuràplusdemillemilliardsdeyuansontétéintroduites,etplusde85%desChinoisontsuiviunschémadevaccinationcompletcontreleCOVID-19."AtteindreunecroissanceduPIBdenviron5,5%cetteannéeestunobjectifréaliste",adéclaréàlaCSSTZhangYuyan,économisteàlAcadémiedesSciencessocialesdeChine(ASSC)etconseillerpolitiquenational,ajoutantquecetobjectifcorrespondnonseulementauxévolutionsdecroissancepotentielleàlongtermedupays,maistientégalementcomptedesrisques,desdéfis,desforcesetdesavantagesquicaractérisentléagitdunobjectifformuléentenantcomptedelapopulationactuelleenChine,desoncapitalhumain,delamargedemanuvreetdelavitessedesprogrèstechnologiques,ainsiquedescontraintesenmatièrederessourcesetdée,leFondsmonétaireinternationalaprévuqueléconomiemondialeconnatraitunecroissancede4,4%en2022,autrementditunecroissancemoyenneàélevée,aobservéêmesicertainsfacteursd’incertitudepersistentetpeuventjouerunrlenégatifsurléconomiemondiale,commelarésurgencedelapandémieetladétériorationdelasituationgéopolitiqueinternationale,lareprisedeléconomiemondialefourniradansl’ensembleuneconfigurationfavorablepourquelaChineatteignecetauxdecroissancede5,5%.LesdéfisPouryparvenir,deseffortsserontnécessaires,adéclaréHeQiang,professeuràlUniversitécentraledesfinancesetdelééconomiechinoiseseredresseprogressivement,affichantuneconjoncturemacroéconomiquesainemêmesidesdifficultésmicroéécelerunereprisestructurelledenotreéestquelorsquelespetitesetmicro-entreprisesseserontrelevéesqueléconomiedupayspourravéritablementembrasserunereprisecomplète.àcetitre,lespolitiquesen2022devraientsattacheràsoutenirvigoureusementledéécessairedêtrepleinementconscientdeladépendancesystémiquequ’entretiennententreeuxdesrisquesparnaturedifférents,etquelefaitdetraiteruncertaintypederisquesdistinctementdesautresestsusceptibled’engendrerdautresrisques,adéclaréChenYanbin,professeuràlUniversitééfis,érédesentenirauprincipegénéralvisantàrechercherleprogrèstoutenmaintenantlastabilitéémacroéconomiqueconstitueeneffetuneréponseadapté,érédoptimiserdavantagelastructureéconomique,ledéséquilibrestructurelétantunesourceimportantederisquesetdedé,ilestimportantderenforcerladynamiquedecroissancedeléconomieàlongterme,enrépondantauxrisquesetauxdéfisparlebiaisdundéveloppementqualitatif."Enrésumé,larégulationmacroéconomiquedoitrenforcerlacoordinationetlintégrationdetroistypesdepolitiques:unepolitiquedestabilisation,unepolitiquestructurelleetunepolitiquedecroissance,"ée,laChineambitionnedecréerplusde11millionsdenouveauxemploisurbainsetdemainteniruntauxdechmageurbaininférieurà5,5%.ZhengBingwen,directeurduCentredétudesinternationalessurlasécuritésocialeàlASSC,afaitvaloirquelegouvernementaccordesaprioritéàlastabilisationdelemploiparlastabilisationdesacteursdumarché,toutenrenforantlesperspectivesdelentrepreneuriatetlespritdentrepriseafindestimulerlactivitédugouvernementsoulignequelespolitiquesfiscales,financièresetmacroéconomiquesdoiventprioritairementseconcentrersurlèlement,unenouvellepolitiquecombinantsoutienfiscaletprotectiondupouvoird’achatseramiseenuvre,appuyéepardesréductionsetdesremisesd,é,lerapportdactivitédugouvernementproposeclairementuneexpansionvigoureusedescanauxdemploi,enparticulierdanslarestauration,lhtellerie,lecommercededétail,étéfortementtouchéesparlapandémie,ilestdoncnécessairedelessoutenirpoursurmonterlesdifficultésettoutmettreenuvrepourstabiliseretdévelopperlemploi,adéclaré

TwosidesagreeonpromotingpracticalcooperationandcopingwithchallengesThehigh-leveldialoguebetweenChinaandtheEuropeanUniondemonstratedthetwosideswillingnesstostrengthenbilateralcooperationandfendoffexternalrisksagainstthebackdropofapossibleglobalrecession,increasingfinancialmarketvolatilityandgeopoliticaltensions,9thHigh-LevelEconomicandTradeDialogueonTuesdaytodiscusstopicssuchasthemacroeconomy,industrialandsupplychains,bilateraltradeandinvestment,,ldoftheeconomyandtrade,andtojointlycopewiththechallengesfacingtheglobaleconomy,esincludingindustrialandsupplychainsandfinancialservices,whilestablerelationsbetweenthetwowillhelppromotesteadygrowthforboth,contributetothestabilityoftheinternationalsituation,,aresearcherwiththeBankofChinaResearchInstitute,saidtheeconomiesofChinaandtheEUarehighlycomplementaryandthetwosid,greenenergy,thecarbonmarket,greenfinance,climatechange,tradeondigitalinformationandcommunicationtechnology,tradeindigitalproductsandthedigitalservicetrade."Againstthebackdropofsoaringinflationandtheincreasingriskofeconomicrecessionaroundtheglobe,EuropeneedstoimportChinesegoodstohelpensurestability,anditalsoneedstostrengthentradeandinvestmentcooperationinfieldssuchasindustriesandinfrastructuretogathernewgrowthmomentum,"Yesaid."Meanwhile,Europesadvancedtechnologies,talentsandmanagementexperiencewillhelpChinapromoteindustrialupgradingandgreentransformationoftheeconomy."Asstagflationpressuresanddebtriskscloudgrowthprospects,theattractivenessoftheeurozonetoglobalinvestorshasdimmed,withtheeurosinkingbelowparityagainsttheUSdollarforthefirsttimein20years,,YesaidChina-EUcooperationwillboostEuropeanmarketconfidenceandimprovemarketexpectationsforfuturerecoveryintheregion,clineinexports,thushelpingsupportChinassecond-largesttradingpartner,($401billion)inbilateraltradeduringthefirstsixmonthsofthisyear,,aresearcherattheInternationalMonetaryInstituteoftheRenminUniversityofChina,saidthegrowthinChina-EUtradehaslaidasspositivegrowthinthefirsthalfof2022despitepressuresandchallengesbothathomeandabroad,Chensaidthenationseconomyenjoysstrongresilienceandvitality,servinga,deanoftheHainanUniversityBeltandRoadResearchInstitute,saidChinaandEuropeshouldstrengthentheircooperationinthefinancialsector,anditisadvisableforthetwosidestoexpandthescaleofbilateralcurrencyswapsandsettlement,,PresidentXiJinpingsaidduringameetingviavideolinkthatChinawillstaycommittedtodeepeningreformandfurtheropeningup,anditwelcomesEuropeanbusinessinvestmentandexpectstheEUtoprovideafair,transparentandnondiscriminato,globalexecutivevice-presidentofGermanysSiemensGroupandchairman,presidentandCEOofSiemensChina,saidthatdespitethechallengesposedbyCOVID-19,Chinaiscapableofmaintaininghigh-qualitygrowth,givenitscompleteindustrialchainsystem."Amidallofthechangesanduncertaintiesinglobalmarkets,Chinasdeterminationtocontinuouslyopenuphasremainedunchangedoverthepastfewyears,"hesaid,addingthatgreatermarketopennessbenefitssustainablesocioeconomicdevelopmentinChina,andalsohelpsrevitalizetheglobaleconomy.

DesarchéologuesontrécemmentfaitdesdécouvertesétonnantessurlecélèbresitedesruinesdeSanxingdui,danslaprovincechinoiseduSichuan(sud-ouest);Untrésordobjetsraffinésenbronze,enoretenjade,dontaumoins10objetsenbronzedécouvertspourlapremièrefoisdanslhistoiredelacivilisationhumaine,aétééquipeconjointedarchéologuesdelInstitutprovincialderecherchesurlesreliquesculturellesetlarchéologieduSichuan,delUniversitédeBeijing,delUniversitéduSichuanetdautresinstitutionsderechercheetuniversitésaeffectuéécouvertesproviennentprincipalementdesfossessacrificiellesnuméro7etnuméro8,portantlenombretotaldobjetsdécouvertsdanslessixfossesdeSanxingduiàprè,selonlInstitutprovincialderecherchesurlesreliquesculturellesetlarché,découvertedanslafossenuméro7,estléticulésenformedetortue,etlesctésdelabotesontornésdunecharnièreenbronze,depoignéesenformedetêanalysedesmicrotracesarévéléquelaboteétaitenveloppéedesoie,selonlesarchéologues."Ilneseraitpasexagérédedirequececontenantestuniqueensongenre,comptetenudesaformedistinctive,desafinesseartisanaleetdesaconceptioningéàquoiilservait,nouspouvonssupposerquelesanciensleconservaientprécieusement",aexpliquéLiHaichao,professeurdelUniversitéduSichuanetresponsabledesfouillesdanslafossenuméécorationsenbronze,desfigurinesetdesclochesontégalementétédééro8voisine,lesarchéologuesontmisaujourdiversobjets,notammentdestêtesenbronzeavecdesmasquesenor,unesculptureenbronzeavecunetêtehumaineetuncorpsdeserpent,unautelenbronze,unecréaturemythiquegéanteenbronzeetunobjetenbronzeenformededragonavecunnezdecochon."Lessculpturessonttrèscomplexesetimaginatives,reflétantlemondeféeriqueimaginéparlesgensàcetteépoque-là,etellesillustrentladiversitéetlarichessedelacivilisationchinoise",aindiquéZhaoHao,professeurassociéàlUniversitédeBeijing,quidirigelesfouillesdelafossenumé,lesarchéologuesontégalementtrouvédesfossésàcendres,desfondationsarchitecturalesetdepetitesfossesàsacrificielles,desreliquesculturelles,ainsiquedesbambous,desroseaux,desgrainesdesoja,etdesbovinsetdessangliersquiontpuêtresacrifiéécouvertesàlafindesannées1920,lesruinesdeSanxingduisontconsidéréescommelunedesplusgrandesdécouvertesarchéologiquesduXXesièéesdanslavilledeGuanghan,àenviron60kmdeChengdu,capitaleprovinciale,lesruines,couvrantunesuperficiede12km2,seraientlesvestigesduroyaumeShu,datantdà

JiangXiaojuanPhoto:,aprofessorattheUniversityoftheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences(CASS),saidinaninterviewwithCSSTthatChina’:Inyouropinion,whatistherelationshipbetweenthedevelopmentoftheoriesonopeningupandopeningupinpracticeJiangXiaojuan:Classicaltheoriesexplaining“openingup”totheoutsideworldincludethetheoryofabsoluteadvantage,,theproductioncapacityandeconomicconditionsofvariouscountriesweredifferentiated,andtheeco,,,scholarsfocusedontheimportanceofinternationaltrade,exploringtheimportanceofinternationaldivisionoflaborandfreetrade,,th“intra-industrytrade”amongdevelopedcountriesconstitutedamajorpartofinternationaltrade,andtraditionaltradetheoriesbasedoncomparativ,agroupofeconomistsdevelopedanewtheoryofinternationaltradebasedontradepractices,,,thefocusofattention,andresearchcontentof:WhatarethedistinctivefeaturesofChina’sopeningupJiangXiaojuan:TheuniquenessofChina’sopening-uppathraisesanimportantquestion,thatis,areweso“distinctive”thattheexistingtheoriescannotexplainiteffectivelyandanewtheoreticalframeworkneedstobeconstructedtoanalyzeitMyunderstandingisthatChina’sopeningup,intermsofstartingpointsandsteps,andvariouscross-sectionsofthedevelopmentprocess,doess,intermsoflong-termtrendsandessentialfeatures,,Chinashowsthesameconv’snationalc,China’sfactorofproductionstructureisimbalanced,andthereisanurgentneedtoadjustthroughthedthroughcompetition,whichisdirectlyrelatedtothehugesizeofourmarket,:Lookingahead,howdoyouthinkwecanpromoteopeninguptotheoutsideworldfromahigherstartingpointJiangXiaojuan:Shiftingfrompolicy-drivenopeninguptoinstitutionalo,Chinabasicallyhastheconditionsandenvironmentforinstitutionalopeningup,andinthefuture,weshouldkeepiandregulations,adheretotheprincipleofequalstatusofalltypesofeconomicentitiesandequalprotectionofalltypesofpropertyrights,,equalemphasisshouldbegiventoexportsandimports,totheabsorptionofforeigncapitalandforeigninvestment,andtoforeign-fundedenterprises,,2020,ChinesePresidentXiJinpingannouncedatthe27thAsia-PacificEconomicCooperation(APEC)EconomicLeaders’MeetingthatChinawouldfavorablyconsiderjoiningtheComprehensiveandProgressiveAgreementforTrans-PacificPartnership(CPTPP),,iftheyallcomeintoforce,willcovermorethan55%ofinternationaltradeandinternationalinvestment,,wehavejoinedtheRegionalComprehensiveEconomicPartnership(RCEP)andappliedtojointheDigitalEconomyPartnershipAgreement(DEPA).Thiswillcertainlypushforwardthedomesticconstructionoftheinstitutionalsystem,andtheopensystemthatconnectswithit,facilitatingdomesticreformandenergi,itwillalsocontributeChina’swisdomtotheformationanddevelopmentoftheglobalizationgovernancesysteminthefuture.

>LaChinesefixeunobjectifdecroissancepour2022auxalentoursde5,5%2022-04-1115:08:00LaChines’estfixéunobjectifdecroissanceéconomiqueauxalentoursde5,5%pour2022,alorsqueleslégislateursetlesconseillerspolitiquesdupayssesontréunisàPékinpourdéfinirlesprioritésdedéveloppementnationalpourcetteannéérieurbrutviséapparatcommelundesprincipauxobjectifsinscritsdansletrèsattendurapportdactivitédugouvernement,présentéparlePremierministreLiKeqiangàlassembléelégislative,dontlasessionannuelleadébutééalisablesHongXianghua,professeuràlécoleduComitécentralduPCC,adéclaréquelerevenudisponibleparhabitantenChineaaugmentéde8,1%en2021parrapportàl’annéeprécédente,etque12,69millionsdenouveauxemploisontétécréésdansleszonesurbainespourcetteanné,denouvellesréductionsdimptsetdetaxespourunmontantsupérieuràplusdemillemilliardsdeyuansontétéintroduites,etplusde85%desChinoisontsuiviunschémadevaccinationcompletcontreleCOVID-19."AtteindreunecroissanceduPIBdenviron5,5%cetteannéeestunobjectifréaliste",adéclaréàlaCSSTZhangYuyan,économisteàlAcadémiedesSciencessocialesdeChine(ASSC)etconseillerpolitiquenational,ajoutantquecetobjectifcorrespondnonseulementauxévolutionsdecroissancepotentielleàlongtermedupays,maistientégalementcomptedesrisques,desdéfis,desforcesetdesavantagesquicaractérisentléagitdunobjectifformuléentenantcomptedelapopulationactuelleenChine,desoncapitalhumain,delamargedemanuvreetdelavitessedesprogrèstechnologiques,ainsiquedescontraintesenmatièrederessourcesetdée,leFondsmonétaireinternationalaprévuqueléconomiemondialeconnatraitunecroissancede4,4%en2022,autrementditunecroissancemoyenneàélevée,aobservéêmesicertainsfacteursd’incertitudepersistentetpeuventjouerunrlenégatifsurléconomiemondiale,commelarésurgencedelapandémieetladétériorationdelasituationgéopolitiqueinternationale,lareprisedeléconomiemondialefourniradansl’ensembleuneconfigurationfavorablepourquelaChineatteignecetauxdecroissancede5,5%.LesdéfisPouryparvenir,deseffortsserontnécessaires,adéclaréHeQiang,professeuràlUniversitécentraledesfinancesetdelééconomiechinoiseseredresseprogressivement,affichantuneconjoncturemacroéconomiquesainemêmesidesdifficultésmicroéécelerunereprisestructurelledenotreéestquelorsquelespetitesetmicro-entreprisesseserontrelevéesqueléconomiedupayspourravéritablementembrasserunereprisecomplète.àcetitre,lespolitiquesen2022devraientsattacheràsoutenirvigoureusementledéécessairedêtrepleinementconscientdeladépendancesystémiquequ’entretiennententreeuxdesrisquesparnaturedifférents,etquelefaitdetraiteruncertaintypederisquesdistinctementdesautresestsusceptibled’engendrerdautresrisques,adéclaréChenYanbin,professeuràlUniversitééfis,érédesentenirauprincipegénéralvisantàrechercherleprogrèstoutenmaintenantlastabilitéémacroéconomiqueconstitueeneffetuneréponseadapté,érédoptimiserdavantagelastructureéconomique,ledéséquilibrestructurelétantunesourceimportantederisquesetdedé,ilestimportantderenforcerladynamiquedecroissancedeléconomieàlongterme,enrépondantauxrisquesetauxdéfisparlebiaisdundéveloppementqualitatif."Enrésumé,larégulationmacroéconomiquedoitrenforcerlacoordinationetlintégrationdetroistypesdepolitiques:unepolitiquedestabilisation,unepolitiquestructurelleetunepolitiquedecroissance,"ée,laChineambitionnedecréerplusde11millionsdenouveauxemploisurbainsetdemainteniruntauxdechmageurbaininférieurà5,5%.ZhengBingwen,directeurduCentredétudesinternationalessurlasécuritésocialeàlASSC,afaitvaloirquelegouvernementaccordesaprioritéàlastabilisationdelemploiparlastabilisationdesacteursdumarché,toutenrenforantlesperspectivesdelentrepreneuriatetlespritdentrepriseafindestimulerlactivitédugouvernementsoulignequelespolitiquesfiscales,financièresetmacroéconomiquesdoiventprioritairementseconcentrersurlèlement,unenouvellepolitiquecombinantsoutienfiscaletprotectiondupouvoird’achatseramiseenuvre,appuyéepardesréductionsetdesremisesd,é,lerapportdactivitédugouvernementproposeclairementuneexpansionvigoureusedescanauxdemploi,enparticulierdanslarestauration,lhtellerie,lecommercededétail,étéfortementtouchéesparlapandémie,ilestdoncnécessairedelessoutenirpoursurmonterlesdifficultésettoutmettreenuvrepourstabiliseretdévelopperlemploi,adéclaré

IntheResolutionoftheCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistPartyofChina(CPC)ontheMajorAchievementsandHistoricalExperienceofthePartyoverthePastCentury,adoptedattheSixthPlenarySessionofthe19thCPCCentralCommittee,itdeclared“Puttingsocialbenefitsfirstwhilealsostressingeconomicreturns,theParty,andpublicculturalserviceshaveimproved,providingpeoplewithricherculturalnourishment.”ThefilmindustryisacrucialpartofChina’sculturalindustry,andanimportantmeansofprovidingpeople’saestheticentertainmentneeds,,thedomesticfilmboxofficehascontinuedtorise,“OperationRedSea,”“DyingtoSurvive,”and“TheBattleatLakeChangjin”havewonwidespreadpraisefromdomesticaudiences,showcasingChinesecinema’owingaestheticentertainmentneedsofChineseaudiences,domesticfilmswi’culturalpursuits,andothercontentproducers’goalsshouldprioritizequalitycontent,honorthespiritofcraftsmanship,finelycarveeverydetail,,China’sfilmindustryhasbeenbooming,withtheboxoff,thenumberofscreensexceeded80,000,,,,theboxofficedeclinedduetotheCOVID-19pandemic,butin2021,,rankingfirstintheworld,,Chinaproducedmorethan4,000films,hattheboxoffice,andthequalityoffilmtexthasimprovedsignificantly,butcomparedwithEuropeanandAmericanfilms,,Chinesefilmssuchas“OperationRedSea,”“DetectiveChintang2,”“DyingtoSurvive,”“,”and“DetectiveChintang3”haveperformedwellattheboxoffice,butoverall,,audienceratingsforthequ,filmtextis“theinternalstructureandorganizationofanyonefilm;orsimplyafilmwhereveritisconceptualizedasasystemofmeanings.”Itmustbepointedoutthatwecannotuseboxofficetotalsandthisgrowth,theshareofdomesticfilms’boxofficeintotalboxofficerevenues,andthenumberofdomesticfilmswithinthetop10boxofficeranking,toevaluatethetextqualityofChinesefilms,becausethisdataonlyshowsthegrowthofdomesticfilmquantities,andthehugepopulationofmainla’ssustainedboxofficegrowth,butthereisnosigni,China’ssustainedboxofficenumbersarehighlyaffectedbywordofmouth,,thequa,,,Chinesescriptwritersshouldnottaketheblamealone,variou,themainr,thelackofinnovativethinkingandbroadhorizonsleadstomonotonouscontent,stereotypicalplots,homogenizedstoriesingenrefilms,plotimitation,plagiarism,,the“DyingtoSurvive”andafewotherfilms,,,artistic,andaestheticvalueleadstofewfilmmak,thedevelopmentofhigh-qualityIPisinsufficient,includingsubparinnovationofoldandnewclassictexts,,afterthesuccessof“DrawingSword,”quiteafewcopycatsappeared,,andasamatteroffact,,IPintheChinesecontextreferstocreativeintellectualpropertythatattractswideattention,hasahugeimpact,“stareffect”’tbragabouttheiractingskills,buttheystillcantakeawayarelativelyhighproportionofthewholefilm’,generalcontentproducers,anddirectors,producers,,,commercialismdrivesdirectors,stars,andinvestorstopursuemonetarygains,,toencouragescriptstorytellingandartisticprocesses,IPvalueandcontentmustlead,andthespiritofinn’sstorytheory,weshouldfocusonscriptcreation,culturalinnovation,,thecreationofaninnovationenvironmentandincentivesarealsocrucialtoimprovingdomesticfilms’,weneedtocarryoutathoroughex,acomprehensiveanalysisofthee,thecorrespondingstrategiestoimprovethescriptwriter’,wemustraisetheentrythresholdandthevoiceofscriptwriters,enhancetheeffectofIPprotection,perfecteducationandtrainingsystems,,representedbyinternetanddigitaltechnologies,hasbroughtaboutchangestocontentproduction,andonlineliterature’’alandartisticaccomplishmentsandcreativeabilitiesintheaspectsoffilmtypeexploration,themedstories,contentcreationtechniques,narrativeperspectives,expressions,,targetedmeasuresareneededtooptimizecontentapproval,procedures,,theFilmIndustryPromotionLawofthePeople’sRepublicofChinawasadoptedatthe24thSessionoftheStandingCommitteeofthe12thNationalPeople’,filmcreation,shooting,distribution,andprojectionatthenationallevel,,itstipulatedthatafilmshouldbeassessedbynolessthanfiveexperts,,thegovernmentalsointroducedthecorrespondingmeasure:settingupexpertevaluationteamstoassessimitation,reproduction,piracy,,abalancebetweenscriptwriters,contentproduction,distribution,’beliefs,values,andemotionstoguidingaudiences’,,heaudiencewillbreakthe“protectivebalance”ofdomesticfilms,’sopeninguptotheoutsideworld,moreandmoreforeignfilmproducts,especiallyHollywoodfilms,haveenteredChina’ntechnology,China’,wemu,itisnecessarytoobjectivelyandrationallyevaluatemoviecontent,writereviewsandcommentsaboutamoviesincerely,,andavoidusingacid,caustic,abusive,,tongUniversity;YuanHuayuanisfromtheSchoolofMediaandCommunicationatShanghaiJiaotongUniversity.

ShenJiaxuanPhoto:InstituteofLinguistics,CASSOnNovember15,2020,thebookNounsandVerbswrittenbytheChineselinguistShenJiaxuanwont,ShenputforwardatheorythatinChinesealltheverbsareverbalnouns,orthen,ShenhasthoroughlydemonstratedthetheorythatChineseverbsarepartofnounswithover60essaysandsixbooks,settingoffarevolutionarywaveinthefieldofChineselinguistics,andshakingthedeep-rootedtraditionofapplyingthe’’sharvestwasdeeplyrootedinthe“SpringofScience”jingin1978,GuoMoruo,thenthepresidentoftheChineseAcademyofSciences(CAS),deliveredaspeechunderthetitleof“SpringofScience,”whichpoeticallypronouncedthatthe“SpringofScience”[aneweraofrevitalizedscientificresearchinChina]rs,includingShenJiaxuan,’sreturnbanquetwhenheworkedasliaisonforChinesetelecommunicationsduringtheUSPresidentRichardNixon’,beingintrovertedbynature,“SpringofScience,”ShendecidedtoapplytotheInstituteofLinguisticsattheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences(CASS),andwasadmittedtothein,histeacherZhaoShikaigavehimalonglistofbooks,,’nmathematicallinguisticsclassesinotheruniversities,andattendpsychologyseminarsattheInstituteofPsychology,(1904–1998),founderofmodernChineselinguisticstudies,wasalsooneofShen’’sthesis,[linguistic]studyprogramsoverseaswerebetterthanathome,andgaveShenadvicethatseemedincredible,butwasofgreatsignificance:toextensivelycollectarticlesonoverseasstudiesoftheChineselanguage,whichwerepublishedinEnglish,andma,becausein1980,,,itwasajourneytoanunknownworld,,,Shenreadtheabstract,madenotes,’sthesisconsistsoftwoparts:asummaryofoverseasstudiesofChineselanguagesasapreface,,Shen’sEnglishindexwaspublished,’,andstillfeelsthatwritingsuchapaperwasgoodacademictraining,whichhelpedhimhaveacomprehensiveunderstan,’sclassics,introducingpragmatics,cognitivelinguistics,andtheoriesoflinguistictypology,grammaticalization,uistics,,withlessthan100pages,wasthecrystallizationofLyu’slife-longwork,,“Everytimethebook[AnalysisofChineseGrammar]becameworn,,Iwouldlearnsomethingnew.”ShenhasownedfourcopiesofAnalysisofChineseGrammar,eachwornwithuse,:“Aperson’slifeisfinite,,mated,”“Thinkoutofthebox”Lyuoncesaid:“Itiscrucialtothinkoutofthebox……Wemusttemporarilythrowasidetheconceptssuchas‘word,’‘verb,’‘adjective,’‘subject,’and‘object.’Theseconceptsmaybe‘pickedup’‘thrownaside’and‘pickedup’again,becausethemeaningandvaluegiventothesetermshavechanged,andwearenolongerhedgedinwithrulesandregulations.”Inthepastdecadeorso,Shen’sworkhasbeencenteredon“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain.”In2007,Shen’spapertitled“NounsandVerbsinChinese”waspublished,layingthefoundationforhistheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”HeholdstheviewthatinChinese,verbsareaspecialtypeofnounthatexpressanaction,anevent,orastate,becauseChineseverbs,likenouns,“NounsandVerbsinChinese,”Shenhaspublisheddozensofpapers,focusingonthemostimportanttwopairsofgrammaticalcategories—“nounsandverbs,”and“subjectandpredicate,”“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain”thatbroughtarevolutionarywavetoChineselinguistics,overthrowingtheframeworkoftheoldtheoreticalsystem,andbrewingthestartofthetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”,Shensaid:“Itwouldbeha,however,wecanfindsomethingdifferent.”However,mechanicallyadoptingthestructuralfoundationandtheoreticalsystemofIndo-EuropeanlanguagesforChineselanguagesandframingChineselanguageaccordingtothepatternofIndo-Europeanlanguages,“thinkingoutofthebox”andgettingridofthe“shacklesoftheIndo-Europeanpattern.”Thetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs”explodedthefoundationofthethen-currenttheoreticalframeworkofChinesegrammar,,Shenmadef’stheoryisnowbeingrecognizedbymoreandmoreofhispeers,’seyes,,whenheseespostersbytheroadside,withChineseaboveandEnglishbelow,hewillnoticethedifferentwaysthetwolanguagesareexpressed,,healwayscarriedasmallnotebookandre,heestablishedawordbookofChineseverbalslipsandwroteseveralimportantarticles,suchas“TypesofTongueSlips.”ShenonceborrowedtheWoxianCaotangeditionofRulinWaishi[TheScholars,aChinesenovelcompletedin1750;itsearliestextanteditionisthe1803WoxianCaotangedition]“SentencesWheretheSubjectisaVerbandthePredicateisaNoun,”anarticlehewro,Shendidn’tmissoutonthenovelBlossoms,:“WhenreadingBlossoms,Ihavethedelightoffollowingtherhythm.”Afterreadingthenovel,Shenwroteamonographonlinguistics—,WeiGangqiang,deputyeditor-in-chiefof21stCenturyPublishingGroup,commented:“Itisrareandsignificantforlinguiststopayattentiontoandinterpretthelanguageofcurrentliteraryworks……ShenJiaxuan’sinsightsarenotonlytheachievementsofhislinguisticresearch,butalsovaluablereferenceforotherpeopleintermsofliterarycreation,translation,criticism,andgeneralacademicwork.”Shenmentionedthemovie“ZeroDarkThirty”lybasedondata,,becauseasmallfragmentofdatai,heoftentellshisstudentsthatthekeytosearchingforlinguisticinstancesdoesn’tlieinhowmanyinstancesyouhavecollected,hcontrast,

全国政府机构

Withtheaccelerationofpopulationaging,:theprovisionofmedicalcarebyseniorcareinstitutions,theestablishmentofgeriatricswardsinpublichospitals,,thesecondishighlyprofessional,,thesethreemodelslackunifiedandeffectiveservicestandards,assessmentcontent,dataformats,andsafetynorms,:community-basedintegrationofhealthandseniorcareinurbanareas,canintegratethefirstthreemodels,andpulltogethertheadvantageousresourceseachhasinseniorcare,medicalcare,nursing,,therearestillshortcomingsinthismodel,suchasinsufficientcollaborationbetweenrelevantgovernmentdepartments,insufficientintegrationofmedicalandeldercareresources,poorconnectionsbetweenresourcesupplyanddemand,differenthealthdatastandardsfortheelderlyindifferentinstitutions,andthepro,moderndigitaltechnologies,suchascloudcomputing,bigdata,new-generationinternet,theInternetofThings(IoT),andartificialintelligence,canbeusedtobuildacomprehensivemedicalandeldercareplatform,developintelligentmonitoringsystems,healthmonitoringchips,andintelligentdevices(suchasintelligentself-builtplatforms,servicerobots,wearablemonitoringdevices,intelligentterminals,andsoforth).,aseniorhealthdatabasecanbebuiltthroughdataminingtechnology,tofacilitatescientificanalysisandintelligentdecision-making,reducetheburdenofcare,improvetheefficiencyofresourceutilization,bringintelligentdecision-makingandintelligentactionstoanewlevel,jointlypromotepolicyobjectivesshiftfrom“healthyaging”and“activeaging”to“successfulaging,”“digitalaging,”and“productiveaging,”atutionalarrangementsinordertoimprovalandseniorcare,clarifythequasi-public-goodnatureofintegratedmedicalandeldercareservices,anddefinetheresponsibilities,rights,andbenefitsbornebythegovernment,families,enterprises,elderlycareserviceproviders,communities,andothersectorsinthedevelo,allpartiesshouldshouldertheirownresponsibilitiesandworktogethertoensurethedevelo,processing,andapplicationformatsrelatedtotheelderly,aligndatacollectionstandards,networkstoragesystems,intelligentterminals,andapplicationsoftwaresystems,,accesstheadvantagesofdifferentsocialbodies,establishadiversifiedservicesupplysystemandafundingmechanismfortheelderly,andabsorbfundsfromdomesticandforeignenterprises,socialgroups,individuals,jointventures,andcooperatives,,cooperatewithhigh-techenterprisesandtechnologyserviceproviders,andadoptPPP,BT,andABOmodelstopurchasetheirservices,whichwillprovidndeldercarewiththehelpofdigitaltechnologi,weshouldintegrateresourcesfromrelevantpartiessuchastheciviladministration,healthcommission,socialsecurity,andmedicalinsurancetobuildanewdigitizedandintelligentmodelforintegratedmedicalandeldercareservicesbasedontheeffortstobringmedica’,combineallmutuallyfunctioningfactorsinthesupplyanddemandsystemtogether,promotethecoordinatedandsustainabledevelopmentofmedicalandseniorcareservices,buildacomprehensive,coordinated,dynamic,sustainable,andexpandablesupplyanddemandcouplingsystem,and,wewillintegratemedicalandeldercareresourcesandachievea“1+12”,newresourcesareconstantlyadded,newdataisgenerated,newinformationisexchanged,newresultsareoutput,,ormulti-partydisregard,weshouldcoordinateallrelevantdepartmentstobuildapublicinformationplatformandcreateawin-wi“datasilos,”“compartmentalization,”and“datafragmentation,”realizeinformationsharingandtheoptimalallocationofmedicalandnursingresources,governmentpolicies,andnursingtalent,,weshouldestablishelectronicmedicalrecordsan,bigdata,cloudstorage,andothertechnologies,weshoulddevelopsoftwareforthemanagementofa“healthcloudplatform,”,sensors,wearabledevices,intelligentsensing,andvideocaptureshouldbeusedtocollect,mine,andanalyzedataregardingelderlypatients’diets,medication,exerciseintensity,chronicdiseaseindex,“medicalandeldercarecard”shouldbecreatedforpatientswiththehelpofbarcodes,two-dimensionalcodes,RadioFrequencyIdentification,“HealthCloudPlatform,”toes,thesystemwillautomaticallyreminddoctorstoproposetimelyhealthinterventionplansandsendthedatatomobilephonesofthepatient’simmediatefamilymembers,realizinginteractionsamongdoctors,patients,“healthcloudplatform”withrelevantmunicipalanddistrictworkplatformsandimplementahierarchicaldiagnosisandtreatmentmodel—firstmedicaltreatmentincommunities,thentwo-waytreatment,differenttreatmentforacuteandchronicdiseases,,basicmedicalinsurance,andsomecustomized,,rehabilitatedelderlypeoplecanreturntotheircommunities,healthyelderlypeoplecanreturntotheirfamilies,andelderlypeoplewhoarelesscapableoftakingcareofthemselvesandinurgentneedofcarecanreceiveprecisecarefrommedicalandnursingstaff,feldercarein,andthescopeofmedicalinsurancepaymentsforhome-basedmedicalcareshouldbeextendedsothatthosewhoparticipateinurbanandruralresidents’medicalcarecanre,individuals,anityresourcesandestablishamnamongresidents,insurancecompanies,andthehealthcommission(linkinggeneralpractitioners,two-waytransference,elderlyfinancialservices,andnursinginsurance).Seniorcitizensareadvisedtopurchasemedicalandeldercareinsurancebasedontheirneeds,,wewillbeabletobringmedicalresources,publichealthresources,nursinginsurance,andelderlycareservicesintoinstitutionsforeldercare,medicalcare,andnursing,andad“double-edgedsword”thatcanprovidehigh-quality,personalizedservicesfortheelderly,assesstheirconditions,buildadatabaseoftheirneedsbasedontheirabilitytocareforthemselves,theirmedicalhistory,theirfinancialcapacities,theireducationalbackgrounds,theirchildren,theirmaritalstatus,andprovidethemwithservicesthroughacombinationof“artificialintelligenceandsupplyanddemandcouplingsystem.”Itisalsovitaltopreventtheseniorcaredatabasefromleakinginformation,programdeviations,,relevantentitiesshouldjointlydevelopadatasecurityprotectionsystem,introducesecuritymanagementmeasures,developtechnicalsecuritystandards,unifyuserauthorizationmanagement,loginmanagement,accessmanagement,andensurestoragesecurity,applicationsecurity,,supervisionshouldbestrengthenedtopromotesusuzhouUniversity,andZhangLetianisthevicedeanoftheSchoolofSocialDevelopmentandPublicPolicyatFudanUniversity.

>Les“DeuxSessions“delaChine,unefenêtrepourmieuxcomprendrelaChine2022-03-0716:49:00LesexpertsmondiauxontfaitpartleurintérêtenverslesprogrammesnationauxpourlannéedelaChinequisontdévoiléslorsdes"DeuxSessions"annuellestenuesàéunionsannuellesdelAssembléepopulairenationale(APN),lorganelégislatifsuprêmedupays,etduComiténationaldelaConférenceconsultativepolitiquedupeuplechinois(CCPPC),lorganeconsultatifpolitiquesuprê,auteuretcommentateurpolitiquebritannique,adéclaréqueles"DeuxSessions"sontunefenêtrepourobserverledéveloppementdelaChine,car"lesdécisionsquiémanentdecesréunionsreflèterontlesidéesetlescontributionsde(...)millionsdeChinoisordinaires".Deléconomieàladiplomatie,avecledéveloppementdelaChine,les"DeuxSessions"attirentdeplusenpluslélobjectifdecroissancedesonproduitintérieurbrut(PIB)àenviron5,5%pour2022,selonunrapportdactivitédugouvernementprésentésamediàlorganelégislatifnationalpourdélibéheureoùléconomiemondialeesttoujoursconfrontéeàunepressioncroissantedueàlapandémieetàdautresincertitudes,notammentlestensionsgéopolitiques,unobjectifdecroissancedenviron5,5%pourladeuxièmeplusgrandeéconomiedumondedevraitstimulerdemanièresignificativelarepriseéconomiquemondiale,avenir,larepriseestremplacéeparlemaintiendelastabilitéetdelaprogressiondudééeverslaveniretdéterminéeàmaintenirledéveloppementtoutenconservantunecroissanceraisonnable,aestiméStephenPerry,présidentdu48GroupClub,uneorganisationbritanniqueàbutnonlucratifquiviseaudéveloppementducommerceentrelaChineetleRoyaume-Uni."LapolitiquedéfinitivementstabledelaChineetlacroissanceéconomiquedemêmenousdonnentdesgarantiesquelaChinepeutjouerunrletrèspositifdansledéveloppementcontemporaindumonde",asaluéIvoJosipovi,ancienprééesdegrandeimportancepourlamodernisationdecepaysdAsiedelEst,lapromotiondundéveloppementdehautequalitéestmiseenavantcommelunedestachesmajeuresdanslerapportdactivité,directeurduCentreturcdétudesAsie-PacifiquebaséàAnkara,apréditqueleredressementrégulierdelaChinemalgrélapandémie,sondéveloppementdehautequalitéetsonactionenfaveurduneplusgrandeouverturedonnerontunélanplusfortàlareprisemondialedanslèêtedundéveloppementdequalité,laChineredoubledeffortsenmatièred,letotaldesinvestissementsenrecherchedé(environ442milliarddedollars),soitunehaussede14,2%englissementannuel,selonleministèinnovation,AnnaMalindog-Uy,professeuretchercheuseauseindugroupederéflexionPhilippines-BRICSStrategicStudies,baséàManille,aditàXinhuaquelapromotionparlaChineduneinnovationdehautequalité"estsansaucundouteunsuccèsphénoménal",quiaconduitàlatransitionrapidedelaChineversunenouvellephasededéveloppementéconomiquebaséesurlaàcesmesures,a-t-ellenoté,léconomiechinoiseestdevenuedavantageaxéesurlatechnologie,ajoutantquelesPhilippinesdevraientseninspirerpourexploiterleurpotentieléconomiqueetaméliorerlacompétitivité.KiyoyukiSeguchi,directeurderechercheauCanonInstituteforGlobalStudies(CIGS),asoulignéquelacapacitédinnovationseralaforcemotricedelamacroéconomiechinoiseàlécologique,quiestunélémentessentieldundéveloppementdequalité,laChineaannoncéquellesefforceraitdatteindrelepicdesémissionsdedioxydedecarbonedici2030etlaneutralitécarboned,ilsagitdunexemplecrucialpourlaluttecontreladéémergencedelapandémiedeCOVID-19,laChineetsespartenairesdanslemondeentiersesontmutuellementaidé,1milliardsdedosesdevaccinscontrelaCOVID-19àplusde120paysetorganisationsinternationales,aindiquéGuoWeimin,porte-paroledela5esessiondu13eComité,ministreégyptiendelEnseignementsupérieuretdelaRecherchescientifiqueetministredelaSantéparintérim,anotéquelaChineatoujoursrespectésonengagementàconstruireunecommunautédesantépourlhumanité.LaideapportéeparlaChineenmatièredevaccinsestlaplusimportanteaideétrangèrequelEgypteaitreuejusquàprésentpourluttercontrelapandémie,arappelé,ajoutantquelaChineaobtenudesrésultatsremarquablesdanssapropreluttecontrelapandé,laChineaprnéaussisonengagementàpromouvoirledéveloppementmondialparlouvertureetlacoopé,spécialistedesrelationsinternationalesbaséauKenya,asoulignéquelaChineétaitdevenueuneferventepartisanedumultilatéralismeetdelamondialisation,etquedenombreuxpayssattendaientàcequelleprennedenouvellesmesuresdouvertureetderéformelorsdesaréuniversitairegrecquePelagiaKarpathiotaki,lastabilitééconomiquedelaChineetsesinitiativesvisantàpromouvoirlacoopérationéconomiqueinternationaleapporterontunecontributionsignificativeencemomentdifficile,car"linfluencedelaChineestdésormaisextrêmementimportantepourreleverlesdéfismondiaux".Fin

ShenJiaxuanPhoto:InstituteofLinguistics,CASSOnNovember15,2020,thebookNounsandVerbswrittenbytheChineselinguistShenJiaxuanwont,ShenputforwardatheorythatinChinesealltheverbsareverbalnouns,orthen,ShenhasthoroughlydemonstratedthetheorythatChineseverbsarepartofnounswithover60essaysandsixbooks,settingoffarevolutionarywaveinthefieldofChineselinguistics,andshakingthedeep-rootedtraditionofapplyingthe’’sharvestwasdeeplyrootedinthe“SpringofScience”jingin1978,GuoMoruo,thenthepresidentoftheChineseAcademyofSciences(CAS),deliveredaspeechunderthetitleof“SpringofScience,”whichpoeticallypronouncedthatthe“SpringofScience”[aneweraofrevitalizedscientificresearchinChina]rs,includingShenJiaxuan,’sreturnbanquetwhenheworkedasliaisonforChinesetelecommunicationsduringtheUSPresidentRichardNixon’,beingintrovertedbynature,“SpringofScience,”ShendecidedtoapplytotheInstituteofLinguisticsattheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences(CASS),andwasadmittedtothein,histeacherZhaoShikaigavehimalonglistofbooks,,’nmathematicallinguisticsclassesinotheruniversities,andattendpsychologyseminarsattheInstituteofPsychology,(1904–1998),founderofmodernChineselinguisticstudies,wasalsooneofShen’’sthesis,[linguistic]studyprogramsoverseaswerebetterthanathome,andgaveShenadvicethatseemedincredible,butwasofgreatsignificance:toextensivelycollectarticlesonoverseasstudiesoftheChineselanguage,whichwerepublishedinEnglish,andma,becausein1980,,,itwasajourneytoanunknownworld,,,Shenreadtheabstract,madenotes,’sthesisconsistsoftwoparts:asummaryofoverseasstudiesofChineselanguagesasapreface,,Shen’sEnglishindexwaspublished,’,andstillfeelsthatwritingsuchapaperwasgoodacademictraining,whichhelpedhimhaveacomprehensiveunderstan,’sclassics,introducingpragmatics,cognitivelinguistics,andtheoriesoflinguistictypology,grammaticalization,uistics,,withlessthan100pages,wasthecrystallizationofLyu’slife-longwork,,“Everytimethebook[AnalysisofChineseGrammar]becameworn,,Iwouldlearnsomethingnew.”ShenhasownedfourcopiesofAnalysisofChineseGrammar,eachwornwithuse,:“Aperson’slifeisfinite,,mated,”“Thinkoutofthebox”Lyuoncesaid:“Itiscrucialtothinkoutofthebox……Wemusttemporarilythrowasidetheconceptssuchas‘word,’‘verb,’‘adjective,’‘subject,’and‘object.’Theseconceptsmaybe‘pickedup’‘thrownaside’and‘pickedup’again,becausethemeaningandvaluegiventothesetermshavechanged,andwearenolongerhedgedinwithrulesandregulations.”Inthepastdecadeorso,Shen’sworkhasbeencenteredon“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain.”In2007,Shen’spapertitled“NounsandVerbsinChinese”waspublished,layingthefoundationforhistheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”HeholdstheviewthatinChinese,verbsareaspecialtypeofnounthatexpressanaction,anevent,orastate,becauseChineseverbs,likenouns,“NounsandVerbsinChinese,”Shenhaspublisheddozensofpapers,focusingonthemostimportanttwopairsofgrammaticalcategories—“nounsandverbs,”and“subjectandpredicate,”“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain”thatbroughtarevolutionarywavetoChineselinguistics,overthrowingtheframeworkoftheoldtheoreticalsystem,andbrewingthestartofthetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”,Shensaid:“Itwouldbeha,however,wecanfindsomethingdifferent.”However,mechanicallyadoptingthestructuralfoundationandtheoreticalsystemofIndo-EuropeanlanguagesforChineselanguagesandframingChineselanguageaccordingtothepatternofIndo-Europeanlanguages,“thinkingoutofthebox”andgettingridofthe“shacklesoftheIndo-Europeanpattern.”Thetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs”explodedthefoundationofthethen-currenttheoreticalframeworkofChinesegrammar,,Shenmadef’stheoryisnowbeingrecognizedbymoreandmoreofhispeers,’seyes,,whenheseespostersbytheroadside,withChineseaboveandEnglishbelow,hewillnoticethedifferentwaysthetwolanguagesareexpressed,,healwayscarriedasmallnotebookandre,heestablishedawordbookofChineseverbalslipsandwroteseveralimportantarticles,suchas“TypesofTongueSlips.”ShenonceborrowedtheWoxianCaotangeditionofRulinWaishi[TheScholars,aChinesenovelcompletedin1750;itsearliestextanteditionisthe1803WoxianCaotangedition]“SentencesWheretheSubjectisaVerbandthePredicateisaNoun,”anarticlehewro,Shendidn’tmissoutonthenovelBlossoms,:“WhenreadingBlossoms,Ihavethedelightoffollowingtherhythm.”Afterreadingthenovel,Shenwroteamonographonlinguistics—,WeiGangqiang,deputyeditor-in-chiefof21stCenturyPublishingGroup,commented:“Itisrareandsignificantforlinguiststopayattentiontoandinterpretthelanguageofcurrentliteraryworks……ShenJiaxuan’sinsightsarenotonlytheachievementsofhislinguisticresearch,butalsovaluablereferenceforotherpeopleintermsofliterarycreation,translation,criticism,andgeneralacademicwork.”Shenmentionedthemovie“ZeroDarkThirty”lybasedondata,,becauseasmallfragmentofdatai,heoftentellshisstudentsthatthekeytosearchingforlinguisticinstancesdoesn’tlieinhowmanyinstancesyouhavecollected,hcontrast,

InJuly2021,thegeneralofficesoftheCPCCentralCommitteeandtheStateCouncilissuedtheOpinionsonFurtherReducingtheBurd“doublereduction”policy,theregulationswererolledoutwiththeaimofhelpingtoeasestudents’,,oneofthewidelyacceptedsuggestionsistoabolishthehighschoolentranceexamination,ulsoryeducationfrom9to11or12years,,hattheyhavelearned,,aseducationisplayinganincreasinglyimportantroleinsociety,examinationcanalsoevaluateschools’,theimpactofexaminationoneducation,whetherpositiveornegative,(keju)inancientChina,perialcourt,,becauseemploymentinsocietyandthepromotionofscholarshadbecomeinseparablefromschoolingandlearning,theImperialExaminationhadahugebearingonschoolsystemsandsocialethos,affectingschools’educationalcontent,talentcultivation,teachingatmosphere,andintellectuals’,,first,assesstheoperationalqualityofschoolsdedicatedtonine-yearcompulsoryeducationwithinaprovinceorcity,andsecond,tosplitmiddleschoolstudentsi’growingdemandforhigher-leveleducation,“degraded”andsenttovocationalschools[whichallegedlyforebodesaworsefutureduetounsatisfactoryvocationaleducationsystemsinChina]leadsparentsandstudentstohighlyvaluethezhongkaoandengageinirrationallevelsofcompetition,cahavedeviatedfarfromthesystem’,theexaminationislikeanarrowfootbridge:thosewhosucceedincrossingitwillbeallowedtofurthertakeacademicpathways,,somestudentsareabandonedtotheothersideofsociety,whichtosomeextentinhibitstheircreativityandadaptability,,orgaokao,thechannelstowhichstudentsaredistributedfollowingthezhongkaoarelessdiversified,whereasthegaokaowi,students’parentsaremoreconcernedwithwh,“involution”’academicloadbecomesheavierandheavier,rightfromkindergarten,toprimaryschool,nforoveracentury,eversincerenownedlate-QingDynastyeducatorsandthinkersKang,compulsoryeducationwasextendedfromjuniorprimaryschooltoseniorprimaryschool,andfurthertojuniorhighschool,,,lawsandregulationswerethereafterenactedtograduallydefineitscompulsory,free,mandatory,avebroughtabouttremendousachievementsincompulsoryeducation,withthefoundingofthePeople’,Chinesepeoplesufferedfrompoverty,sotheimplementationofcompulsoryeducationwaslargelyemptytalk,,undertheCPCleadership,Chinahasmaintainedprolongedstabilityinsociety,politics,economy,andeducation,pro,thestrategicgoalofuni,imbalancesstillloomlargebetweencounty-levelareasacrossthenation,andbetweenurbanandruralareas,posingchallengestoimprovingthequalityo,theEducationInspectionCommitteeoftheStateCouncilinitiatedacounty-leveleva,a,theMinistryofEducationstartedtheevaluati,thestartofthe14thFive-YearPlanningPeriod(2021–25)whenChinaembarkeduponthenewjourneytobuildamodernsocialistcountryinallrespects,allcountiesandcounty-levelcitieswithineachprovinceandmunicipalityprogressivelyrealizedhigh-quality,well-balanceddevelopmentofcompulsoryeducationonthecountylevel,tobolstertheconstructionofastrongnationwithabundanthumanre(2016–20),provincesandmunicipalitiesacrossChinasnevenearlier,providingnecessarycon,%in2020,whichlaysa,however,allcitiesandcountiesareobligedbyeducationpoliciestorunbothgeneralacademichighschoolsandvocationalinstitutionsforseniorsecondaryeducation,,somestudentswhoprefertoreceiveacademichighschooleducationareforcedtoattendvocationalschools[duetotheirsubparacademicperformances].Thishasinviteddiscussionsontwoissues:ShouldChinaacceleratetheextensionofcompulsoryeducationfromnineyearsto12yearsIsitnecessarytotransformsecondaryvocationaleducationcompletelyintohighervocationaleducationTheanswertothefirstquestionis,objectiveandfoundationalcondi,universalizingcompulsoryeducationtotheseniorhighstageisaninevitabletrendforbasiceducationindevelopedcountriesaroundtheworld,andalsotheobjectiverequirementforbuildingChinaintoaprosperous,democratic,civilized,harmonious,,citiesandcountiescangraduallyandbystagesprolongcompulsoryeducationto12or11years,andelevatesec,whonotedthatschoolbuildingsandteachershavebeenequippedtopopularize12-yearcompulsoryeducation,anditsavesmorehumanandfinanci,theparalleldevelopmentofgeneralacademichighschoolsandvocationalschoolslagsbehindrealsocialneeds,,theStateCouncilpromulgatedtheDecisiononVigorouslyPromotingtheReformandDevelopmentofVocationalEducation,urgingeffortstofocusonsecondaryvocationaleducationandmaintainroug,asChina’sindustriallevelsriseandintelligentmanufacturingtechnologyadvances,thepreviousmodelhasbeenu,laborerswhohavereachedtheageof16,butnot18,,theirphysicalandmentalhealth,aswellaspersonalgrowth,,thisagerangeisthekeystageforstudentstogrowintomatureyouth,theprimetimeforthemtolearnbasicknowledgeandshapegoodmoralqualities,,mostparentshopetheirchildrencanattendgeneralacademichighschoo,afterrealizingbalanceddevelopmentofthecompulsoryeducationsystemincounty-levelareasinanall-roundmanner,Chinashouldpromote12-yearcompulsoryeducationforprimaryandsecondaryeducationstagesstep-by-stepandterminatethedivisionofjuniorandseniorinhighschool,enforcinggeneralseniorhighschooleducationandelevatingsecondacteristicsandtheinstitutional

ShenJiaxuanPhoto:InstituteofLinguistics,CASSOnNovember15,2020,thebookNounsandVerbswrittenbytheChineselinguistShenJiaxuanwont,ShenputforwardatheorythatinChinesealltheverbsareverbalnouns,orthen,ShenhasthoroughlydemonstratedthetheorythatChineseverbsarepartofnounswithover60essaysandsixbooks,settingoffarevolutionarywaveinthefieldofChineselinguistics,andshakingthedeep-rootedtraditionofapplyingthe’’sharvestwasdeeplyrootedinthe“SpringofScience”jingin1978,GuoMoruo,thenthepresidentoftheChineseAcademyofSciences(CAS),deliveredaspeechunderthetitleof“SpringofScience,”whichpoeticallypronouncedthatthe“SpringofScience”[aneweraofrevitalizedscientificresearchinChina]rs,includingShenJiaxuan,’sreturnbanquetwhenheworkedasliaisonforChinesetelecommunicationsduringtheUSPresidentRichardNixon’,beingintrovertedbynature,“SpringofScience,”ShendecidedtoapplytotheInstituteofLinguisticsattheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences(CASS),andwasadmittedtothein,histeacherZhaoShikaigavehimalonglistofbooks,,’nmathematicallinguisticsclassesinotheruniversities,andattendpsychologyseminarsattheInstituteofPsychology,(1904–1998),founderofmodernChineselinguisticstudies,wasalsooneofShen’’sthesis,[linguistic]studyprogramsoverseaswerebetterthanathome,andgaveShenadvicethatseemedincredible,butwasofgreatsignificance:toextensivelycollectarticlesonoverseasstudiesoftheChineselanguage,whichwerepublishedinEnglish,andma,becausein1980,,,itwasajourneytoanunknownworld,,,Shenreadtheabstract,madenotes,’sthesisconsistsoftwoparts:asummaryofoverseasstudiesofChineselanguagesasapreface,,Shen’sEnglishindexwaspublished,’,andstillfeelsthatwritingsuchapaperwasgoodacademictraining,whichhelpedhimhaveacomprehensiveunderstan,’sclassics,introducingpragmatics,cognitivelinguistics,andtheoriesoflinguistictypology,grammaticalization,uistics,,withlessthan100pages,wasthecrystallizationofLyu’slife-longwork,,“Everytimethebook[AnalysisofChineseGrammar]becameworn,,Iwouldlearnsomethingnew.”ShenhasownedfourcopiesofAnalysisofChineseGrammar,eachwornwithuse,:“Aperson’slifeisfinite,,mated,”“Thinkoutofthebox”Lyuoncesaid:“Itiscrucialtothinkoutofthebox……Wemusttemporarilythrowasidetheconceptssuchas‘word,’‘verb,’‘adjective,’‘subject,’and‘object.’Theseconceptsmaybe‘pickedup’‘thrownaside’and‘pickedup’again,becausethemeaningandvaluegiventothesetermshavechanged,andwearenolongerhedgedinwithrulesandregulations.”Inthepastdecadeorso,Shen’sworkhasbeencenteredon“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain.”In2007,Shen’spapertitled“NounsandVerbsinChinese”waspublished,layingthefoundationforhistheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”HeholdstheviewthatinChinese,verbsareaspecialtypeofnounthatexpressanaction,anevent,orastate,becauseChineseverbs,likenouns,“NounsandVerbsinChinese,”Shenhaspublisheddozensofpapers,focusingonthemostimportanttwopairsofgrammaticalcategories—“nounsandverbs,”and“subjectandpredicate,”“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain”thatbroughtarevolutionarywavetoChineselinguistics,overthrowingtheframeworkoftheoldtheoreticalsystem,andbrewingthestartofthetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”,Shensaid:“Itwouldbeha,however,wecanfindsomethingdifferent.”However,mechanicallyadoptingthestructuralfoundationandtheoreticalsystemofIndo-EuropeanlanguagesforChineselanguagesandframingChineselanguageaccordingtothepatternofIndo-Europeanlanguages,“thinkingoutofthebox”andgettingridofthe“shacklesoftheIndo-Europeanpattern.”Thetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs”explodedthefoundationofthethen-currenttheoreticalframeworkofChinesegrammar,,Shenmadef’stheoryisnowbeingrecognizedbymoreandmoreofhispeers,’seyes,,whenheseespostersbytheroadside,withChineseaboveandEnglishbelow,hewillnoticethedifferentwaysthetwolanguagesareexpressed,,healwayscarriedasmallnotebookandre,heestablishedawordbookofChineseverbalslipsandwroteseveralimportantarticles,suchas“TypesofTongueSlips.”ShenonceborrowedtheWoxianCaotangeditionofRulinWaishi[TheScholars,aChinesenovelcompletedin1750;itsearliestextanteditionisthe1803WoxianCaotangedition]“SentencesWheretheSubjectisaVerbandthePredicateisaNoun,”anarticlehewro,Shendidn’tmissoutonthenovelBlossoms,:“WhenreadingBlossoms,Ihavethedelightoffollowingtherhythm.”Afterreadingthenovel,Shenwroteamonographonlinguistics—,WeiGangqiang,deputyeditor-in-chiefof21stCenturyPublishingGroup,commented:“Itisrareandsignificantforlinguiststopayattentiontoandinterpretthelanguageofcurrentliteraryworks……ShenJiaxuan’sinsightsarenotonlytheachievementsofhislinguisticresearch,butalsovaluablereferenceforotherpeopleintermsofliterarycreation,translation,criticism,andgeneralacademicwork.”Shenmentionedthemovie“ZeroDarkThirty”lybasedondata,,becauseasmallfragmentofdatai,heoftentellshisstudentsthatthekeytosearchingforlinguisticinstancesdoesn’tlieinhowmanyinstancesyouhavecollected,hcontrast,

,:PROVIDEDTOCSSTChina’saccessionintotheWTOhasfacilitatedeconomicglobalization,saidHolgerGrg,presidentoft:What’syourtakeonChina’saccessionintotheWTOandthismove’sinfluenceonChinaandthewiderworldGrg:China’saccessiontotheWTO,andtheincreaseintrade,investment,andlinksintoglobalvaluechainswhichfollowedit,haveundoubtedlycontributedmassivelytoChina’seconomicgrowth,,Chinesefirmshavebeenexposedtoincreasinginternationalcompetition,,,andperhapssometimesoverlooked,:HowcanChinaandGermanyboosteconomicandtradecooperation,especiallyinservicesGrg:TheperceptioninmanyEuropeancountriesisthatChinaisastrategiccompetitoronworldmarkets,ServicesTr:What’syourtakeontherelationshipbetweentradeinservicesandhigh-qualityeconomicdevelopmentGrg:Thedevelopmen,increaseduetofurtherliberalizationefforts,,–thinkofIT,businessconsulting,finance,architecture–soagrowthinthosesectorsneedshighlyskilledemployees,,comparedtomanyaspectsofmanufacturing,manyservicesare:HowcanChineseenterprisesgoabroadamidthechangesunseeninacenturyGrg:emoreandmoreChinesefirmstogoandinvestabroad,buthowtofurtherencourageChineseoutwardForeignDirectInvestment(FDI)ofhighqualitythpmentinhosteconomiesisespeciallyrelevantnowadayswhenmanycountriesintheworld,particularlyinWesterneconomies,focusonemphasizingeconomicself-sufficiencyandtechnologicalsovereigntythroughre-regionalization,re-nationalization,’outwardFDIprojectscanpositivelysupportthedevelopmentofhostcountries(through,forexample,fosteringspilloversorcooperationwithlocalpartners),theymayfacefarfewerdifficultiesincarryingouttheirprojects.

TwosidesagreeonpromotingpracticalcooperationandcopingwithchallengesThehigh-leveldialoguebetweenChinaandtheEuropeanUniondemonstratedthetwosideswillingnesstostrengthenbilateralcooperationandfendoffexternalrisksagainstthebackdropofapossibleglobalrecession,increasingfinancialmarketvolatilityandgeopoliticaltensions,9thHigh-LevelEconomicandTradeDialogueonTuesdaytodiscusstopicssuchasthemacroeconomy,industrialandsupplychains,bilateraltradeandinvestment,,ldoftheeconomyandtrade,andtojointlycopewiththechallengesfacingtheglobaleconomy,esincludingindustrialandsupplychainsandfinancialservices,whilestablerelationsbetweenthetwowillhelppromotesteadygrowthforboth,contributetothestabilityoftheinternationalsituation,,aresearcherwiththeBankofChinaResearchInstitute,saidtheeconomiesofChinaandtheEUarehighlycomplementaryandthetwosid,greenenergy,thecarbonmarket,greenfinance,climatechange,tradeondigitalinformationandcommunicationtechnology,tradeindigitalproductsandthedigitalservicetrade."Againstthebackdropofsoaringinflationandtheincreasingriskofeconomicrecessionaroundtheglobe,EuropeneedstoimportChinesegoodstohelpensurestability,anditalsoneedstostrengthentradeandinvestmentcooperationinfieldssuchasindustriesandinfrastructuretogathernewgrowthmomentum,"Yesaid."Meanwhile,Europesadvancedtechnologies,talentsandmanagementexperiencewillhelpChinapromoteindustrialupgradingandgreentransformationoftheeconomy."Asstagflationpressuresanddebtriskscloudgrowthprospects,theattractivenessoftheeurozonetoglobalinvestorshasdimmed,withtheeurosinkingbelowparityagainsttheUSdollarforthefirsttimein20years,,YesaidChina-EUcooperationwillboostEuropeanmarketconfidenceandimprovemarketexpectationsforfuturerecoveryintheregion,clineinexports,thushelpingsupportChinassecond-largesttradingpartner,($401billion)inbilateraltradeduringthefirstsixmonthsofthisyear,,aresearcherattheInternationalMonetaryInstituteoftheRenminUniversityofChina,saidthegrowthinChina-EUtradehaslaidasspositivegrowthinthefirsthalfof2022despitepressuresandchallengesbothathomeandabroad,Chensaidthenationseconomyenjoysstrongresilienceandvitality,servinga,deanoftheHainanUniversityBeltandRoadResearchInstitute,saidChinaandEuropeshouldstrengthentheircooperationinthefinancialsector,anditisadvisableforthetwosidestoexpandthescaleofbilateralcurrencyswapsandsettlement,,PresidentXiJinpingsaidduringameetingviavideolinkthatChinawillstaycommittedtodeepeningreformandfurtheropeningup,anditwelcomesEuropeanbusinessinvestmentandexpectstheEUtoprovideafair,transparentandnondiscriminato,globalexecutivevice-presidentofGermanysSiemensGroupandchairman,presidentandCEOofSiemensChina,saidthatdespitethechallengesposedbyCOVID-19,Chinaiscapableofmaintaininghigh-qualitygrowth,givenitscompleteindustrialchainsystem."Amidallofthechangesanduncertaintiesinglobalmarkets,Chinasdeterminationtocontinuouslyopenuphasremainedunchangedoverthepastfewyears,"hesaid,addingthatgreatermarketopennessbenefitssustainablesocioeconomicdevelopmentinChina,andalsohelpsrevitalizetheglobaleconomy.

DesdignitairesétrangersetdesresponsablesdorganisationsinternationalesontfélicitémercredileConseilchinoispourlapromotionducommerceinternational(CCPIT)àlésidentindonésienJokoWidodo,quiaparticipéàunsommetparvidéomarquantcetanniversaire,aditquelIndonésieetlaChineontbeaucoupencommun,carlacoopérationcommercialesestdéveloppéerapidement,etquelesinvestissementsdansdiverssecteurs,notammentdanslesminesetlamétallurgie,lélectricitéetlesinfrastructures,lindustriemanufacturière,lagricultureetlapêche,reflètentdesintérêhui,lemondeabesoindedavantagedactionscollectivesetdecollaborationsinclusivesentrelespaysdéveloppésetleséconomiesendéveloppement,a-t-ilaffirmé.LIndonésieoptimiserasaprésidenceduG20pourcesquestions,aditlepréésidentéquatorienGuillermoLassoaconsidéréquesetournerverslAsie,cestsetournerverslavenirdumonde;cestpourquoi,a-t-ilpoursuivi,léquateurafaitdeladhésionàlAccordglobaletprogressifpourlepartenariattranspacifiqueuneprioritééquateursengageànégocieretàsignerunaccorddelibre-échangeaveclaChineafinderendrelesrelationscommercialesentrelesdeuxpaysplusfortesetplusdiversifiées,aaffirmé,ajoutantqueléquateuraccueillefavorablementlesnouvellesformesdinvestissementchinoisdanslessecteursdupétroleetdugaz,desmines,destélécommunications,deléénéraledelOrganisationmondialeducommerce(OMC),NgoziOkonjo-Iweala,aditlorsdesoninterventionausommetquencestempsdepandémies,deconflits,decrisesalimentaires,dedégradationdelenvironnementetderisquesderécession,lacoopésurdesquestionsdepointetellesquelafacilitationdelinvestissement,lecommercenumérique,unlargeéventaildepréoccupationsenvironnementales,notammentlapollutionparlesplastiques,etleseffortsvisantàrenforcerlaparticipationdesmicro,petitesetmoyennesentreprises(MPME)etdesfemmesaucommerce,aajoutélacheffedelutilisateursquotidiensdesrèglesetdisciplinesdelOMC,lesentreprisesenChineetdanslemondeentiersontdesacteursclésdusystèmecommercialmultilatéral,a-t-ellelancé.Lorsdusommet,LimJockHoi,secrétairegénéraldelAssociationdesnationsdelAsieduSud-Est(ASEAN),aindiquéqueleCCPITaréussiàpromouvoirlacoopérationenmatièredecommerceextérieuretdinvestissemententrelaChineetlemonde,ajoutantquelesrelationséconomiquesentrelASEANetlaChinenontjamaisétéaussifortesetétroitesquaujourdhui."Enréponseàlévolutionrapidedupaysageéconomiquemondialdanslèrepost-pandémique,lASEANetlaChinesoriententversunnouveaupartenariattournéverslavenir",a-t-ilconsidéré,ajoutantque"laportéedecepartenariatestvasteetcomprenddenombreusesprioritésémergentestellesqueleschanesdapprovisionnementrésistantes,léconomienumériqueetladurabilité",domainesdanslesquels,selonlui,l,présidentdel-ChinaBusinessCouncil(USCBC),aditqueleconseilestfierdeconsidérerleCériode,lesdeuxpartiesontaccomplidemagnifiquesréalisationsensemble,entravaillantdurpourdévelopperlesrelationscommercialesbilatéralesentrelesétats-UnisetlaChine,états-UnisetlaChinesonttousdeuxdegrandesnationscommercialesdotéesdunerichehistoireenmatièredentrepreneuriatetdinnovation,a-t-ilaffirmé,ajoutantquelesentreprisesaméricainescontinuentdeseconcentrersurlaChineavecunevisionàlongtermedesrelationsbilatéapasétéfacile,maislesobjectifsetlesvaleurspartagésrestentorientésdanslamêmedirectionversunecroissance,uneproductivitéetuneprospéritécontinues,a-t-ildit,rai,présidentdelAssociationjaponaisepourlapromotionducommerceinternational(JAPIT),asoulignééquecetteannéemarquele50eanniversaireéàcréerunenvironnementpropiceàééenmai1952,leCCPITapourobjectifdepromouvoirlecommerceextérieuretlerecoursauxinvestissementsétrangers,dintroduiredestechnologiesétrangèresavancéesetdemenerdesactivitésdecoopérationéconomiqueettechnologiquesino-étrangè

ShenJiaxuanPhoto:InstituteofLinguistics,CASSOnNovember15,2020,thebookNounsandVerbswrittenbytheChineselinguistShenJiaxuanwont,ShenputforwardatheorythatinChinesealltheverbsareverbalnouns,orthen,ShenhasthoroughlydemonstratedthetheorythatChineseverbsarepartofnounswithover60essaysandsixbooks,settingoffarevolutionarywaveinthefieldofChineselinguistics,andshakingthedeep-rootedtraditionofapplyingthe’’sharvestwasdeeplyrootedinthe“SpringofScience”jingin1978,GuoMoruo,thenthepresidentoftheChineseAcademyofSciences(CAS),deliveredaspeechunderthetitleof“SpringofScience,”whichpoeticallypronouncedthatthe“SpringofScience”[aneweraofrevitalizedscientificresearchinChina]rs,includingShenJiaxuan,’sreturnbanquetwhenheworkedasliaisonforChinesetelecommunicationsduringtheUSPresidentRichardNixon’,beingintrovertedbynature,“SpringofScience,”ShendecidedtoapplytotheInstituteofLinguisticsattheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences(CASS),andwasadmittedtothein,histeacherZhaoShikaigavehimalonglistofbooks,,’nmathematicallinguisticsclassesinotheruniversities,andattendpsychologyseminarsattheInstituteofPsychology,(1904–1998),founderofmodernChineselinguisticstudies,wasalsooneofShen’’sthesis,[linguistic]studyprogramsoverseaswerebetterthanathome,andgaveShenadvicethatseemedincredible,butwasofgreatsignificance:toextensivelycollectarticlesonoverseasstudiesoftheChineselanguage,whichwerepublishedinEnglish,andma,becausein1980,,,itwasajourneytoanunknownworld,,,Shenreadtheabstract,madenotes,’sthesisconsistsoftwoparts:asummaryofoverseasstudiesofChineselanguagesasapreface,,Shen’sEnglishindexwaspublished,’,andstillfeelsthatwritingsuchapaperwasgoodacademictraining,whichhelpedhimhaveacomprehensiveunderstan,’sclassics,introducingpragmatics,cognitivelinguistics,andtheoriesoflinguistictypology,grammaticalization,uistics,,withlessthan100pages,wasthecrystallizationofLyu’slife-longwork,,“Everytimethebook[AnalysisofChineseGrammar]becameworn,,Iwouldlearnsomethingnew.”ShenhasownedfourcopiesofAnalysisofChineseGrammar,eachwornwithuse,:“Aperson’slifeisfinite,,mated,”“Thinkoutofthebox”Lyuoncesaid:“Itiscrucialtothinkoutofthebox……Wemusttemporarilythrowasidetheconceptssuchas‘word,’‘verb,’‘adjective,’‘subject,’and‘object.’Theseconceptsmaybe‘pickedup’‘thrownaside’and‘pickedup’again,becausethemeaningandvaluegiventothesetermshavechanged,andwearenolongerhedgedinwithrulesandregulations.”Inthepastdecadeorso,Shen’sworkhasbeencenteredon“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain.”In2007,Shen’spapertitled“NounsandVerbsinChinese”waspublished,layingthefoundationforhistheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”HeholdstheviewthatinChinese,verbsareaspecialtypeofnounthatexpressanaction,anevent,orastate,becauseChineseverbs,likenouns,“NounsandVerbsinChinese,”Shenhaspublisheddozensofpapers,focusingonthemostimportanttwopairsofgrammaticalcategories—“nounsandverbs,”and“subjectandpredicate,”“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain”thatbroughtarevolutionarywavetoChineselinguistics,overthrowingtheframeworkoftheoldtheoreticalsystem,andbrewingthestartofthetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”,Shensaid:“Itwouldbeha,however,wecanfindsomethingdifferent.”However,mechanicallyadoptingthestructuralfoundationandtheoreticalsystemofIndo-EuropeanlanguagesforChineselanguagesandframingChineselanguageaccordingtothepatternofIndo-Europeanlanguages,“thinkingoutofthebox”andgettingridofthe“shacklesoftheIndo-Europeanpattern.”Thetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs”explodedthefoundationofthethen-currenttheoreticalframeworkofChinesegrammar,,Shenmadef’stheoryisnowbeingrecognizedbymoreandmoreofhispeers,’seyes,,whenheseespostersbytheroadside,withChineseaboveandEnglishbelow,hewillnoticethedifferentwaysthetwolanguagesareexpressed,,healwayscarriedasmallnotebookandre,heestablishedawordbookofChineseverbalslipsandwroteseveralimportantarticles,suchas“TypesofTongueSlips.”ShenonceborrowedtheWoxianCaotangeditionofRulinWaishi[TheScholars,aChinesenovelcompletedin1750;itsearliestextanteditionisthe1803WoxianCaotangedition]“SentencesWheretheSubjectisaVerbandthePredicateisaNoun,”anarticlehewro,Shendidn’tmissoutonthenovelBlossoms,:“WhenreadingBlossoms,Ihavethedelightoffollowingtherhythm.”Afterreadingthenovel,Shenwroteamonographonlinguistics—,WeiGangqiang,deputyeditor-in-chiefof21stCenturyPublishingGroup,commented:“Itisrareandsignificantforlinguiststopayattentiontoandinterpretthelanguageofcurrentliteraryworks……ShenJiaxuan’sinsightsarenotonlytheachievementsofhislinguisticresearch,butalsovaluablereferenceforotherpeopleintermsofliterarycreation,translation,criticism,andgeneralacademicwork.”Shenmentionedthemovie“ZeroDarkThirty”lybasedondata,,becauseasmallfragmentofdatai,heoftentellshisstudentsthatthekeytosearchingforlinguisticinstancesdoesn’tlieinhowmanyinstancesyouhavecollected,hcontrast,

AHolisticStudyofCentennialChineseChildren’sLiteratureAHolisticStudyofCentennialChineseChildren’sLiterature,co-authoredbyWuXiangyuandWeiDong,scholarsfromtheResearchCenterforChildren’sLiteratureatZhejiangNormalUniversity,proceedsfromtheintegrationprocessandholisticviewofchildren’,theory,thoughts,’sliteraturechronicles,namicculturalstructure,integratestheindividualphenomenoninchildren’sliteraturewiththetheoreticalexpositionofChineseliterature,andlinksthediscipline’sinternalandexternaldevelopment,Chineseandforeignresources,’sliteratureandtheinteractionbetweenunderlyingviewsonchildrenandculturalresources,whileelaboratinguponthedisciplinizationprocessandinterdisciplinaryexpansionofChinesechildren’,thehistoryofChinesechildren’sliteraturewasmainlywrittenwithinanarrangementofhistoricalliterature,,theoreticalcriticismofchildren’,withnumerousChineseandWesterntheoreticalwritingsandhistoricalviews,itiscontentiousamongscholarstodeclarewhichcantrulyreflectthecreativeachievementsandthoughttrendsofeachtime,andwhichcanserveasguidanceforthepresentandfuturedevelopmentofChinesechildren’,thebooktriestoconstructatheoreticalframeworkontheaxisofmodernandcontemporaryChinathattakesinbothancientandmodern,domesticandinternationalresearch,,themethodremediesthephenomenonof“discussinghistorywithhistoryanddivorcingfromreality.”Children’sl,itsdevelopmentinitselfiscloselyrelatedtoChina’,sinceitsbirthchildren’sliteraturehasbeeninseparablefromthoughtonChina’s“modernity.”Therefore,itsappearanculturalcollisionandresourceexchangewithothercountries,ignoringthecomplexhistoricalbackgroundandpluralinfluentialfactorsthataffectthegenerationanddevelopmentofChinesechildren’sliteratureandgoingintoanisolatedandstaticresearchfield,’sLiteratureatZhejiangNormalUniversity.

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FILEPHOTO:CaiMeibiaoandAGeneralHistoryofChinaTheChinesehistorianCaiMeibiao(1928–2021),orAGeneralHistoryofChina,ce,aswellasamicrocosmofCai’,FanWenlan(1893–1969),aleadingChinesehistorianandthedirectoroftheinstitute,wasrevisingZhongguoTongshiJianbian,orAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition).,FanwasreceivedbyMaoZedonginYan’an,andwasappointedasthedirectoroftheOffic,MaoZedongcalledonthewholepartytolearnChinesehistoryandtounderstandChina’ofChina’,whichwasnamedAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition),,Fanbegantorewritethebookhehadn’,knownastheRevisedVersionofAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition),wasnotasimplerevisionofthepreviousthree-volumework,,eachpersonwhoassistedFanwasresponsibleforresearchingafieldinhistory,,fourvolumesofAGeneralHistoryofChina(RevisedandConciseEdition)weresuccessivelypublished,coveringChina’shistoryfromantiquitytotheSui(581–618),Tang(618–907),andFiveDynasties(907–960),Fansufferedfromheartdisease,,Fansaidthathecouldnolongerwritebyhimself,andhop,’sdeathbroughtthecompilationofthebooktoastandstill,dtotheunfinishedundertakingleftbehindbyFan.‘AGeneralHistoryofChina’ContinuingwiththecompilationofAGeneralHistoryofChina(RevisedandConciseEdition),,heplanne,thebookwasnolongerarevisedversionofAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition)asitscontentincreased,anditwasmorethana“conciseedition”ofChina’“AGeneralHistoryofChina”,theInstituteofModernHistorycouldnotcompletealltheworkoftheprojectalone,soCaiinvitedscholarsfromNankaiUniversity,FudanUniversity,,’tsimplyeditthesedraftsormaterials,,000characters,only30,(1925–2006),aprofessorattheUniversityofLondon,andoneoftheco-editorsofTheCambridgeHistoryofChina,oncetoldCaithattheyhadneverfinishedthefirstvolumeofTheCambridgeHistoryofChina,becausetheycouldn’tkeeppacewithChina’,theyhadtogiveupthepre-Qin(before221BCE)historyofthefirstvolumeandstartfromtheQin(221–207BCE)andHan(206BCE–220CE)alfindingsatalltimescertainlywouldleadtotheproblemof“failingtokeeppace.”Therefore,Caip,CaiinheritedFan’sideasandmethodsofwritingAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition).Meanwhile,hehadhisownunderstandingandmadeinnovationsduringtheprocess,whichcanbeseenfromthefollowingexample:Cai’sAGeneralHistoryofChinabeganwiththeSong(960–1279),Liao(907–1125),Jin(1115–1234),andYuan(1279–1368),,000yearsfromtheHantothefalloftheQingDynasty(1644–1911),theHanpeoplehadruledovernon-Hanethnicgroupsmanytimes,,therewereconflictsandwarsbetweentheHanandnon-Hanethnicgroups,,theseconflictsandwarsdidn’tcreatedistancesbutstr,thenon-Hanethnicgoups,andgainedn,inAGeneralHistoryofChina,CaiaddedachapterfortheWesternXia[alsoknownastheTangutEmpire,existingfrom1038to1227inpresent-daynorthwesternChina],whichwasnotfoundinpreviousgeneralhistorybooks,inthesectiononSong,Liao,Jin,“thevariousethnicgroupsundertheruleoftheYuanDynasty”k,,hecouldbefoundinhisofficeeveryday,,sixvolumesofAGeneralHistoryofChinaweresuccessivelycompleted,’,thetenthvolumeendedwiththereignoftheJiaqingEmperor(–1820)—fromthereignoftheDaoguangEmperor(–1850)tothatoftheXuantongEmperor[thefinalQingDynastyruler,whowasforcedtoabdicatein1912]—,Caiwasalreadyinhisseventies,’scallsliponhandforthelibraryoftheInstituteofModernHistory,andthedatewrittenonitisJanuary7,,twovolumesofmanuscriptswerefinallycompleted,,thesetwonewvolumeswerecombinedwiththefirsttenvolumesandwerepublishedtogether,’,(1019–1086),ahigh-rankingSongDynastyscholar-official,spentover20yearscompilingtheZizhiTongjian[ComprehensiveMirrorforAidinGovernment,apioneeringreferenceworkinChinesehistoriographycovering16dynastiesandspanningalmost1,400years].,Simasaidthathesufferedfromblurryvisionandtoothloss,,the12volumeswerepublishedasaboxset,,,Caisaid:“LookingbackatthetimewhenIparticipatedineditingthefirstvolumeofthisbookin1953,55yearshavepassedbeforeIknewit.”XiuXiaoboisaprofessorfromtheSchoolofHistoryatQingdaoUniversity.

TimeandtheAncientWorldofEastAsiaTimeandtheAncientWorldofEastAsia,writtenbyLiuXiaofeng,aprofessorfromtheDepartmentofHistoryatTsinghuaUniversity,focusesontheinfluenceoftheancientChinesetimeculturesystemonEastAsia,,theconnotationoftime,asrecognizedbyancientpeople,isfarfromapurelyphilosophicalorphysicalconcept,,theChinesepeople’sobservation,calculation,understanding,andstructuringoftimeoriginatedfromtheircreativeimagination,andwasrootedintheconceptoftimeandspaceandthemodeloftheuniverseconstructedbytheancientChinese,whichembodiedChina’ationofthesunandstarrysky,theyhavebeenseekingthereasonbehindchangesoftime.“Thisworldisaworldwithcenterandorder,”,theymatchedtheorderoftimeandtheorientationofspace,constructedaculturalspacefeaturingtheintegrationoftimeandspace,,timerepresentedorder,cientChinahadaprofoundinfluenceonthedevelopmentofChineseculture,thesystemalsoradiatedthroughoutEastAsiathroughthespreadofcalendars,andhadanimpactonitstimeculture,formingan“EastAsiantimeculturesystemculturalcircle”,dailyproduction,,heinvestigatesthespreadanddevelopmentofshigandangculture,whichusesstonestowardoffevilspiritsandprayforgoodfortune,inRyukyu,Vietnam,andtheDPRK,andexplorestheemergenceandevolutionoftheJapanesebeliefinTateyamahell,revealingtherelationshipbetweenlifeviewsandtimeinEastAsia,,theauthorprobesthespread,influence,andinterplayofChinesecultureandthoughtinEastAsia,including“divinationbycarryingamirrorandoverhearingwords,”andthecultureofa“peach”[withmultiplesymbolicmeanings,suchaswardingoffevilspirits].ZhuGuoliisfromtheInstituteofDunhuangStudiesatLanzhouUniversity.

,,ionsystem,,well-roundedstudentdevelopmentshoul,itisnecessarytopointoutthateachtypeoflaborhasitsownsignificanceandvalue,,inpractice,the,itwasnarrowlyunderstoodas“productivelaboreducation”andnowitissometimesknownas“physicallaboreducation”or“work-technicaleducation.”Therefore,inordertocarryoutcomprehensivelaboreducation,udentstomasterspe,,laboreducationshouldnots,,manyschoolsattachgreatimportancetolaborandactivelyenrichstudents’experienceinvarioustypesofworkthroughworkshops,campusfarms,,ifweonlyaimforstudentstogetatasteofcertaintypesofwork,notthecompleteexperienceofharvestingandcollectingproducts,theywillnottakeitseriouslyandtrulyvaluethejoyofwork,no,bothproc,laboreducation’sto-dolist,launchedbytheTeachingandResearchOfficeoftheEducationDepartmentofZhejiangProvince,mpleteineachgrade,’laborliteracy,’respectforlabor,resultingintheformationofalaborconsciousnessthatviewslaborashonorable,respectful,,laboreducation’sfunctionis,withoutdoubt,’personalities,encouragingthedesireandwillpowertodohardwork,overcomedifficulties,andbravelystruggle,,laboriswhatmakesushuman,becauseitformsandperfectsourphysicalbodies,anditopensourmindstothesignificanceofcooperation,sharing,,teachingstude’spersonalityandspiritareformedintheprocessof“gettingthingsdone,”becausetheloveforwork,theabilitytoreachgoals,,comprehen“combiningeducationwithproductivelabor”hasbeenafundamentalprincipleofChina’,theconnotationsof“combiningeducationwithproductivelabor”on,tivelaboristhatonlywheneducationiscombinedwithproductivelaborcanworkers,especiallychildren,intheageofmechanizedlarge-scaleproduction,changetheirjobsandbecomecompetentindifferenttypesofwork,,onlythroughthecombinationofeducationandproductivelabor,canweunleashthepr,thisdoesnotmeanthateducationshouldn’,suchasdailyhousework,servicelabor,andcreativelabor,whichareofgre,wesh,productivelabor,servicelabor,anddailyhouseworkweremostlyphysicallabor,butwithsociety’sdevelopmentandtheadvancementofinformationtechnology,alltypesoflaborinvolvemultipleelementsfromscienceandtechnology,someofwhicharehigh,,thecombinationofphysicala,theapplicationofscienceandtechnologyinproductionlaborhasbecomemorecommon,solaborhasbecomemorecomplexandtechnologymoreintensive.“Labortechnologyeducation”or“work-technicaleducation”,itmustbepointedoutthatlabor,apassionforlabor,andprovidesnecessaryskills,itshouldalsohelpdevelopstudents’on,tempertheirwills,andimprovetheirabilitiestopursuetruthandcreativity,heiraestheticabilities,thusenabl,moral,intellectual,athletic,guaranteestheimplementationoflaboreducation,butalsoguaranteesintegratededucationinfivedomains,namelymorality,intellect,athletics,aesthetics,,courses,inrealitytheclasstimeislimited,,fewschoolsdelveintoitan,wearguethatthroughfixedpracticalactivitytimeandaseriesofthematicpractices,labo,practicalactivitiesarenotacourse,’scompulsory,,theimplementationoflaboreducationinschoolswillinevitablyfacelimitationsintermsoftheavailabletechnology,equipment,environment,,schoolsneedtorelyonexternalresourcesandencouragest,theultimategoalofthecombinationof,ontheonehand,labormustbeconduc,ontheotherhand,mustpromotethespiritoffreedomandliberationandstrhouNormalUniversityandShuQingisfromtheZhejiangEducationPublishingHouse.

Sincetheconceptofcomputationaljournalismwasputforwardatthebeginningofthiscentury,itstheoryandmeaninghave,itcoversarangeofinformationtechnologiesappliedtojournalism,fromchatbotsandrecommendationsystemstoartificialintelligence(AI),production,,algorithms,andsoftware—collectivelyreferredtoasmachines—,,rssuchasindividualcognitivedifferences,thenewsproductionprocess,organizationalcharacteristics,andexternalsocialinstitutionalactorssuchasadvertisersandgovernments,,,however,,originatorofthegatekeepingtheory,pointedout,we’,somescholarscontendthatthegatekeepingtheoryisoutdated,somescholarsdefineusersas“secondarygatekeepers,”whileothersbelievethattheroleofjournalismischangingfrom“constructersofsocialreality”to“managersofasecondaryreleaseofonlinecontent,”thus,theirrolehasshiftedfromgatekeepersto“gatewatchers.”Contemporarygatekeepingtheoryseeshumanroles,suchasjournalists,professionalopinionleaders,andonlineinfluencers,aswellastechnologicalrolessuchasalgorithms,andtheirinteractions,,somejournalismandcommunicationscholarshavenoticedthatthealgorithms,aggregators,scoringsystems,andregulatoryplatformsbuiltintosearchengineshavebeenplayingtheroleofgatekeepers,,,digitalgatekeepershavepenetratedeverylinkofnewsgathering,production,,ComputationalNewsDiscovery(CND)isaparticularapplicationarearelatedtotheuseofalgorithmstoorienteditorialattent,pickupsuddenhotspotsorregularactivities,identifyandtrackthem,andtifyitemsthpatternsfromthehistoricaldataofreporting,andthenexpuatethevalueofreporting,todecidewhetherornottocarryoutfurtherinvestigationandfollow-upreports,,CNDworkswithjournalists,ingchannels,potentiallyaggravatingjournalists’,CNDcansavetimebyaccuratelyfilteringoutcontentthatwouldotherwiseattractattention,whereasinotherscenarios,it’,journalistshavedifferentexpectationsoftheeffortputintodifferenttypesofnewsleads,s,theCNDsystemshouldpreliminarilyassesstheimportanceofpushcontentinordertoeffectivelydirectusers’,,themachine’,thehuman-centeredsocio-technicalgatekeepingprocessshouldenhancetheCNDsystem’sconfigurability,,theremightbeacontradiction,astheindustrialnatureofmodernmediawilldrivecapitaltocontinuouslyimprovet,thealgorithm-driventransformationofstructureddataintonewstext,,embedstheinformationincustomizedtemplates,,a,,andthatautomatedjournalismcannotbedivorcedfromspecificsocial,cultural,andpoliticalcontexts,,automatedjournalismentailsmachinesthatproducenews,“machineswritingforpeople,”wehaveseentheemergenceof“peoplewritingformachines”—racteristicsoftheaudience,cateringtodifferentreadingdevices,agegroups,mplexprocessofnewsproduction,allowingthemtofocusona,thetrade-offisthateditorshavetogiveupsomeoftheirgatek,,investigativejournalismstoriesareunique,soitisdifficulttoobtainAItrainingdata,andthetrainingmodelsarenotuniversal,,itdoesn’,AIcanassistinvestigativejournalistswithdatacleansingandcollation,,TheAtlanticreporterBillDedmantrawledthroughmountainsofhome-mortgagedatawiththehelpofcomputerstowri(ANR)adoptsthedistributionmethodofrecommendingpersonalizednews,whichinfluencesusers’sandpreferences,,machinesdominatetheANRgatekeepingprocess,whichleadstoaseriesofproblemssuchasinforma,inthecontextofANR,journalisticvaluesarechangingasjournalistnewsroomandbelievethattradit,whenaskedhowtodesignasuccessfulANR,respondentsfirstemphasizedthecorevaluesoftransparency,diversity,editorialautonomy,breadthofinformation,personalrelevance,andpleasuretouse,whiletheyfeltthattraditionalnewsvaluessuchasobjectivity,neutrality,,includingdatascientists,productmanagers,anduserexperienceengineers,,,audiences,media,socialplatforms,andthegovernmentshould,wewouldbeoverwhelmedbythefloodofinformationwithoutanalgorithm’,whatkindofnewsgatekeepersdowewantmachinestobeMachineshavenoinstincts,buttheyarebuiltuponcertaincultural,political,tivenessofhumangatekeeping,gatekeepingprocess,butalsoleadstoanexcessiverk,thecore,itisnecessarytounderstandthecultural,political,,weshouldclearlyviewthecommunicationmode’,asinnovationssuchasnewscsiaatXi’anJiaotongUniversity.

DenouveauxmotifsdebroderieontétéidentifiéslorsderecherchesrécentessurlestissusdesoiedécouvertssurlesitearchéologiquedeMawangdui,,etremarquablepourêtreladernièredemeureduncadavredunefemmeparfaitementconservé,adéclarélemuséeprovincialduHunan,occasionducinquantièmeanniversairedeladécouvertedestombesdeMawangduideladynastiedesHan,lemuséeprovincialduHunanafaituninventairesystématiquedesobjetsarchéologiques,èétéprécédemmentstockéscommeobjetsdedonnées."Descaractèreschinoisontétéidentifiéspourlapremièrefoissurdesfragmentsdesoieqiàmotifsenformedelosanges,témoignantdesgrandescompétencesenmatièredetissagedudébutdeladynastiedesHan",adéclaréYuYanjiao,unechercheusedumuséégalementétéidentifiésdurantcetinventaire,notammentceuxdephénixsurdestissusdesoie,oiseausymboledelongévité,alorsquécouverteaenrichilesconnaissancessurlesobjetsfuné,situédanslabanlieueestdeChangsha,capitaledelaprovinceduHunan,abritelimposanttombeaudumarquisdeDai,deladynastiedesHan,élattentioninternationalelorsquedeschercheursontdécouvertuncadavredefemmequineprésentaitaucunsignededécompositionlorsdesonexhumationdanslesannées1970.

>Les“DeuxSessions“delaChine,unefenêtrepourmieuxcomprendrelaChine2022-03-0716:49:00LesexpertsmondiauxontfaitpartleurintérêtenverslesprogrammesnationauxpourlannéedelaChinequisontdévoiléslorsdes"DeuxSessions"annuellestenuesàéunionsannuellesdelAssembléepopulairenationale(APN),lorganelégislatifsuprêmedupays,etduComiténationaldelaConférenceconsultativepolitiquedupeuplechinois(CCPPC),lorganeconsultatifpolitiquesuprê,auteuretcommentateurpolitiquebritannique,adéclaréqueles"DeuxSessions"sontunefenêtrepourobserverledéveloppementdelaChine,car"lesdécisionsquiémanentdecesréunionsreflèterontlesidéesetlescontributionsde(...)millionsdeChinoisordinaires".Deléconomieàladiplomatie,avecledéveloppementdelaChine,les"DeuxSessions"attirentdeplusenpluslélobjectifdecroissancedesonproduitintérieurbrut(PIB)àenviron5,5%pour2022,selonunrapportdactivitédugouvernementprésentésamediàlorganelégislatifnationalpourdélibéheureoùléconomiemondialeesttoujoursconfrontéeàunepressioncroissantedueàlapandémieetàdautresincertitudes,notammentlestensionsgéopolitiques,unobjectifdecroissancedenviron5,5%pourladeuxièmeplusgrandeéconomiedumondedevraitstimulerdemanièresignificativelarepriseéconomiquemondiale,avenir,larepriseestremplacéeparlemaintiendelastabilitéetdelaprogressiondudééeverslaveniretdéterminéeàmaintenirledéveloppementtoutenconservantunecroissanceraisonnable,aestiméStephenPerry,présidentdu48GroupClub,uneorganisationbritanniqueàbutnonlucratifquiviseaudéveloppementducommerceentrelaChineetleRoyaume-Uni."LapolitiquedéfinitivementstabledelaChineetlacroissanceéconomiquedemêmenousdonnentdesgarantiesquelaChinepeutjouerunrletrèspositifdansledéveloppementcontemporaindumonde",asaluéIvoJosipovi,ancienprééesdegrandeimportancepourlamodernisationdecepaysdAsiedelEst,lapromotiondundéveloppementdehautequalitéestmiseenavantcommelunedestachesmajeuresdanslerapportdactivité,directeurduCentreturcdétudesAsie-PacifiquebaséàAnkara,apréditqueleredressementrégulierdelaChinemalgrélapandémie,sondéveloppementdehautequalitéetsonactionenfaveurduneplusgrandeouverturedonnerontunélanplusfortàlareprisemondialedanslèêtedundéveloppementdequalité,laChineredoubledeffortsenmatièred,letotaldesinvestissementsenrecherchedé(environ442milliarddedollars),soitunehaussede14,2%englissementannuel,selonleministèinnovation,AnnaMalindog-Uy,professeuretchercheuseauseindugroupederéflexionPhilippines-BRICSStrategicStudies,baséàManille,aditàXinhuaquelapromotionparlaChineduneinnovationdehautequalité"estsansaucundouteunsuccèsphénoménal",quiaconduitàlatransitionrapidedelaChineversunenouvellephasededéveloppementéconomiquebaséesurlaàcesmesures,a-t-ellenoté,léconomiechinoiseestdevenuedavantageaxéesurlatechnologie,ajoutantquelesPhilippinesdevraientseninspirerpourexploiterleurpotentieléconomiqueetaméliorerlacompétitivité.KiyoyukiSeguchi,directeurderechercheauCanonInstituteforGlobalStudies(CIGS),asoulignéquelacapacitédinnovationseralaforcemotricedelamacroéconomiechinoiseàlécologique,quiestunélémentessentieldundéveloppementdequalité,laChineaannoncéquellesefforceraitdatteindrelepicdesémissionsdedioxydedecarbonedici2030etlaneutralitécarboned,ilsagitdunexemplecrucialpourlaluttecontreladéémergencedelapandémiedeCOVID-19,laChineetsespartenairesdanslemondeentiersesontmutuellementaidé,1milliardsdedosesdevaccinscontrelaCOVID-19àplusde120paysetorganisationsinternationales,aindiquéGuoWeimin,porte-paroledela5esessiondu13eComité,ministreégyptiendelEnseignementsupérieuretdelaRecherchescientifiqueetministredelaSantéparintérim,anotéquelaChineatoujoursrespectésonengagementàconstruireunecommunautédesantépourlhumanité.LaideapportéeparlaChineenmatièredevaccinsestlaplusimportanteaideétrangèrequelEgypteaitreuejusquàprésentpourluttercontrelapandémie,arappelé,ajoutantquelaChineaobtenudesrésultatsremarquablesdanssapropreluttecontrelapandé,laChineaprnéaussisonengagementàpromouvoirledéveloppementmondialparlouvertureetlacoopé,spécialistedesrelationsinternationalesbaséauKenya,asoulignéquelaChineétaitdevenueuneferventepartisanedumultilatéralismeetdelamondialisation,etquedenombreuxpayssattendaientàcequelleprennedenouvellesmesuresdouvertureetderéformelorsdesaréuniversitairegrecquePelagiaKarpathiotaki,lastabilitééconomiquedelaChineetsesinitiativesvisantàpromouvoirlacoopérationéconomiqueinternationaleapporterontunecontributionsignificativeencemomentdifficile,car"linfluencedelaChineestdésormaisextrêmementimportantepourreleverlesdéfismondiaux".Fin

TwosidesagreeonpromotingpracticalcooperationandcopingwithchallengesThehigh-leveldialoguebetweenChinaandtheEuropeanUniondemonstratedthetwosideswillingnesstostrengthenbilateralcooperationandfendoffexternalrisksagainstthebackdropofapossibleglobalrecession,increasingfinancialmarketvolatilityandgeopoliticaltensions,9thHigh-LevelEconomicandTradeDialogueonTuesdaytodiscusstopicssuchasthemacroeconomy,industrialandsupplychains,bilateraltradeandinvestment,,ldoftheeconomyandtrade,andtojointlycopewiththechallengesfacingtheglobaleconomy,esincludingindustrialandsupplychainsandfinancialservices,whilestablerelationsbetweenthetwowillhelppromotesteadygrowthforboth,contributetothestabilityoftheinternationalsituation,,aresearcherwiththeBankofChinaResearchInstitute,saidtheeconomiesofChinaandtheEUarehighlycomplementaryandthetwosid,greenenergy,thecarbonmarket,greenfinance,climatechange,tradeondigitalinformationandcommunicationtechnology,tradeindigitalproductsandthedigitalservicetrade."Againstthebackdropofsoaringinflationandtheincreasingriskofeconomicrecessionaroundtheglobe,EuropeneedstoimportChinesegoodstohelpensurestability,anditalsoneedstostrengthentradeandinvestmentcooperationinfieldssuchasindustriesandinfrastructuretogathernewgrowthmomentum,"Yesaid."Meanwhile,Europesadvancedtechnologies,talentsandmanagementexperiencewillhelpChinapromoteindustrialupgradingandgreentransformationoftheeconomy."Asstagflationpressuresanddebtriskscloudgrowthprospects,theattractivenessoftheeurozonetoglobalinvestorshasdimmed,withtheeurosinkingbelowparityagainsttheUSdollarforthefirsttimein20years,,YesaidChina-EUcooperationwillboostEuropeanmarketconfidenceandimprovemarketexpectationsforfuturerecoveryintheregion,clineinexports,thushelpingsupportChinassecond-largesttradingpartner,($401billion)inbilateraltradeduringthefirstsixmonthsofthisyear,,aresearcherattheInternationalMonetaryInstituteoftheRenminUniversityofChina,saidthegrowthinChina-EUtradehaslaidasspositivegrowthinthefirsthalfof2022despitepressuresandchallengesbothathomeandabroad,Chensaidthenationseconomyenjoysstrongresilienceandvitality,servinga,deanoftheHainanUniversityBeltandRoadResearchInstitute,saidChinaandEuropeshouldstrengthentheircooperationinthefinancialsector,anditisadvisableforthetwosidestoexpandthescaleofbilateralcurrencyswapsandsettlement,,PresidentXiJinpingsaidduringameetingviavideolinkthatChinawillstaycommittedtodeepeningreformandfurtheropeningup,anditwelcomesEuropeanbusinessinvestmentandexpectstheEUtoprovideafair,transparentandnondiscriminato,globalexecutivevice-presidentofGermanysSiemensGroupandchairman,presidentandCEOofSiemensChina,saidthatdespitethechallengesposedbyCOVID-19,Chinaiscapableofmaintaininghigh-qualitygrowth,givenitscompleteindustrialchainsystem."Amidallofthechangesanduncertaintiesinglobalmarkets,Chinasdeterminationtocontinuouslyopenuphasremainedunchangedoverthepastfewyears,"hesaid,addingthatgreatermarketopennessbenefitssustainablesocioeconomicdevelopmentinChina,andalsohelpsrevitalizetheglobaleconomy.

TheConstructionCourseofLiteraryClassicofShijiTheConstructionCourseofLiteraryClassicofShiji,writtenbyZhangXinke,aprofessorfromtheSchoolofChineseLanguageandLiteratureatShaanxiNormalUniversity,revealsthedifferentcharacteristicsofliteraryacceptanceofShiji(RecordsoftheGrandHistorian)indifferenttimesagainstthebroadhistoricalandculturalbackgroundofmorethan2,000years,,’sself-prefaceintheending,theoriginalintentionofSimaQianandhisfathertowriteShijiwastofollowChunqiu(SpringandAutumnAnnals),which,afterbeinginterpretedbytheGongyangSchool,wasthemostimportantgovernanceclassicamongtheFiveClassicsrespectedbyEmperorWuoftheHanDynasty(206BCE–220).HowdidShijigofromacommentaryontheFiveClassicstoaliteraryclassicThedeclineofConfucianclassicsattheendoftheEasternHanDynasty(25–220),theestablishmentofliteratureasaconceptintheWei,Jin,Southern,andNorthernDynasties(220–589),andtheinteractionandseparationbetweenliteratureandhistoriography,aressintheHanDynasty,,whenConfucianclassicsdeclinedfromitspeak,thatliteratureandhistoriographybrokefro’sbiographicalstyle,Qilu(SevenRecords)bybibliographerRuanXiaoxuintheLiangperiod(502–557)setup“therecordofbiographies.”ThebibliographicsectionofSuishu(BookofSui)classifiedbooksintojing(classics),shi(history),zi(philosophy),andji(literature),andShijiwasincludedinthe“officialhistory”,Shij,ynasty(618–907).Forexample,HanYuandLiuZongyuan,mastersofancient-styleproseintheTangDynasty,greatlyadmiredSimaQian’’,,therearepoliticians,philosophers,historians,writers,scholars,eras,therearepoems,essays,scriptsforstory-telling,opera,fiction,academicworks,notes,letters,prefaces,postscripts,ureatGuangdongUniversityofForeignStudies.

,:PROVIDEDTOCSSTChina’saccessionintotheWTOhasfacilitatedeconomicglobalization,saidHolgerGrg,presidentoft:What’syourtakeonChina’saccessionintotheWTOandthismove’sinfluenceonChinaandthewiderworldGrg:China’saccessiontotheWTO,andtheincreaseintrade,investment,andlinksintoglobalvaluechainswhichfollowedit,haveundoubtedlycontributedmassivelytoChina’seconomicgrowth,,Chinesefirmshavebeenexposedtoincreasinginternationalcompetition,,,andperhapssometimesoverlooked,:HowcanChinaandGermanyboosteconomicandtradecooperation,especiallyinservicesGrg:TheperceptioninmanyEuropeancountriesisthatChinaisastrategiccompetitoronworldmarkets,ServicesTr:What’syourtakeontherelationshipbetweentradeinservicesandhigh-qualityeconomicdevelopmentGrg:Thedevelopmen,increaseduetofurtherliberalizationefforts,,–thinkofIT,businessconsulting,finance,architecture–soagrowthinthosesectorsneedshighlyskilledemployees,,comparedtomanyaspectsofmanufacturing,manyservicesare:HowcanChineseenterprisesgoabroadamidthechangesunseeninacenturyGrg:emoreandmoreChinesefirmstogoandinvestabroad,buthowtofurtherencourageChineseoutwardForeignDirectInvestment(FDI)ofhighqualitythpmentinhosteconomiesisespeciallyrelevantnowadayswhenmanycountriesintheworld,particularlyinWesterneconomies,focusonemphasizingeconomicself-sufficiencyandtechnologicalsovereigntythroughre-regionalization,re-nationalization,’outwardFDIprojectscanpositivelysupportthedevelopmentofhostcountries(through,forexample,fosteringspilloversorcooperationwithlocalpartners),theymayfacefarfewerdifficultiesincarryingouttheirprojects.

ShenJiaxuanPhoto:InstituteofLinguistics,CASSOnNovember15,2020,thebookNounsandVerbswrittenbytheChineselinguistShenJiaxuanwont,ShenputforwardatheorythatinChinesealltheverbsareverbalnouns,orthen,ShenhasthoroughlydemonstratedthetheorythatChineseverbsarepartofnounswithover60essaysandsixbooks,settingoffarevolutionarywaveinthefieldofChineselinguistics,andshakingthedeep-rootedtraditionofapplyingthe’’sharvestwasdeeplyrootedinthe“SpringofScience”jingin1978,GuoMoruo,thenthepresidentoftheChineseAcademyofSciences(CAS),deliveredaspeechunderthetitleof“SpringofScience,”whichpoeticallypronouncedthatthe“SpringofScience”[aneweraofrevitalizedscientificresearchinChina]rs,includingShenJiaxuan,’sreturnbanquetwhenheworkedasliaisonforChinesetelecommunicationsduringtheUSPresidentRichardNixon’,beingintrovertedbynature,“SpringofScience,”ShendecidedtoapplytotheInstituteofLinguisticsattheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences(CASS),andwasadmittedtothein,histeacherZhaoShikaigavehimalonglistofbooks,,’nmathematicallinguisticsclassesinotheruniversities,andattendpsychologyseminarsattheInstituteofPsychology,(1904–1998),founderofmodernChineselinguisticstudies,wasalsooneofShen’’sthesis,[linguistic]studyprogramsoverseaswerebetterthanathome,andgaveShenadvicethatseemedincredible,butwasofgreatsignificance:toextensivelycollectarticlesonoverseasstudiesoftheChineselanguage,whichwerepublishedinEnglish,andma,becausein1980,,,itwasajourneytoanunknownworld,,,Shenreadtheabstract,madenotes,’sthesisconsistsoftwoparts:asummaryofoverseasstudiesofChineselanguagesasapreface,,Shen’sEnglishindexwaspublished,’,andstillfeelsthatwritingsuchapaperwasgoodacademictraining,whichhelpedhimhaveacomprehensiveunderstan,’sclassics,introducingpragmatics,cognitivelinguistics,andtheoriesoflinguistictypology,grammaticalization,uistics,,withlessthan100pages,wasthecrystallizationofLyu’slife-longwork,,“Everytimethebook[AnalysisofChineseGrammar]becameworn,,Iwouldlearnsomethingnew.”ShenhasownedfourcopiesofAnalysisofChineseGrammar,eachwornwithuse,:“Aperson’slifeisfinite,,mated,”“Thinkoutofthebox”Lyuoncesaid:“Itiscrucialtothinkoutofthebox……Wemusttemporarilythrowasidetheconceptssuchas‘word,’‘verb,’‘adjective,’‘subject,’and‘object.’Theseconceptsmaybe‘pickedup’‘thrownaside’and‘pickedup’again,becausethemeaningandvaluegiventothesetermshavechanged,andwearenolongerhedgedinwithrulesandregulations.”Inthepastdecadeorso,Shen’sworkhasbeencenteredon“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain.”In2007,Shen’spapertitled“NounsandVerbsinChinese”waspublished,layingthefoundationforhistheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”HeholdstheviewthatinChinese,verbsareaspecialtypeofnounthatexpressanaction,anevent,orastate,becauseChineseverbs,likenouns,“NounsandVerbsinChinese,”Shenhaspublisheddozensofpapers,focusingonthemostimportanttwopairsofgrammaticalcategories—“nounsandverbs,”and“subjectandpredicate,”“thinkingoutofthebox,”“throwingaside,”and“pickingupagain”thatbroughtarevolutionarywavetoChineselinguistics,overthrowingtheframeworkoftheoldtheoreticalsystem,andbrewingthestartofthetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs.”,Shensaid:“Itwouldbeha,however,wecanfindsomethingdifferent.”However,mechanicallyadoptingthestructuralfoundationandtheoreticalsystemofIndo-EuropeanlanguagesforChineselanguagesandframingChineselanguageaccordingtothepatternofIndo-Europeanlanguages,“thinkingoutofthebox”andgettingridofthe“shacklesoftheIndo-Europeanpattern.”Thetheorythat“nounsinChinesecontainverbs”explodedthefoundationofthethen-currenttheoreticalframeworkofChinesegrammar,,Shenmadef’stheoryisnowbeingrecognizedbymoreandmoreofhispeers,’seyes,,whenheseespostersbytheroadside,withChineseaboveandEnglishbelow,hewillnoticethedifferentwaysthetwolanguagesareexpressed,,healwayscarriedasmallnotebookandre,heestablishedawordbookofChineseverbalslipsandwroteseveralimportantarticles,suchas“TypesofTongueSlips.”ShenonceborrowedtheWoxianCaotangeditionofRulinWaishi[TheScholars,aChinesenovelcompletedin1750;itsearliestextanteditionisthe1803WoxianCaotangedition]“SentencesWheretheSubjectisaVerbandthePredicateisaNoun,”anarticlehewro,Shendidn’tmissoutonthenovelBlossoms,:“WhenreadingBlossoms,Ihavethedelightoffollowingtherhythm.”Afterreadingthenovel,Shenwroteamonographonlinguistics—,WeiGangqiang,deputyeditor-in-chiefof21stCenturyPublishingGroup,commented:“Itisrareandsignificantforlinguiststopayattentiontoandinterpretthelanguageofcurrentliteraryworks……ShenJiaxuan’sinsightsarenotonlytheachievementsofhislinguisticresearch,butalsovaluablereferenceforotherpeopleintermsofliterarycreation,translation,criticism,andgeneralacademicwork.”Shenmentionedthemovie“ZeroDarkThirty”lybasedondata,,becauseasmallfragmentofdatai,heoftentellshisstudentsthatthekeytosearchingforlinguisticinstancesdoesn’tlieinhowmanyinstancesyouhavecollected,hcontrast,

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Le25eForuméconomiqueinternationaldeSaint-Pétersbourgsestouvertmercredidansladeuxièésentantsdeplusde90paysetrégionsprendrontpartàcetteéditionsouslethème"Nouvellesopportunitésdansunnouveaumonde",selonléconomiesmondialeetrusse,lanumérisationetlasécuritédelénièreduforumvendredi,leprésidentrusseVladimirPoutineévalueralasituationmondialeactuelleetdécriralorientationfuturedudéveloppementéconomiquedelaRussie,adéclarémercrediYouriOuchakov,,leforumestdevenuuneplate-formemondialedepremierplanquipermetàlacommunautédesaffairesdediscuterdesproblèmeséconomiquescritiquesauxquelssontconfrontéslaRussie,lesmarchésé

FILEPHOTO:CaiMeibiaoandAGeneralHistoryofChinaTheChinesehistorianCaiMeibiao(1928–2021),orAGeneralHistoryofChina,ce,aswellasamicrocosmofCai’,FanWenlan(1893–1969),aleadingChinesehistorianandthedirectoroftheinstitute,wasrevisingZhongguoTongshiJianbian,orAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition).,FanwasreceivedbyMaoZedonginYan’an,andwasappointedasthedirectoroftheOffic,MaoZedongcalledonthewholepartytolearnChinesehistoryandtounderstandChina’ofChina’,whichwasnamedAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition),,Fanbegantorewritethebookhehadn’,knownastheRevisedVersionofAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition),wasnotasimplerevisionofthepreviousthree-volumework,,eachpersonwhoassistedFanwasresponsibleforresearchingafieldinhistory,,fourvolumesofAGeneralHistoryofChina(RevisedandConciseEdition)weresuccessivelypublished,coveringChina’shistoryfromantiquitytotheSui(581–618),Tang(618–907),andFiveDynasties(907–960),Fansufferedfromheartdisease,,Fansaidthathecouldnolongerwritebyhimself,andhop,’sdeathbroughtthecompilationofthebooktoastandstill,dtotheunfinishedundertakingleftbehindbyFan.‘AGeneralHistoryofChina’ContinuingwiththecompilationofAGeneralHistoryofChina(RevisedandConciseEdition),,heplanne,thebookwasnolongerarevisedversionofAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition)asitscontentincreased,anditwasmorethana“conciseedition”ofChina’“AGeneralHistoryofChina”,theInstituteofModernHistorycouldnotcompletealltheworkoftheprojectalone,soCaiinvitedscholarsfromNankaiUniversity,FudanUniversity,,’tsimplyeditthesedraftsormaterials,,000characters,only30,(1925–2006),aprofessorattheUniversityofLondon,andoneoftheco-editorsofTheCambridgeHistoryofChina,oncetoldCaithattheyhadneverfinishedthefirstvolumeofTheCambridgeHistoryofChina,becausetheycouldn’tkeeppacewithChina’,theyhadtogiveupthepre-Qin(before221BCE)historyofthefirstvolumeandstartfromtheQin(221–207BCE)andHan(206BCE–220CE)alfindingsatalltimescertainlywouldleadtotheproblemof“failingtokeeppace.”Therefore,Caip,CaiinheritedFan’sideasandmethodsofwritingAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition).Meanwhile,hehadhisownunderstandingandmadeinnovationsduringtheprocess,whichcanbeseenfromthefollowingexample:Cai’sAGeneralHistoryofChinabeganwiththeSong(960–1279),Liao(907–1125),Jin(1115–1234),andYuan(1279–1368),,000yearsfromtheHantothefalloftheQingDynasty(1644–1911),theHanpeoplehadruledovernon-Hanethnicgroupsmanytimes,,therewereconflictsandwarsbetweentheHanandnon-Hanethnicgroups,,theseconflictsandwarsdidn’tcreatedistancesbutstr,thenon-Hanethnicgoups,andgainedn,inAGeneralHistoryofChina,CaiaddedachapterfortheWesternXia[alsoknownastheTangutEmpire,existingfrom1038to1227inpresent-daynorthwesternChina],whichwasnotfoundinpreviousgeneralhistorybooks,inthesectiononSong,Liao,Jin,“thevariousethnicgroupsundertheruleoftheYuanDynasty”k,,hecouldbefoundinhisofficeeveryday,,sixvolumesofAGeneralHistoryofChinaweresuccessivelycompleted,’,thetenthvolumeendedwiththereignoftheJiaqingEmperor(–1820)—fromthereignoftheDaoguangEmperor(–1850)tothatoftheXuantongEmperor[thefinalQingDynastyruler,whowasforcedtoabdicatein1912]—,Caiwasalreadyinhisseventies,’scallsliponhandforthelibraryoftheInstituteofModernHistory,andthedatewrittenonitisJanuary7,,twovolumesofmanuscriptswerefinallycompleted,,thesetwonewvolumeswerecombinedwiththefirsttenvolumesandwerepublishedtogether,’,(1019–1086),ahigh-rankingSongDynastyscholar-official,spentover20yearscompilingtheZizhiTongjian[ComprehensiveMirrorforAidinGovernment,apioneeringreferenceworkinChinesehistoriographycovering16dynastiesandspanningalmost1,400years].,Simasaidthathesufferedfromblurryvisionandtoothloss,,the12volumeswerepublishedasaboxset,,,Caisaid:“LookingbackatthetimewhenIparticipatedineditingthefirstvolumeofthisbookin1953,55yearshavepassedbeforeIknewit.”XiuXiaoboisaprofessorfromtheSchoolofHistoryatQingdaoUniversity.

TwosidesagreeonpromotingpracticalcooperationandcopingwithchallengesThehigh-leveldialoguebetweenChinaandtheEuropeanUniondemonstratedthetwosideswillingnesstostrengthenbilateralcooperationandfendoffexternalrisksagainstthebackdropofapossibleglobalrecession,increasingfinancialmarketvolatilityandgeopoliticaltensions,9thHigh-LevelEconomicandTradeDialogueonTuesdaytodiscusstopicssuchasthemacroeconomy,industrialandsupplychains,bilateraltradeandinvestment,,ldoftheeconomyandtrade,andtojointlycopewiththechallengesfacingtheglobaleconomy,esincludingindustrialandsupplychainsandfinancialservices,whilestablerelationsbetweenthetwowillhelppromotesteadygrowthforboth,contributetothestabilityoftheinternationalsituation,,aresearcherwiththeBankofChinaResearchInstitute,saidtheeconomiesofChinaandtheEUarehighlycomplementaryandthetwosid,greenenergy,thecarbonmarket,greenfinance,climatechange,tradeondigitalinformationandcommunicationtechnology,tradeindigitalproductsandthedigitalservicetrade."Againstthebackdropofsoaringinflationandtheincreasingriskofeconomicrecessionaroundtheglobe,EuropeneedstoimportChinesegoodstohelpensurestability,anditalsoneedstostrengthentradeandinvestmentcooperationinfieldssuchasindustriesandinfrastructuretogathernewgrowthmomentum,"Yesaid."Meanwhile,Europesadvancedtechnologies,talentsandmanagementexperiencewillhelpChinapromoteindustrialupgradingandgreentransformationoftheeconomy."Asstagflationpressuresanddebtriskscloudgrowthprospects,theattractivenessoftheeurozonetoglobalinvestorshasdimmed,withtheeurosinkingbelowparityagainsttheUSdollarforthefirsttimein20years,,YesaidChina-EUcooperationwillboostEuropeanmarketconfidenceandimprovemarketexpectationsforfuturerecoveryintheregion,clineinexports,thushelpingsupportChinassecond-largesttradingpartner,($401billion)inbilateraltradeduringthefirstsixmonthsofthisyear,,aresearcherattheInternationalMonetaryInstituteoftheRenminUniversityofChina,saidthegrowthinChina-EUtradehaslaidasspositivegrowthinthefirsthalfof2022despitepressuresandchallengesbothathomeandabroad,Chensaidthenationseconomyenjoysstrongresilienceandvitality,servinga,deanoftheHainanUniversityBeltandRoadResearchInstitute,saidChinaandEuropeshouldstrengthentheircooperationinthefinancialsector,anditisadvisableforthetwosidestoexpandthescaleofbilateralcurrencyswapsandsettlement,,PresidentXiJinpingsaidduringameetingviavideolinkthatChinawillstaycommittedtodeepeningreformandfurtheropeningup,anditwelcomesEuropeanbusinessinvestmentandexpectstheEUtoprovideafair,transparentandnondiscriminato,globalexecutivevice-presidentofGermanysSiemensGroupandchairman,presidentandCEOofSiemensChina,saidthatdespitethechallengesposedbyCOVID-19,Chinaiscapableofmaintaininghigh-qualitygrowth,givenitscompleteindustrialchainsystem."Amidallofthechangesanduncertaintiesinglobalmarkets,Chinasdeterminationtocontinuouslyopenuphasremainedunchangedoverthepastfewyears,"hesaid,addingthatgreatermarketopennessbenefitssustainablesocioeconomicdevelopmentinChina,andalsohelpsrevitalizetheglobaleconomy.

>LaChinepoursuivrasonrêvederenouveaunationalàl’occasiondelacélébrationducentenaireduPCC2021-07-2008:33:00ZhongZhe    Le1erjuillet,lePCCcélèbresoncentièmeanniversairesurlaplaceTiananmenàPé:XINHUA  Le1erjuillet,leParticommunistechinois(PCC)acélébrééclaréqu’unobjectifdedéveloppementimportantavaitatteintetaannoncéquelanationchinoiseavanceavecunélaninexorableverssonrenouveau.  LorsdecerassemblementgrandiosesurlemblématiqueplaceTiananmen,làoùMaoZedongproclamalanaissancedelaRépubliquepopulaire,XiJinping,secrétairegénéralduComitécentralduPCC,asaluélessuccèsdupartiaucoursdusièclepasséetaappelélensembledupartiàpoursuivreavecvolontéetopiniatretésontravailacharné,ainsiqu’àcontinuerlagrandeluttepourparveniraurenouveaunational.  ,égalementprésidentchinoisetprésidentdelaCommissionmilitairecentrale,adéclaréquelaChineavaitatteintl’objectifdupremiercentenaire,àsavoirconstruireàtousleségardsunesociétédeprospéritémodérée.  CelasignifiequenousavonssuapporterunerésolutionhistoriqueauproblèmedelapauvretéabsoluequisévissaitenChine,etquenousavanonsmaintenantàpasassurésverslobjectifdudeuxièmecentenaire,quiestdefairedelaChineungrandpayssocialistemoderneàtousleségards,adéclaré  100ansderéalisations   FangJun,rédacteurenchefdeléditiondesPériodiquesenSciencessocialesdeChine,adéclaréquelediscourssolenneldeXiJinpingtémoignemagnifiquementdelaluttecentenairequ’alivré’,documenthistoriquedumarxismeau21esiècle,appelleenfinàunemobilisationgénéralepourlegrandrenouveaudelanationchinoise.  LediscoursambitieuxdeXiJinpingadémontréaumondeentierletripleforceàl’uvrederrièrelesréalisationsPCCtoutaulongdusièclepassé,àsavoirlapérennitéduparti,sonpouvoirdunificationetsonpouvoirdorganisationetd’exécution,adéclaréZhangZhongjia,secrétairedugroupedirigeantduPartiàlAcadémiedesSciencessocialesduHubei.  LePCCatoujoursrespectéaveclaplusengagementorigineletlamissionduparticonsistentprécisémentàapporterlebonheuraupeuplechinoisetlerenouveauàlanationchinoise,arelevéQuanHeng,vice-présidentdelaFédérationdesassociationsdeSciencessocialesdeShanghai.  Pourcetteraison,lePartiasuguiderlepeupleverslessuccèsquelepaysaconnus,anotéèsavoiratteintunesériedobjectifs,telsqueléradicationdelapauvretéabsolueetlachèvementdelaconstructionintégraledunesociétédeprospéritémodérée,lePartipréservepar-dessustoutsaphilosophieaucurd’undéveloppementcentrésurlepeuple.  Lepeupleestlemotclé,secrétairedupartidelUniversitéd’agriculturedeNankin,asoulignéquelhistoirecentenaireduPartiaréponduprécisémentàlaquestionfondamentaledesavoirpourquinousconstruisonslePartietexeronslagouvernance.  Versl’objectifdudeuxièmecentenaire  Aujourdhui,lespaysageséconomiques,technologiques,culturels,sécuritairesetpolitiquessubissentàl’éédansunepériodedeturbulence,adéclaréZhongYing,chercheuseàlInstitutdétudessurlaChinecontemporainedelAcadémiedesSciencessocialesdeChine.  Pourunepériodeassezlonguedelavenir,nousdevonsavoirunecompréhensionclairedecescirconstancesextérieuresetrépondreactivementauxdiversrisquesetdéfisengendrésparleschangementsdeconfigurationinternationaleadéclaréMmeZhong.  Danslaperspectivedecettenouvelleétape,ilestessentielderésoudrelesproblèmesmajeursliésaudéveloppementdéséquilibréetlacunairedupays,etdepromouvoirundéveloppementdequalité.Ilseraitdifficiledyparvenirsilnétaitguidéquepardesfacteurstelsqueletravail,lecapital,laterreetlesressourcesnaturelles,aindiquééformesinstitutionnellesstructurellesetlinnovationtechnologiquesontnécessairespourréaliserlatransformationdundéveloppementaxésurlesfacteursdeproductionversundéveloppementaxésurlefficacitéetlinnovation,afindaméliorervéritablementlefficacitéetstimulerlinnovation.  Ilestparticulièrementimportantdepromouvoirlautonomietechnologique,denousconcentrersurlaméliorationduniveaudemodernisationdelachaneindustrielledenotrepaysetdemaintenirsastabilité,ainsistéMmeZhong.  Pouraccélérerlaconstructiondunpaysinnovant,LinZhongqin,présidentdelUniversitéJiao-tongdeShanghai,asuggéréquelesuniversitésassumentleurrledematricesscientifiquesettechnologiquesstratégiquesnationalesetréèredapprofondissementdelarecherchefondamentaleetdintégrationinterdisciplinaire,etréaliserdespercéesmajeuresenmatièredinnovationtoutenmatrisantdenombreusestechnologiescléspourcontribueràsurmonterlesobstaclesquilimitentledéveloppementnational.  Ilestégalementimportantdetransféreretappliquerplusefficacementlesréalisationsscientifiquesettechnologiquesdesuniversité,éréderenforcerlaformationindépendantedestalentsdehautniveau.  Danscettenouvelleétapequinousattend,nousdevonsporterhautlabannièredelapaix,dudéveloppement,delacoopérationetdesavantagesmutuels,etadhéreràlavoied’undéveloppementpacifique,adéclaréFanLiming,présidentedelUniversitéduShandong.  MmeFanaégalementsuggérédepromouvoirlaconstructiondunecommunautédavenirpartagépourlhumanité,etledéveloppementqualitatifdelaCeintureetlaRoute,afind’offrirdenouvellesopportunitésaumondeparledéveloppementdelaChine.

FILEPHOTO:CaiMeibiaoandAGeneralHistoryofChinaTheChinesehistorianCaiMeibiao(1928–2021),orAGeneralHistoryofChina,ce,aswellasamicrocosmofCai’,FanWenlan(1893–1969),aleadingChinesehistorianandthedirectoroftheinstitute,wasrevisingZhongguoTongshiJianbian,orAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition).,FanwasreceivedbyMaoZedonginYan’an,andwasappointedasthedirectoroftheOffic,MaoZedongcalledonthewholepartytolearnChinesehistoryandtounderstandChina’ofChina’,whichwasnamedAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition),,Fanbegantorewritethebookhehadn’,knownastheRevisedVersionofAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition),wasnotasimplerevisionofthepreviousthree-volumework,,eachpersonwhoassistedFanwasresponsibleforresearchingafieldinhistory,,fourvolumesofAGeneralHistoryofChina(RevisedandConciseEdition)weresuccessivelypublished,coveringChina’shistoryfromantiquitytotheSui(581–618),Tang(618–907),andFiveDynasties(907–960),Fansufferedfromheartdisease,,Fansaidthathecouldnolongerwritebyhimself,andhop,’sdeathbroughtthecompilationofthebooktoastandstill,dtotheunfinishedundertakingleftbehindbyFan.‘AGeneralHistoryofChina’ContinuingwiththecompilationofAGeneralHistoryofChina(RevisedandConciseEdition),,heplanne,thebookwasnolongerarevisedversionofAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition)asitscontentincreased,anditwasmorethana“conciseedition”ofChina’“AGeneralHistoryofChina”,theInstituteofModernHistorycouldnotcompletealltheworkoftheprojectalone,soCaiinvitedscholarsfromNankaiUniversity,FudanUniversity,,’tsimplyeditthesedraftsormaterials,,000characters,only30,(1925–2006),aprofessorattheUniversityofLondon,andoneoftheco-editorsofTheCambridgeHistoryofChina,oncetoldCaithattheyhadneverfinishedthefirstvolumeofTheCambridgeHistoryofChina,becausetheycouldn’tkeeppacewithChina’,theyhadtogiveupthepre-Qin(before221BCE)historyofthefirstvolumeandstartfromtheQin(221–207BCE)andHan(206BCE–220CE)alfindingsatalltimescertainlywouldleadtotheproblemof“failingtokeeppace.”Therefore,Caip,CaiinheritedFan’sideasandmethodsofwritingAGeneralHistoryofChina(ConciseEdition).Meanwhile,hehadhisownunderstandingandmadeinnovationsduringtheprocess,whichcanbeseenfromthefollowingexample:Cai’sAGeneralHistoryofChinabeganwiththeSong(960–1279),Liao(907–1125),Jin(1115–1234),andYuan(1279–1368),,000yearsfromtheHantothefalloftheQingDynasty(1644–1911),theHanpeoplehadruledovernon-Hanethnicgroupsmanytimes,,therewereconflictsandwarsbetweentheHanandnon-Hanethnicgroups,,theseconflictsandwarsdidn’tcreatedistancesbutstr,thenon-Hanethnicgoups,andgainedn,inAGeneralHistoryofChina,CaiaddedachapterfortheWesternXia[alsoknownastheTangutEmpire,existingfrom1038to1227inpresent-daynorthwesternChina],whichwasnotfoundinpreviousgeneralhistorybooks,inthesectiononSong,Liao,Jin,“thevariousethnicgroupsundertheruleoftheYuanDynasty”k,,hecouldbefoundinhisofficeeveryday,,sixvolumesofAGeneralHistoryofChinaweresuccessivelycompleted,’,thetenthvolumeendedwiththereignoftheJiaqingEmperor(–1820)—fromthereignoftheDaoguangEmperor(–1850)tothatoftheXuantongEmperor[thefinalQingDynastyruler,whowasforcedtoabdicatein1912]—,Caiwasalreadyinhisseventies,’scallsliponhandforthelibraryoftheInstituteofModernHistory,andthedatewrittenonitisJanuary7,,twovolumesofmanuscriptswerefinallycompleted,,thesetwonewvolumeswerecombinedwiththefirsttenvolumesandwerepublishedtogether,’,(1019–1086),ahigh-rankingSongDynastyscholar-official,spentover20yearscompilingtheZizhiTongjian[ComprehensiveMirrorforAidinGovernment,apioneeringreferenceworkinChinesehistoriographycovering16dynastiesandspanningalmost1,400years].,Simasaidthathesufferedfromblurryvisionandtoothloss,,the12volumeswerepublishedasaboxset,,,Caisaid:“LookingbackatthetimewhenIparticipatedineditingthefirstvolumeofthisbookin1953,55yearshavepassedbeforeIknewit.”XiuXiaoboisaprofessorfromtheSchoolofHistoryatQingdaoUniversity.

Linguistictypologyisadisciplineinwhichlinguiststrytoclassifyallthelanguagesinthew,internalconnectionsandtypesofgrammaticalphenomena,,linguistictypologyhasreachedanimportantjunctureafterdecadesofdevelopment,saidWuFuxiang,directoroftheResearchCent,tlanguagesimilarity,especiallyfocusingonthegeographicaldistributionpatternsanddiachronicca,formerdirectoroftheInstituteofLinguisticsattheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences,believesthatinrecentyears,theinternationallinguisticcirclehasreflectedonandtheoreticallyrefinedlinguistictypologyconcepts,suchaslinguisticuniversalsandlanguagedifferences,andputforwardsuchtheoriesastheconcep,,inrecentyears,semanticmapping,adescriptiontoolemerginginthestudyoflinguistictypology,isattemptingtousebigdataandothermethodstomoreaccuratelyandclearlyshowthedifferencesinfunctionsandformsinvolvedincross-linguisticresearch,,thebiggestsuccessf’sview,fromapprovingnational-levelresearchprojectstoyieldingoutcomes,thecross-linguisticperspectiveoftypology,,suchasthefoundingoflingui,thedisciplinehasmadeachievementsinthefoundationalconstructionoftypology,suchasbookseriesonthereferencegrammarofethniclanguagesandChinesedialects,bookseriesonthegrammartextannotationofethniclanguages,,thecurrentresearchobjectsoflinguistictypologytendtoberegionalized,primarilyfollowingthefinemulti-dimensionalpara,withtheriseandrapiddevelopmentofregionaltypology,scholarshavepaidcloseattentiontothecommonalityandindividualityoflan,aprofessorfromtheInstituteofLinguisticsatShanghaiInternationalStudiesUniversity,saidthatmanypaperspublishedrecentlyinLinguisticTypology,atopinternationaljournaloftypology,,someofthemhaveexaminedquantifiersintheThailanguageandotherSoutheastAsianlanguages,thelexicalizationofmotioneventsoftheWenzhoudialect,edasafirst-leveldiscipline,whichseriouslyrestrictstheove,,withlittleattentiontoandle,butalsoaffectstheinternationalexpressionofChina’,thebiggestproblemoflinguistictypologyinChinaisthatsomeresearchoutcomesaremerelylabeledas“linguistictypology,”n,’sview,somescholctypology,ignoringthatlinguistictypologyisauniqueresearchframework,whichhasasdefinitionsforsomeinstrumentalterms,,repeatability,andverifiability,,itisapitythatplentyofliteratureonlyusesconceptualdefinitionsinsteadofoperationaldefinitions,nerallinguistics,,theyshouldbeconcernedwiththeessenceandcharacteristicsofhumanlangugroundofhumanlinguisticuniversalsandtypologicaldifferenceswhenworkingonaparticularlanguage,producingmoreresultsandenhancingChina’,itisnecessarytoconsolidatethefoundationbuildingoflinguistictypology,buildinglarge-scalecross-languageandcross-dialectcomparablecorpora,andconductingbasicresearchsuchasreferencegrammarandtextannotation.

JiangXiaojuanPhoto:,aprofessorattheUniversityoftheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences(CASS),saidinaninterviewwithCSSTthatChina’:Inyouropinion,whatistherelationshipbetweenthedevelopmentoftheoriesonopeningupandopeningupinpracticeJiangXiaojuan:Classicaltheoriesexplaining“openingup”totheoutsideworldincludethetheoryofabsoluteadvantage,,theproductioncapacityandeconomicconditionsofvariouscountriesweredifferentiated,andtheeco,,,scholarsfocusedontheimportanceofinternationaltrade,exploringtheimportanceofinternationaldivisionoflaborandfreetrade,,th“intra-industrytrade”amongdevelopedcountriesconstitutedamajorpartofinternationaltrade,andtraditionaltradetheoriesbasedoncomparativ,agroupofeconomistsdevelopedanewtheoryofinternationaltradebasedontradepractices,,,thefocusofattention,andresearchcontentof:WhatarethedistinctivefeaturesofChina’sopeningupJiangXiaojuan:TheuniquenessofChina’sopening-uppathraisesanimportantquestion,thatis,areweso“distinctive”thattheexistingtheoriescannotexplainiteffectivelyandanewtheoreticalframeworkneedstobeconstructedtoanalyzeitMyunderstandingisthatChina’sopeningup,intermsofstartingpointsandsteps,andvariouscross-sectionsofthedevelopmentprocess,doess,intermsoflong-termtrendsandessentialfeatures,,Chinashowsthesameconv’snationalc,China’sfactorofproductionstructureisimbalanced,andthereisanurgentneedtoadjustthroughthedthroughcompetition,whichisdirectlyrelatedtothehugesizeofourmarket,:Lookingahead,howdoyouthinkwecanpromoteopeninguptotheoutsideworldfromahigherstartingpointJiangXiaojuan:Shiftingfrompolicy-drivenopeninguptoinstitutionalo,Chinabasicallyhastheconditionsandenvironmentforinstitutionalopeningup,andinthefuture,weshouldkeepiandregulations,adheretotheprincipleofequalstatusofalltypesofeconomicentitiesandequalprotectionofalltypesofpropertyrights,,equalemphasisshouldbegiventoexportsandimports,totheabsorptionofforeigncapitalandforeigninvestment,andtoforeign-fundedenterprises,,2020,ChinesePresidentXiJinpingannouncedatthe27thAsia-PacificEconomicCooperation(APEC)EconomicLeaders’MeetingthatChinawouldfavorablyconsiderjoiningtheComprehensiveandProgressiveAgreementforTrans-PacificPartnership(CPTPP),,iftheyallcomeintoforce,willcovermorethan55%ofinternationaltradeandinternationalinvestment,,wehavejoinedtheRegionalComprehensiveEconomicPartnership(RCEP)andappliedtojointheDigitalEconomyPartnershipAgreement(DEPA).Thiswillcertainlypushforwardthedomesticconstructionoftheinstitutionalsystem,andtheopensystemthatconnectswithit,facilitatingdomesticreformandenergi,itwillalsocontributeChina’swisdomtotheformationanddevelopmentoftheglobalizationgovernancesysteminthefuture.

Sincethe20thcentury,thedevelopmentpatternsandoperatingmechanismsofhumansocietyhavecontinuouslyalteredinlightofthein-depthadvancementofeconomicglobalization,informatization,,thepossibilitythatasingledis,butaimedataddressingcomplexsystemicproblems,saidZhangWei,deputydirectoroftheInstituteofChina’sScience,search,suchemergingfieldsasmannedspaceflight,deep-seaexploration,cleanenergy,artificialintelligence,andquantuminformationallfallintothesphereofmultidisciplinaryresearch,,adistinguishedprofessorwithNanjingXiaozhuangUniversity,thehistoryofscientificdevelopmentshowsthatmajorscientificbreakthroughs,newgrowthpoints,andeventheemergenceofnewdisciplinesarefrequentlyrealiz,thetheoryofsuperconductivityortheBCStheorywasjointlydevelopedbyJohnBardeen,whowasproficientinsolid-statephysics,andLeonCooperandJohnSchrieffer,,aprofessorfromtheSchoolofSocialandBehavioralSciencesatNanjingUniversity,notedthethreevaluesofcross-disciplinarystudies—expandingtheacademicdomain,updatingresearchparadigms,,whetheritisthe“internalcrossover”ofsocialsciencesandhumanities,orthe“externalcrossover”withnaturalsciences,theresearchvisionandmentalityoftheoriginaldisciplinecangetinspiredandactivatedbythedisciplinesitintersectswith,,theresearchparadigmsoftheoriginaldisciplinescanrealizesystematicexpans,thefusionofrespectivedisciplinaryadvantagesandeventheuseofnaturalscienceresearchmethodsandmindsetcanservethecountry’,aprofessorfromtheSchoolofHumanitiesandSocialSciencesattheUniversityofScienceandTechnologyofChina,saidthatthetransitionfromthe“single-disciplinaryparadigm”tothe“interdisciplinaryparadigm”isarevolutioninthefieldsofscientificresearch,education,softransdisciplinarystudies,thecultivationofspecializedversatiletalent,an,deputydeanoftheSchoolofInformationManagementatWuhanUniversity,well-performedinterdisciplinaryresearchisusuallyteamwork-basedandintricateproblem-,oneneedstofirstbecomeanexpertinacertaintraditionaldiscipline,,drivenbyproblems,sciplinesandcarryingoutcollaborativeresearch,therebystimulatingtheexpancts,theproblemsweencounterinpromotinghigh-qualityeconomicandsocialdevelopmentareoftenmajorcomplicatedsystematicproblems,whichcallfor,goal-oriented,andproblem-oriented,mak,effortsarenecessarytodeepencollaborationamongenterprises,universities,andresearchinstitutesandsmooththecompleteinnovationchainrunningfrombasicresearchtoappliedresearch,promotingtheintegrateddevelopmentoftheinnovationchain,talentchain,,plannedbytheMinistryofEducationduringthe14thFive-YearPlanperiod(2021–25),ialneedsandmajorpracticalneeds,tingnationwideeffortandresourcesonkeynationalsci-techundertakings,inordertoservemajornationalstrategiessuchas“intensifyingnationalstrategicstrengthinscienceandtechnology,”“peakingcarbonemissionsandachievingcarbonneutrality,”“healthyChina,”and“ruralvitalization.”Universitiesunderthe“doublefirst-class”initiativeshouldbebasestobuildabatchofinstitutionsforscientificresearchthatarecross-regional,cross-department,cross-industry,cross-university,umandnewspacefortherenaissanceofChineseculturethatisinherentlyinterdisciplinary,usheringinaneraofintegratingChineseandWesterncultures,“ontology”todeepencomprehensivecross-disciplinaryresearchwithmodernphilosophyofscience,aesthetics,ethics,logic,brainscience,psychology,withChina’snationalconditionsandwiththecharacteristicsofChineseacademicdevelopment.

,,ionsystem,,well-roundedstudentdevelopmentshoul,itisnecessarytopointoutthateachtypeoflaborhasitsownsignificanceandvalue,,inpractice,the,itwasnarrowlyunderstoodas“productivelaboreducation”andnowitissometimesknownas“physicallaboreducation”or“work-technicaleducation.”Therefore,inordertocarryoutcomprehensivelaboreducation,udentstomasterspe,,laboreducationshouldnots,,manyschoolsattachgreatimportancetolaborandactivelyenrichstudents’experienceinvarioustypesofworkthroughworkshops,campusfarms,,ifweonlyaimforstudentstogetatasteofcertaintypesofwork,notthecompleteexperienceofharvestingandcollectingproducts,theywillnottakeitseriouslyandtrulyvaluethejoyofwork,no,bothproc,laboreducation’sto-dolist,launchedbytheTeachingandResearchOfficeoftheEducationDepartmentofZhejiangProvince,mpleteineachgrade,’laborliteracy,’respectforlabor,resultingintheformationofalaborconsciousnessthatviewslaborashonorable,respectful,,laboreducation’sfunctionis,withoutdoubt,’personalities,encouragingthedesireandwillpowertodohardwork,overcomedifficulties,andbravelystruggle,,laboriswhatmakesushuman,becauseitformsandperfectsourphysicalbodies,anditopensourmindstothesignificanceofcooperation,sharing,,teachingstude’spersonalityandspiritareformedintheprocessof“gettingthingsdone,”becausetheloveforwork,theabilitytoreachgoals,,comprehen“combiningeducationwithproductivelabor”hasbeenafundamentalprincipleofChina’,theconnotationsof“combiningeducationwithproductivelabor”on,tivelaboristhatonlywheneducationiscombinedwithproductivelaborcanworkers,especiallychildren,intheageofmechanizedlarge-scaleproduction,changetheirjobsandbecomecompetentindifferenttypesofwork,,onlythroughthecombinationofeducationandproductivelabor,canweunleashthepr,thisdoesnotmeanthateducationshouldn’,suchasdailyhousework,servicelabor,andcreativelabor,whichareofgre,wesh,productivelabor,servicelabor,anddailyhouseworkweremostlyphysicallabor,butwithsociety’sdevelopmentandtheadvancementofinformationtechnology,alltypesoflaborinvolvemultipleelementsfromscienceandtechnology,someofwhicharehigh,,thecombinationofphysicala,theapplicationofscienceandtechnologyinproductionlaborhasbecomemorecommon,solaborhasbecomemorecomplexandtechnologymoreintensive.“Labortechnologyeducation”or“work-technicaleducation”,itmustbepointedoutthatlabor,apassionforlabor,andprovidesnecessaryskills,itshouldalsohelpdevelopstudents’on,tempertheirwills,andimprovetheirabilitiestopursuetruthandcreativity,heiraestheticabilities,thusenabl,moral,intellectual,athletic,guaranteestheimplementationoflaboreducation,butalsoguaranteesintegratededucationinfivedomains,namelymorality,intellect,athletics,aesthetics,,courses,inrealitytheclasstimeislimited,,fewschoolsdelveintoitan,wearguethatthroughfixedpracticalactivitytimeandaseriesofthematicpractices,labo,practicalactivitiesarenotacourse,’scompulsory,,theimplementationoflaboreducationinschoolswillinevitablyfacelimitationsintermsoftheavailabletechnology,equipment,environment,,schoolsneedtorelyonexternalresourcesandencouragest,theultimategoalofthecombinationof,ontheonehand,labormustbeconduc,ontheotherhand,mustpromotethespiritoffreedomandliberationandstrhouNormalUniversityandShuQingisfromtheZhejiangEducationPublishingHouse.

,,ionsystem,,well-roundedstudentdevelopmentshoul,itisnecessarytopointoutthateachtypeoflaborhasitsownsignificanceandvalue,,inpractice,the,itwasnarrowlyunderstoodas“productivelaboreducation”andnowitissometimesknownas“physicallaboreducation”or“work-technicaleducation.”Therefore,inordertocarryoutcomprehensivelaboreducation,udentstomasterspe,,laboreducationshouldnots,,manyschoolsattachgreatimportancetolaborandactivelyenrichstudents’experienceinvarioustypesofworkthroughworkshops,campusfarms,,ifweonlyaimforstudentstogetatasteofcertaintypesofwork,notthecompleteexperienceofharvestingandcollectingproducts,theywillnottakeitseriouslyandtrulyvaluethejoyofwork,no,bothproc,laboreducation’sto-dolist,launchedbytheTeachingandResearchOfficeoftheEducationDepartmentofZhejiangProvince,mpleteineachgrade,’laborliteracy,’respectforlabor,resultingintheformationofalaborconsciousnessthatviewslaborashonorable,respectful,,laboreducation’sfunctionis,withoutdoubt,’personalities,encouragingthedesireandwillpowertodohardwork,overcomedifficulties,andbravelystruggle,,laboriswhatmakesushuman,becauseitformsandperfectsourphysicalbodies,anditopensourmindstothesignificanceofcooperation,sharing,,teachingstude’spersonalityandspiritareformedintheprocessof“gettingthingsdone,”becausetheloveforwork,theabilitytoreachgoals,,comprehen“combiningeducationwithproductivelabor”hasbeenafundamentalprincipleofChina’,theconnotationsof“combiningeducationwithproductivelabor”on,tivelaboristhatonlywheneducationiscombinedwithproductivelaborcanworkers,especiallychildren,intheageofmechanizedlarge-scaleproduction,changetheirjobsandbecomecompetentindifferenttypesofwork,,onlythroughthecombinationofeducationandproductivelabor,canweunleashthepr,thisdoesnotmeanthateducationshouldn’,suchasdailyhousework,servicelabor,andcreativelabor,whichareofgre,wesh,productivelabor,servicelabor,anddailyhouseworkweremostlyphysicallabor,butwithsociety’sdevelopmentandtheadvancementofinformationtechnology,alltypesoflaborinvolvemultipleelementsfromscienceandtechnology,someofwhicharehigh,,thecombinationofphysicala,theapplicationofscienceandtechnologyinproductionlaborhasbecomemorecommon,solaborhasbecomemorecomplexandtechnologymoreintensive.“Labortechnologyeducation”or“work-technicaleducation”,itmustbepointedoutthatlabor,apassionforlabor,andprovidesnecessaryskills,itshouldalsohelpdevelopstudents’on,tempertheirwills,andimprovetheirabilitiestopursuetruthandcreativity,heiraestheticabilities,thusenabl,moral,intellectual,athletic,guaranteestheimplementationoflaboreducation,butalsoguaranteesintegratededucationinfivedomains,namelymorality,intellect,athletics,aesthetics,,courses,inrealitytheclasstimeislimited,,fewschoolsdelveintoitan,wearguethatthroughfixedpracticalactivitytimeandaseriesofthematicpractices,labo,practicalactivitiesarenotacourse,’scompulsory,,theimplementationoflaboreducationinschoolswillinevitablyfacelimitationsintermsoftheavailabletechnology,equipment,environment,,schoolsneedtorelyonexternalresourcesandencouragest,theultimategoalofthecombinationof,ontheonehand,labormustbeconduc,ontheotherhand,mustpromotethespiritoffreedomandliberationandstrhouNormalUniversityandShuQingisfromtheZhejiangEducationPublishingHouse.

招标热点

>LaChinesefixeunobjectifdecroissancepour2022auxalentoursde5,5%2022-04-1115:08:00LaChines’estfixéunobjectifdecroissanceéconomiqueauxalentoursde5,5%pour2022,alorsqueleslégislateursetlesconseillerspolitiquesdupayssesontréunisàPékinpourdéfinirlesprioritésdedéveloppementnationalpourcetteannéérieurbrutviséapparatcommelundesprincipauxobjectifsinscritsdansletrèsattendurapportdactivitédugouvernement,présentéparlePremierministreLiKeqiangàlassembléelégislative,dontlasessionannuelleadébutééalisablesHongXianghua,professeuràlécoleduComitécentralduPCC,adéclaréquelerevenudisponibleparhabitantenChineaaugmentéde8,1%en2021parrapportàl’annéeprécédente,etque12,69millionsdenouveauxemploisontétécréésdansleszonesurbainespourcetteanné,denouvellesréductionsdimptsetdetaxespourunmontantsupérieuràplusdemillemilliardsdeyuansontétéintroduites,etplusde85%desChinoisontsuiviunschémadevaccinationcompletcontreleCOVID-19."AtteindreunecroissanceduPIBdenviron5,5%cetteannéeestunobjectifréaliste",adéclaréàlaCSSTZhangYuyan,économisteàlAcadémiedesSciencessocialesdeChine(ASSC)etconseillerpolitiquenational,ajoutantquecetobjectifcorrespondnonseulementauxévolutionsdecroissancepotentielleàlongtermedupays,maistientégalementcomptedesrisques,desdéfis,desforcesetdesavantagesquicaractérisentléagitdunobjectifformuléentenantcomptedelapopulationactuelleenChine,desoncapitalhumain,delamargedemanuvreetdelavitessedesprogrèstechnologiques,ainsiquedescontraintesenmatièrederessourcesetdée,leFondsmonétaireinternationalaprévuqueléconomiemondialeconnatraitunecroissancede4,4%en2022,autrementditunecroissancemoyenneàélevée,aobservéêmesicertainsfacteursd’incertitudepersistentetpeuventjouerunrlenégatifsurléconomiemondiale,commelarésurgencedelapandémieetladétériorationdelasituationgéopolitiqueinternationale,lareprisedeléconomiemondialefourniradansl’ensembleuneconfigurationfavorablepourquelaChineatteignecetauxdecroissancede5,5%.LesdéfisPouryparvenir,deseffortsserontnécessaires,adéclaréHeQiang,professeuràlUniversitécentraledesfinancesetdelééconomiechinoiseseredresseprogressivement,affichantuneconjoncturemacroéconomiquesainemêmesidesdifficultésmicroéécelerunereprisestructurelledenotreéestquelorsquelespetitesetmicro-entreprisesseserontrelevéesqueléconomiedupayspourravéritablementembrasserunereprisecomplète.àcetitre,lespolitiquesen2022devraientsattacheràsoutenirvigoureusementledéécessairedêtrepleinementconscientdeladépendancesystémiquequ’entretiennententreeuxdesrisquesparnaturedifférents,etquelefaitdetraiteruncertaintypederisquesdistinctementdesautresestsusceptibled’engendrerdautresrisques,adéclaréChenYanbin,professeuràlUniversitééfis,érédesentenirauprincipegénéralvisantàrechercherleprogrèstoutenmaintenantlastabilitéémacroéconomiqueconstitueeneffetuneréponseadapté,érédoptimiserdavantagelastructureéconomique,ledéséquilibrestructurelétantunesourceimportantederisquesetdedé,ilestimportantderenforcerladynamiquedecroissancedeléconomieàlongterme,enrépondantauxrisquesetauxdéfisparlebiaisdundéveloppementqualitatif."Enrésumé,larégulationmacroéconomiquedoitrenforcerlacoordinationetlintégrationdetroistypesdepolitiques:unepolitiquedestabilisation,unepolitiquestructurelleetunepolitiquedecroissance,"ée,laChineambitionnedecréerplusde11millionsdenouveauxemploisurbainsetdemainteniruntauxdechmageurbaininférieurà5,5%.ZhengBingwen,directeurduCentredétudesinternationalessurlasécuritésocialeàlASSC,afaitvaloirquelegouvernementaccordesaprioritéàlastabilisationdelemploiparlastabilisationdesacteursdumarché,toutenrenforantlesperspectivesdelentrepreneuriatetlespritdentrepriseafindestimulerlactivitédugouvernementsoulignequelespolitiquesfiscales,financièresetmacroéconomiquesdoiventprioritairementseconcentrersurlèlement,unenouvellepolitiquecombinantsoutienfiscaletprotectiondupouvoird’achatseramiseenuvre,appuyéepardesréductionsetdesremisesd,é,lerapportdactivitédugouvernementproposeclairementuneexpansionvigoureusedescanauxdemploi,enparticulierdanslarestauration,lhtellerie,lecommercededétail,étéfortementtouchéesparlapandémie,ilestdoncnécessairedelessoutenirpoursurmonterlesdifficultésettoutmettreenuvrepourstabiliseretdévelopperlemploi,adéclaré

DesarchéologuesontrécemmentfaitdesdécouvertesétonnantessurlecélèbresitedesruinesdeSanxingdui,danslaprovincechinoiseduSichuan(sud-ouest);Untrésordobjetsraffinésenbronze,enoretenjade,dontaumoins10objetsenbronzedécouvertspourlapremièrefoisdanslhistoiredelacivilisationhumaine,aétééquipeconjointedarchéologuesdelInstitutprovincialderecherchesurlesreliquesculturellesetlarchéologieduSichuan,delUniversitédeBeijing,delUniversitéduSichuanetdautresinstitutionsderechercheetuniversitésaeffectuéécouvertesproviennentprincipalementdesfossessacrificiellesnuméro7etnuméro8,portantlenombretotaldobjetsdécouvertsdanslessixfossesdeSanxingduiàprè,selonlInstitutprovincialderecherchesurlesreliquesculturellesetlarché,découvertedanslafossenuméro7,estléticulésenformedetortue,etlesctésdelabotesontornésdunecharnièreenbronze,depoignéesenformedetêanalysedesmicrotracesarévéléquelaboteétaitenveloppéedesoie,selonlesarchéologues."Ilneseraitpasexagérédedirequececontenantestuniqueensongenre,comptetenudesaformedistinctive,desafinesseartisanaleetdesaconceptioningéàquoiilservait,nouspouvonssupposerquelesanciensleconservaientprécieusement",aexpliquéLiHaichao,professeurdelUniversitéduSichuanetresponsabledesfouillesdanslafossenuméécorationsenbronze,desfigurinesetdesclochesontégalementétédééro8voisine,lesarchéologuesontmisaujourdiversobjets,notammentdestêtesenbronzeavecdesmasquesenor,unesculptureenbronzeavecunetêtehumaineetuncorpsdeserpent,unautelenbronze,unecréaturemythiquegéanteenbronzeetunobjetenbronzeenformededragonavecunnezdecochon."Lessculpturessonttrèscomplexesetimaginatives,reflétantlemondeféeriqueimaginéparlesgensàcetteépoque-là,etellesillustrentladiversitéetlarichessedelacivilisationchinoise",aindiquéZhaoHao,professeurassociéàlUniversitédeBeijing,quidirigelesfouillesdelafossenumé,lesarchéologuesontégalementtrouvédesfossésàcendres,desfondationsarchitecturalesetdepetitesfossesàsacrificielles,desreliquesculturelles,ainsiquedesbambous,desroseaux,desgrainesdesoja,etdesbovinsetdessangliersquiontpuêtresacrifiéécouvertesàlafindesannées1920,lesruinesdeSanxingduisontconsidéréescommelunedesplusgrandesdécouvertesarchéologiquesduXXesièéesdanslavilledeGuanghan,àenviron60kmdeChengdu,capitaleprovinciale,lesruines,couvrantunesuperficiede12km2,seraientlesvestigesduroyaumeShu,datantdà

WiththemodernizationofChina’ssystemandcapacityforgovernance,,ourunderstandingof“society”,manysocialgovernancestudieshavezoomedinoncommunities,socialorganizations,andsocialeliteslikenewlocalworthies(xinxiangxian),,whetherinancientormoderntimes,,wherethesimilaritiesinstructurebetweenthestateandfamilyarecentraltothegovernancesystem,familiesbearaspecialsignificanceinsocialgovernance,(priorto221BCE),theDistrictSystem(XiangsuiZhi),whichdividedresidentialareasacrossthestateintohierarchicallydifferentzones,delsewhere,asfivefamiliesconstitutedanofficialneighborhood(bi比intheroyaldomainandlinelsewhere),fiveneighborhoodsmadeupavillage(lyuandli,respectively),fourvillagesaprecinct(zuandzan),fiveprecinctsaward(dangandbi鄙),fivewardsatownship(zhouandxian),andfivetownshipsadistrict(xiangandsui).AftertheQinregimeunifiedChina,allfamilyhouseholdswereregisteredtodissolvethehierarchy,creatingasystemmarkedbytheorganicintegrationofacompletecustom-backedfamilysystemand,ororiginaltradition,tion,ismsandusefulfactorsfromthesystemonthatbasis,,incontemporarysocialgovernanceofChina,familiesplayaun,GeneralSecretaryoftheCPCCentralCommitteeXiJinpinghighlightedenhancingcivilityinChinesefamiliesandmakingitanimportantfoundationforthecountry’sdevelopment,progress,9alsocalledforeffortstogivefullplaytotheroleoffamilies,familyeducation,,localgovernmentsacrossChinahavecarriedou,attemptshavebeenmadetopromoteharmonyineachfamilyhouseholdbyhelpingresolveandhandledomesticdisputes,problems,,thepoliticalandlegalaffairscommitteeandwomen’sfederationofFuyangDistrictinHangzhou,eastChina’sZhejiangProvince,hedistrictalongsideadigitalapplicationplatform,realizingthelinkagebetweengovernmentdepartmentsandbetweenauthoritiesofalllevels,aswellasmulti-partysynergyamongthegovernment,villagecommunes,administrationgrids,’anDistrictinShenzhen,GuangdongProvince,alsobuiltaplatformforskillfullymediatingdomesticconcerns,withthecoordinatedsupportofrelateddepartments,todiscover,report,intervenein,,achainofdistinctivefamilybuildingactivitieshasbeenrolledout,encouragingresidentstoformulatefamilyinstructions,cultivatefamilyvalues,,YongchangTownshipinFuyangDistrict,ZhejiangProvince,introduceda“moralityindex,”andDongzhouNeighborhood,alsoinFuyangDistrict,cameupwitha“publicpraiseindex.”Zhejianghaseveninitiatedprovincial-,governmentassistance,andvolunteeringhavebeenprovi,atbothcentralandlocallevels,unveiledaseriesofsocialsecuritypoliciesandsocialserviceswithfamilyhouseholdsastheunit,suchashelpingpoorfamilies,supplyingindemnificatoryhousing,andallowingfamil,YunheCountyinZhejiangsetupajointaidplatformforhouseholdsthatrelyonallowancestomeetaminimumqualityoflifeguarantee,,targetedpolicieshavebeenreleasedtomanagefamilyhouseholds,guidingandregul“OneHomesteadPerHousehold”housingpolicyinruralareas,,manyneighborhoodcommunitiesdistributeddailysupplieshouseholdbyhouseholdwhenresidentsworkedfromhome,wereundermedicalobservation,,Chinahasaccumulatedrichsuccessfulexperienceinsocialgovernancebasedonfamilyhouseholds,,familyist,whereindividualismisupheld,thefamilyhouseholdsystemnotonlydeterminesthedevelopmentandgovernanceoftraditionalChinesesociety,,theintrinsicvalueandnucleusofthefamilyhouseholdsystemshouldbeuncovered,,differentenvironmentpecificcircumstancesoffersabreakthrou,effortsareneededtoreasonablydefinethecontentofsocialgovernancewithfamilyhouseholdsastheunit,,awiderangeofissuesshouldbetakenintoaccount,includingconflictamongfamilymembers,financialdisputes,safetyofproperty,domesticviolence,andpoverty,toprovidetargetedguidance,formulatespecificmanagementstrategies,,itiscrucialtoidentifyfamilies’lifeaspirationsofdifferentlevelsandcategorieswithappropriatemethodsundertheguidanceofdemandtheories,therebya,Partyorganizations,governmentdepartments,families,andsocialforcesshouldworkhandin,,makingitinconvenientforpublicpowertostepin,buttherearesomeissuesthatpublicpowersandsocialforceshaveto,needto,,helpingpoorfamilies,mediatingconflictsamongfamilymembers,preventingdomesticviolence,andmeetinghouseholdneedsnotonlymattertoeachfamilyinvolved,butalshtsofvarioussubjectsinfamilygovernance,stressingthefundamentalroleoffamilyautonomywhilemakingclearthepower,responsibilities,androleofthegovernmentandsocialforces,clarifyingtheboundariesbe,theruleofvirtue,oflaw,ofemotions,andofw,familygovernanceshouldinheritanddrawupontraditionalexperiencesinthefamilyhouseholdsystemandreconstructane,itisimportanttoemphasizetheruleofvirtue,theruleoflaw,andtherule,weshouldunderscoretheuniquefunctionan,emotions,insteadofrationalchoices,’emotionaltiesisofspecialmeaningtosocialgovernancewithfamilyhouseholdsastheunit,andsoanempowermentmechanismwhichintegratestheruleofvirtue,law,emotions,(professor),LuJingjing,andZhangMingweiarefromtheSchoolofPublicAdministrationatHangzhouNormalUniversity.

JiangXiaojuanPhoto:,aprofessorattheUniversityoftheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences(CASS),saidinaninterviewwithCSSTthatChina’:Inyouropinion,whatistherelationshipbetweenthedevelopmentoftheoriesonopeningupandopeningupinpracticeJiangXiaojuan:Classicaltheoriesexplaining“openingup”totheoutsideworldincludethetheoryofabsoluteadvantage,,theproductioncapacityandeconomicconditionsofvariouscountriesweredifferentiated,andtheeco,,,scholarsfocusedontheimportanceofinternationaltrade,exploringtheimportanceofinternationaldivisionoflaborandfreetrade,,th“intra-industrytrade”amongdevelopedcountriesconstitutedamajorpartofinternationaltrade,andtraditionaltradetheoriesbasedoncomparativ,agroupofeconomistsdevelopedanewtheoryofinternationaltradebasedontradepractices,,,thefocusofattention,andresearchcontentof:WhatarethedistinctivefeaturesofChina’sopeningupJiangXiaojuan:TheuniquenessofChina’sopening-uppathraisesanimportantquestion,thatis,areweso“distinctive”thattheexistingtheoriescannotexplainiteffectivelyandanewtheoreticalframeworkneedstobeconstructedtoanalyzeitMyunderstandingisthatChina’sopeningup,intermsofstartingpointsandsteps,andvariouscross-sectionsofthedevelopmentprocess,doess,intermsoflong-termtrendsandessentialfeatures,,Chinashowsthesameconv’snationalc,China’sfactorofproductionstructureisimbalanced,andthereisanurgentneedtoadjustthroughthedthroughcompetition,whichisdirectlyrelatedtothehugesizeofourmarket,:Lookingahead,howdoyouthinkwecanpromoteopeninguptotheoutsideworldfromahigherstartingpointJiangXiaojuan:Shiftingfrompolicy-drivenopeninguptoinstitutionalo,Chinabasicallyhastheconditionsandenvironmentforinstitutionalopeningup,andinthefuture,weshouldkeepiandregulations,adheretotheprincipleofequalstatusofalltypesofeconomicentitiesandequalprotectionofalltypesofpropertyrights,,equalemphasisshouldbegiventoexportsandimports,totheabsorptionofforeigncapitalandforeigninvestment,andtoforeign-fundedenterprises,,2020,ChinesePresidentXiJinpingannouncedatthe27thAsia-PacificEconomicCooperation(APEC)EconomicLeaders’MeetingthatChinawouldfavorablyconsiderjoiningtheComprehensiveandProgressiveAgreementforTrans-PacificPartnership(CPTPP),,iftheyallcomeintoforce,willcovermorethan55%ofinternationaltradeandinternationalinvestment,,wehavejoinedtheRegionalComprehensiveEconomicPartnership(RCEP)andappliedtojointheDigitalEconomyPartnershipAgreement(DEPA).Thiswillcertainlypushforwardthedomesticconstructionoftheinstitutionalsystem,andtheopensystemthatconnectswithit,facilitatingdomesticreformandenergi,itwillalsocontributeChina’swisdomtotheformationanddevelopmentoftheglobalizationgovernancesysteminthefuture.

Le25eForuméconomiqueinternationaldeSaint-Pétersbourgsestouvertmercredidansladeuxièésentantsdeplusde90paysetrégionsprendrontpartàcetteéditionsouslethème"Nouvellesopportunitésdansunnouveaumonde",selonléconomiesmondialeetrusse,lanumérisationetlasécuritédelénièreduforumvendredi,leprésidentrusseVladimirPoutineévalueralasituationmondialeactuelleetdécriralorientationfuturedudéveloppementéconomiquedelaRussie,adéclarémercrediYouriOuchakov,,leforumestdevenuuneplate-formemondialedepremierplanquipermetàlacommunautédesaffairesdediscuterdesproblèmeséconomiquescritiquesauxquelssontconfrontéslaRussie,lesmarchésé

ArchaeologistTianJianwen(Middle)andhiscolleaguesattheBalipingsiteinQinshuiCounty,ShanxiProvincePhoto:PROVIDEDTOCSSTIntheearlystageofreformandopeningup,therewasashortageofyoungtalent,,,hepassedupjobopportunitiesinbigcitiesandwenttoHouma[asmalltowninShanxiprovince],hometoXintian,thelastcapitaloftheJinprincipality(1033–376BCE)[nowaveteranarchaeologistattheShanxiArchaeologyInstitute],[atYichengCounty]discoveredbyTianandhiscolleagu,TiancameupwithacompletegenealogydatedfromtheZaoyuanCulturetotheXiyinCulture[anearlyNeolithicsiteinShanxiProvince]incipality’s“XintianPattern”[thelayoutoftheXintiancitywasdifferentfromthatofpreviouscities].Forthefirsttime,heidentifiedtombsoftheXiongnu[nomadicpeoplewhoinhabitedtheeasternEurasianSteppefromthe3rdcenturyBCEtothe1stcenturyCE]intheLü,sincethereignofEmperorWuofHan(–87BCE),theHanEmpirehadsetupcounty-levelresidencesfortheXiongnupeoplewhosurrenderedtotheHanEmpireandmigratedtotheCentralPlain,,whichisthelargesttombdatedtotheEasternZhouperiod(770–256BCE),w:Inrecentyears,manyscholarshaveproposedthatthesignificanceofarchaeologyisto“writeChinesehistory”and“tracethepathofancestors.”HowdoyouunderstandthesestatementsTianJianwen:Ancientarchives,oraltraditions,,advantages,’,canhelpclarifythedateandexistenceofdifferentrelicsandruins,aswellastheexist,whichisalsothefoundationofthe“theoreticalsystemofarchaeologywithChinesecharacteristics.”“Tracingthepathofancestors”:InearlyMay1991,whenyouwereinvestigatingtheZaoyuansiteinShanxi,,,ianwen:Sincethe1970s,ancientculturalrelicsdatedto10,000yearsagohavebeendiscoveredinJiangxi,Hunan,Guangxi,andZhejiangprovincesinsouthChina,aswellasShandong,Hebei,Henan,,however,therehadbeennosimilararchaeologicaldiscoveriesforalongtime,exceptforaslabandanelongatedhandstone[asetofgrindingstonesoftheCishanculture,datedfrom8,000to7,600yearsago],1991,mycolleaguesXueXinmin,YangLinzhong,,wenameditthe“ZaoyuanH1Remains,”asweregardeditasthepredecessorofMiao-digouculture[–2780BCE].Later,itwasofficiallynamed“ZaoyuanCulture,”whichmeansthatinthestudyofearlyNeolithicculture,oculture[aculturewhichexistedbetween6700and6000BCE,locatednearXi’an,ShaanxiProvince]andMiao-digoucultureoftheYangshaoera[aNeolithicculturethatexistedalongtheYellowRiverbetween5000BCEand3000BCE;theBanpoandMiao-digouperiodsrepresenttwodifferentphasesoftheYangshaoculture],PuCounty[inShanxiProvince]ofmorethan1,,,suchasanimalsburiedwiththedeceased,byusinggenealogicalmethods,weidentified24shafttombsthatbelongedtothenativesduringtheWarringStatesPeriod(475–221BCE),andtheQin(221–207BCE)andHan(206BCE–220CE)ofHanbelongedtothesubordinatesofMarquiseQi,orJuji[aXiongnucavalryofficerwhofoughtfortheHanEmpireagainsttheXiongnuarmy].TheCaojiazhuangsitewasthereforeconfirmedasthesoutheasternmosthabitatoftheXiongnuinChina,,wedidn’tfindanynarrow-neckedpotswithholesnearthebottom—npartoftheLü,westartedtodoarchaeologicalresearchinPuCounty,Daning,Yonghe,,2017,,wefoundaceramicpotwithaninscriptionofthecharacter“上”ontheshoulderandholesnearthebottominavillager’attheXigoupansiteintheInnerMongo,thehistoricalex,wefoundthatsimilarpotswerealsodiscoveredattheYongheLongtunquansite[inShanxi]le[theRouzhiwereancientnomadicpastoralistslivingintheHexiCorridorduringthe1stmillenniumBCE;afteramajordefeatbytheXiongnuin176BCE,theRouzhisplitintotwogroupsmigratingindifferentdirections:theDarouzhiwhomigratednorthwestandXiaorouzhiwhomigratedsouthward]whomigratedfromtheQilian,namedYuzhe,:HaveyoumadeanynewarchaeologicaldiscoveriesrecentlyTianJianwen:FromAugust2018toJune2019,,,[perhapsaJinruler’swife],wedidn’,bronze,iron,gold,jade,stone,shell,bone,,weexcavatedandexploredtheShangguoancientcityruins,whichcoversanareaofover400,,anotherpolitical,military,economic,andculturalcenteroftheJinstate,,weconductedarchaeologicalexcavationsattheremainsofthenotedtotheearlySpringandAutumnPeriod(770–476BCE),evenlargerthanYicity,,,,,hewasmadethelegalrulerofJin,,DukeXianofJin,enlargedtheJincapital,whileancientQuwostillremainedthesecondlargestcityofJin,andplayedapivotalroleinJin’:WhatadvicedoyouhaveforyoungscholarsTianJianwen:Myexperiencestellmethat[thebestwaytostudyarchaeologymaybe]memorizingclassicworksofarchaeologicalresearch,keepingtypicalarchaeologicalartifactsinmind,andreadinga,,JilinUniversityPresspublishedAnOutlineofChineseArchaeology:ACenturyofDiscoveryandResearch(1921–2021)writtenbyProfessorZhaoBinfu,,,myfeelingisthatalthoughChina’scentury-oldmodernarchaeologyhasbeengivenahigherprofile,t,createbetterenvironments,andcultivatemoreprofessionalsinarchaeology,soastocarryontheessentialworkofprimary-levelarchaeology.

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